SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

National Certificate: Insurance: Long Term: Risk Assessment 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
20774  National Certificate: Insurance: Long Term: Risk Assessment 
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATING PROVIDER
SGB Financial Services   
QUALITY ASSURING BODY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
Was INSETA until Last Date for Achievement  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
National Certificate  Field 03 - Business, Commerce and Management Studies  Finance, Economics and Accounting 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  120  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Regular-Unit Stds Based 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Registered" 
SAQA 0639/01  2001-12-05  2004-12-05 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2005-12-05   2008-12-31  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification is replaced by: 
Qual ID Qualification Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Min Credits Replacement Status
49529  Further Education and Training Certificate: Long-Term Risk Assessment  Level 4  NQF Level 04  150  Complete 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
The purpose of the qualification is to build knowledge and skill required by employees in long term insurance who have had schooling at or below NQF level 4. It is intended to empower learners to acquire knowledge, skills, attitudes and values required to operate confidently as individuals in the South African community and to respond to the challenges of the economic environment and changing world of work in the financial services industry. It should add value to the qualifying learner in terms of enrichment of the person, status and recognition.

As a qualification that covers long term insurance related learning, it provides a framework for learners to develop competencies that will give them insight into the Long Term Insurance sub sector which includes life, healthcare benefits administration and employee benefits. It introduces a basic understanding of the key terms, rules, concepts and principles of the field that will enable learners to be informed workers in the industry. It provides a balanced learning experience that allows flexible access to life long learning, higher education and to productive employment in long term insurance. It provides an opportunity for learners to learn and apply academic skills in relation to the workplace and will allow for multi-skilling.

The National Certificate in Long Term Insurance: Level 4: Risk Assessment is intended for personnel employed in long term insurance which includes reinsurance and Healthcare Benefits Administration. The focus is on basic information gathering, analysis, presentation and the ability to apply knowledge of the field to solve routine problems within given frameworks.

Qualifying learners are capable of:
  • Carrying out basic research, information gathering and analysis.
  • Interpreting current affairs and their influence on long term insurance.
  • Operating a computer for business purposes.
  • Understanding the nature and scope of long term insurance.
  • Underwriting long term insurance policies to a limited level of authority.

    Depending on the unit standards selected as electives, the learner will become competent in basic skills relating to:
  • Use of word processing and spreadsheets.
  • Showing insight into legislation that regulates long term insurance.
  • Applying legislation that regulates long term insurance.
  • Managing an information system
  • The relationship between needs and long term insurance products.
  • Understanding retirement funding in South Africa.
  • Describing funeral insurance.
  • Understanding the impact of a healthy lifestyle on insurance cover.
  • Understanding healthcare funding in South Africa.
  • Describing fraud in a long term insurance environment and identifying fraudulent claims.
  • Understanding reinsurance at a basic level in long term insurance.
  • Assessing long term insurance claims.
  • Managing risk in their own lives.

    These unit standards are intended as building blocks for the further development of skills that will make the learner a more fulfilled, informed, efficient and cost effective worker in the industry. This should result, in turn, in more effective and efficient service to the consumer and should make the industry more competitive in the global market.


    Rationale for the qualification

    The National Certificate in Insurance: Long Term: Level 4: Risk Assessment is designed to meet the needs of long term insurance underwriters and claims assessors. It provides an introduction to the underwriting and the assessing of claims in Long Term Insurance and is the first step on a career path for learners who:
  • Have attained the National Certificate in Insurance: Level 3 and wish to continue on a path of life-long learning.
  • Were previously disadvantaged or who were unable to complete their schooling and were therefore denied access to Further Education and Training.
  • Have worked in the Long term insurance sub sector for many years, but have no formal qualifications in underwriting, reinsurance or claims assessing.
  • Wish to extend their range of skills and knowledge of the industry so that they can become knowledge workers in the industry.
  • Are in a learnership agreement in the Long Term Insurance sub sector.
  • Have recently taken up a position in underwriting, reinsurance or claims assessing in Long Term Insurance.

