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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION: 

National Certificate: Craft Operational Management 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
49119  National Certificate: Craft Operational Management 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Art, Craft & Design 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
CATHSSETA - Culture, Arts, Tourism, Hospitality and Sports Education and Training Authority  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
National Certificate  Field 02 - Culture and Arts  Visual Arts 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  145  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Regular-Unit Stds Based 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Reregistered  SAQA 06120/18  2018-07-01  2023-06-30 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification does not replace any other qualification and is not replaced by any other qualification. 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
This qualification is primarily intended for application in the small/micro craft enterprise environment. The qualification will give learners the opportunity to obtain the competence in craft entrepreneurial, event, marketing management and product development, or have their competence recognised, as previously these competencies were not formally acknowledged. Learners can also obtain national recognition through a process of RPL. People credited with this qualification are able to operate in the craft sector. The qualification will thus enhance productivity within the Arts and Craft industry.

The qualification is designed to be flexible and accessible so that people are able to consistently demonstrate the competencies required for working safely and effectively in small/micro craft enterprises in general.

The qualification is the foundation for development into other areas of small/micro craft such as design, production, event management, enterprise and marketing.

Learners credited with this qualification are capable of:
  • Communicating in a variety of ways to manage a small/micro craft enterprise
  • Controlling and maintaining administrative and financial records
  • Managing the implementation of design
  • Supervising production processes of craft products
  • Positioning a small/micro craft enterprise in an optimal location
  • Managing human resources to promote an optimal level of productivity
  • Strategising and planning for the sustainability and growth of a small/micro craft enterprise

    