    The National Certificate in Insurance: Level 4: Risk Assessment, allows the individual to work towards a nationally recognised qualification. It is flexible enough to accommodate both learners in formal education and learners already employed in the Long Term Insurance sub sector. It aims to develop informed and skilled learners in the Long Term Insurance sector. The qualification at this level is the start of a career path in underwriting, reinsurance and claims assessing, but is still generic enough to allow maximum mobility within long term insurance and Healthcare Benefits Administration. Skills, knowledge, values and attitudes reflected in the qualification are building blocks that will be developed further in Level 5. The intention is:
  • To promote the development of knowledge and skills that are required in the insurance industry.
  • To release the potential of people.
  • To provide opportunities for people to move up the value chain.
  • To provide opportunities for lifelong learning for people who work in long term insurance underwriting and claims assessing for which there was previously no recognised qualification.

    Learners already employed in the Long Term Insurance and Healthcare Benefits Administration sub sectors and Reinsurance at this level do work that requires a well developed knowledge medical conditions, knowledge of appropriate legislation and the industry in general, and a range of skills. The work roles are linked to risk assessment in underwriting and claims assessing. They include but are not limited to:
  • Claims assessors
  • Underwriters
  • Internal Broker Consultants
  • Call centre operators
  • Client Service providers
  • Reinsurers
  • Life administration personnel

    The National Certificate in Insurance: Level 4: Risk Assessment should produce knowledgeable, multi-skilled workers who are able to contribute to improved productivity and efficiency within the long term insurance industry. It should provide the means for current workers to receive recognition of prior learning, to upgrade their skills and achieve a nationally recognised qualification. It should also assist new entrants to the industry. The qualification is structured in a way that exposes learners to long term underwriting, reinsurance and claims assessing as there is often a natural progression from underwriter to claims assessor or reinsurer within the long term insurance industry. It is anticipated that this qualification will promote the notion of life long learning. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The unit standards that make up the certificate are the building blocks of knowledge and skill that are necessary for a proposed level 5 diploma. For the most part only communication, mathematical literacy and financial literacy at level 3 are assumed. It is intended that the unit standard `Underwrite a standard risk in long term insurance` should be done before the standard `Assess a long term insurance claim`. `Underwrite a standard risk in long term insurance` and `Assess a long term insurance claim` should be done before the standard `Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of reinsurance at a basic level in long term insurance`.

    Recognition of Prior Learning:

    The National Certificate in Long Term Insurance: Level 4: Risk Assessment allows open access. Provision has been made for prior learning to be recognised if a learner is able to demonstrate competence in the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes implicit in this qualification. Application for Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) should be made to INSQA or a relevant accredited ETQA.
  • Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) may allow for accelerated access to further learning.
  • Credit towards a unit standard is subject to quality assurance by INSQA or a relevant accredited ETQA and is conducted by a workplace assessor. 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    Qualifying learners should be capable of:
  • Co-ordinating with others.
  • Applying the methods, procedures and techniques of underwriting.
  • Analysing new developments in the industry and researching aspects of long term insurance.
  • Operating as informed employees in the long term insurance sub sector.
  • Understanding the structure and the market of long term insurance and their role and place in that structure.
  • Gathering, analysing and presenting information to create an underwriting synopsis.
  • Operating within clearly defined contexts within the Long Term Insurance Act with limited scope for decision making and responsibility.

    The learner is able to demonstrate ability to:
  • Identify and solve problems related to long term insurance in which responses show that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made. S/he is required to underwrite a standard risk and apply the rules of available products to different situations.
  • Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community. As the qualification is intended to be part of a learnership it is unlikely that the learner would work alone.
  • Organise and manage oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively in that it is expected that the learner will be responsible for his/her own learning and for organising his/her own work allocated tasks responsibly in the work environment. S/he is required to complete research assignments timeously and to apply knowledge of different aspects of long term insurance. S/he should be able to provide for his/her own financial security and manage his/her own finances.
  • Collect, organise and critically evaluate information. These competencies are built into the assessment criteria in many of the unit standards and the learner is required to do research projects and analyse information from the media.
  • Communicate effectively using visual, mathematics and language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations. These competencies are an integral part of all the unit standards and are built into the assessment criteria.
  • Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and the health of others in that the long term insurance environment is technology driven and very few activities take place without the application of technology. The inclusion of computer end user standards ensures that this critical cross field outcome receives attention. The learner is also expected to access information from electronic media and use a computerised data base.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation in that references are made wherever applicable to the learners` part in the big picture and how his/her actions have implications up and down the line.

    In addition this qualification contributes to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large, by making it the underlying intention of any programme of learning to make the individual aware of the importance of:
  • Reflecting on and exploring a variety of strategies to learn more effectively in order to become an informed worker in long term insurance.
  • Being culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts in dealing with diverse people in the workplace including customers, co-workers and people who are surveyed or interviewed. The inclusion of an additional official South African language further supports this outcome. 

  • ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    Integrated assessment:

    Assessment practices must be fair, transparent, valid, reliable and should ensure that no learner is disadvantaged. Learners who wish to be assessed against this standard should direct enquiries to the Insurance Sector Quality Authority, INSQA.

    The focus of assessment must be on the assessment of the learning outcomes rather than learning outputs. The specific outcomes guide the learning and training process towards the outcomes on a continuous basis. The purpose is to determine whether the outcomes have been attained. Situations should present a wide range of options. Applications should require significant choices from a wide range of procedures and in a number of contexts.
  • Learning, teaching and assessment are inextricably linked. Where appropriate, assessment of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values indicated in the various unit standards should be integrated. Assessment in communication, mathematical literacy and financial literacy should use authentic insurance contexts wherever practical.
  • Assessment has a formative monitoring function. Formative assessment should be used to assess gaps in the learners` skill and knowledge and to indicate where there is a need for expanded opportunities. The goal is to promote learning and to assess the efficacy of the teaching and learning process. Feedback from assessment informs teaching and learning and allows for the critique of outcomes, methodology and materials. Formative assessment is diagnostic and as such it should guide the learner and the trainer. It is continuous and is used to plan appropriate learning experiences to meet the learner`s needs. It provides information about problems experienced at different stages in the learning process. As it is criterion referenced, if the learner has met the assessment criteria, s/he has achieved the outcomes.
  • Assessment should also have a summative component. Summative assessment may be used on completion of a unit standard, but should not be the only form of assessment.
  • A variety of methods must be used in assessment and tools and activities must be appropriate to the context in which the learner is working. Assessment should take place in an authentic context as far as is possible. Where it is not possible to assess competence in the workplace, simulations, case studies and other similar techniques should be used to provide a context appropriate to the assessment.
  • Integration implies that theoretical and practical components should where possible be assessed together.
  • Integrative techniques should be used to assess applied competence. Learners should be required to demonstrate that they can perform the outcomes with understanding and insight. The unit standards Underwrite a standard risk in long term insurance (40 hours); Assess a long term insurance claim (20 hours); Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of reinsurance at a basic level in long term insurance (30 hours) require practical work experience before learners are credited with the standards.
  • Assessment should ensure that all specific outcomes, embedded knowledge and critical cross field outcomes are evaluated. Assessment of the critical cross field outcomes should be integrated with the assessment of the specific outcomes. The critical cross field outcomes are implicit in some unit standards and programmes should be designed to extend and further reflect the integration. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    This qualification will be compared to international qualifications in terms of outcomes and assessment criteria, degree of difficulty and notional learning time. It will be benchmarked against:
  • FET level 4 in South African formal education.
  • IITC standards of competence for insurance life offices in the United Kingdom. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    Exit points for learners who do not complete a qualification:
  • Learners will be credited with unit standards in which they have proved competence.
  • Learners who complete individual unit standards but do not complete this qualification retain their credits. However, should the substance of the unit standard change, the validity of the credit towards the qualification may be reviewed. In such cases learners should apply to SAQA for an official record of learning.
  • Learners who change their provider or learning site before completing the qualification may transfer their credits to the new learning site.
  • An official, original SAQA record of learning is required as proof of learning before the learner is officially transferred to the new learning site. 

  • MODERATION OPTIONS 
    This qualification will be internally assessed by the provider and moderated by a moderator registered by the Insurance Sector Quality Authority (INSQA) or a relevant accredited ETQA. The mechanisms and requirements for moderation will be contained in the document obtainable from INSQA in 2001, INSQA framework for assessment and moderation.
  • Assessors must be registered with INSQA or a relevant accredited ETQA.
  • Moderators, competent at the level of the qualification, are registered by INSQA or a relevant accredited ETQA to ensure that the standard across assessors is consistent.
  • Moderators are required to be competent in assessment practices.
  • Moderators are required to report to INSQA or a relevant accredited ETQA. (See INSQA framework and guidelines for assessment and moderation for details.)
  • Institutions and providers offering learning that will lead to the achievement of the National Certificate in Insurance: Level 4: Risk Assessment must be accredited as providers with INSQA or a relevant accredited ETQA.
  • INSQA or a relevant accredited ETQA will monitor and quality assure moderation and assessment according to guidelines in the qualification and INSQA procedures.
  • INSQA or a relevant accredited ETQA will assure the quality of all learning programmes in collaboration with other SETAS in different economic sectors. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
    This qualification will be internally assessed by the provider and moderated by a moderator registered by the Insurance Sector Quality Authority (INSQA) or a relevant accredited ETQA. The mechanisms and requirements for moderation will be contained in the document obtainable from INSQA in 2001, INSQA framework for assessment and moderation.
  • Assessors must be registered with INSQA or a relevant accredited ETQA.
  • Moderators, competent at the level of the qualification are registered by INSQA or a relevant accredited ETQA to ensure that the standard across assessors is consistent.
  • Moderators are required to be competent in assessment practices.
  • Moderators are required to report to INSQA or a relevant accredited ETQA. (See INSQA framework and guidelines for assessment and moderation for details.)
  • Institutions and providers offering learning that will lead to the achievement of the National Certificate in Long Term Insurance: Level 4: Risk Assessment must be accredited as providers with INSQA or a relevant accredited ETQA.
  • INSQA or a relevant accredited ETQA will monitor and quality assure moderation and assessment according to guidelines in the qualification and INSQA procedures.
  • INSQA will assure the quality of all learning programmes in collaboration with other SETAS in different economic sectors. 

  • NOTES 
    This qualification has been replaced by qualification 49529, which is "Further Education and Training Certificate: Long-Term Risk Assessment", Level 4, 150 credits.

    Fundamental credits:

    SAQA stipulates that at least 36 credits are allocated to Communication and Mathematical Literacy. For the purpose of this qualification 10 credits are also required for Financial Literacy at level 4. Although this is not a SAQA requirement, the industry believes that if learners are to function in a field that manages people`s money, they should be able to manage their own finances. In this qualification they also serve as an introduction that will lead to an understanding of financial underwriting in later qualifications. This means that 46 credits are allocated to fundamental and will add value to learners both socially and economically in terms of
  • Their ability to manage their own finances.
  • Their ability to operate as literate and numerate workers in a global economy.
  • Their ability to be informed consumers of the financial services industry.
  • An awareness of the need to avoid the debt spiral that undermines the economy of South Africa.

    At this level, financial decisions are based on management of own finances including responsibility for dependents and finances of a small business or organisation.

    Core:

    Fifty five credits have been allocated to unit standards designated as core for the purpose of this qualification. This is to ensure that the qualification has a strong long term insurance: risk assessment focus. The unit standards classified as Core describe THE BIG PICTURE. They answer the question, What are underwriting and claims assessing all about? They provide an opportunity to develop knowledge of the industry through research and the application of study skills. The core unit standards provide the basic knowledge and skills that workers in long term insurance: risk assessment in general need to know about the industry. They also promote personal development that will enable learners to make informed decisions about their career paths.

    Electives:

    Learners are required to select electives that add up to at least 19 credits. There are two Healthcare Benefits Administration and ten long term insurance related unit standards at level 2, 3 and 4 in this category. It is anticipated that additional unit standards will be written by the year 2003 when the qualification is reviewed.

    Four end-user computing standards on the use of word processing, spreadsheets, the World Wide Web and electronic mail are included in this category. This is because most long term insurance organisations operate using electronic data transfer and e-mail and the Internet is regarded as essential for knowledge workers in the industry. There are very few positions in the industry that do not require the use of a computer.

    Two mathematics unit standards at level 4 have been included as these address advanced mathematical knowledge and skills sometimes required in long term insurance.

    There are unit standards for communication at level 2 to 4. This qualification makes provision for communication in a South African language other than the language of business to be offered as an insurance related elective at level 3 or above as part of the National Certificate in Long Term Insurance: Level 4: Risk Assessment. It is assumed that the language of business is probably English. The other official languages are Sepedi, Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati, Tshivenda, Xitsonga, Afrikaans, isiNdebele, isiXhosa, IsiZulu and sign language. The selection of an additional official language should be based on the language(s) of the people who are the target market of the industry in a selected area, provided that
  • The language has not been offered under fundamental.
  • The learner has not already received credit for the language at the same level in the National Certificate in Insurance Administration: level 3.
  • Only one language from the Nguni group may be offered as either elective or fundamental.
  • Only one language from the Sotho group may be offered as either elective or fundamental.

    This reflects the multi-lingual nature of South African society and acknowledges the fact that the largest untapped market for long term insurance products is in the Black community. Ability to communicate in more than one South African language is an advantage in many roles within the sector. The inclusion of an additional official South African language in long term insurance qualifications will lead to better customer service in a growing market sector.

    It is strongly recommended that learners who do not already have a level 4 equivalent qualification do 20 credits in an additional South African language as an elective. This will enhance the exchange value and is important for the social grading of the qualification. It will ensure that the National Certificate in Insurance: Long Term: Level 4: Risk Assessment is equivalent to other FET qualifications at this level and will expand the scope of the qualification in terms of qualifications that could be accessed in the Higher Education and Training band.

    Unit Standards from NSB 07: SGB Democracy, Human Rights, Peace Education Ethical Foundation of Society may be included in this qualification once they are registered. This will contribute to the personal and social development of the learners and enable them to function as informed members of a democratic society. 

  • UNIT STANDARDS: 
      ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
    Core  8988  Describe life insurance  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  8996  Indicate the scope of life insurance in South Africa  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  12326  Analyse new developments reported in the media that could impact on long term insurance  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Core  14433  Underwrite a standard risk in long term insurance  Level 4  NQF Level 04  40 
    Fundamental  9302  Access information in order to respond to client enquiries in a financial services environment  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  8968  Accommodate audience and context needs in oral communication  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  8971  Analyse and respond to a variety of literary texts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  9303  Communicate verbally with clients in a financial environment  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  10713  Identify possible ways of improving employment prospects  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  8972  Interpret a variety of literary texts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  8969  Interpret and use information from texts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  10712  Manage personal expenditure  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  10714  Research costs associated with marriage, birth, divorce and death in own circumstances  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  8973  Use language and communication in occupational learning programmes  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  8970  Write texts for a range of communicative contexts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  8103  Maintain an existing information system in an insurance environment  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Elective  8995  Describe funeral insurance  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  9002  Describe healthcare funding in South Africa and the role of intermediaries in the sector  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  8992  Describe retirement funding in South Africa  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  8998  Describe the importance of a healthy lifestyle for members of medical schemes and explain the concept of corporate wellness  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  8994  Manage risk in own life  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  8986  Research the history of the Financial Services Industry in South Africa  Level 3  NQF Level 03  10 
    Elective  14314  Analyse the different products available in the Long Term Insurance Industry and the benefits of each  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Elective  14431  Assess a long term insurance claim  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  14315  Demonstrate knowledge and insight into the Income Tax Act (58 of 1962 and the accompanying regulations) as amended as it applies to insurance and investment products  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  14316  Demonstrate knowledge and insight into the Long Term Insurance Act (1998)  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  12332  Demonstrate knowledge and insight into the Policyholder protection legislation  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  12323  Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of different products marketed by Healthcare Benefits Administrators  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  14432  Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of reinsurance at a basic level in long term insurance  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  14318  Describe the control of fraud in Long Term Insurance  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  12183  Indicate how different needs lead to the development of different investment products  Level 4  NQF Level 04 


    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    When qualifications are replaced, some of their learning programmes are moved to being recorded against the replacement qualifications. If a learning programme appears to be missing from here, please check the replacement.
     
    NONE 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Quality Assuring Bodies have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Quality Assuring Body should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. African Resources and Financial Training (Pty) Ltd 
    2. Boston School Of Finance 
    3. faisit (Pty) Ltd 
    4. Financial Planning Institute 
    5. Rio Ridge 1226 
    6. WORKERS ACADEMY OF INSURANCE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.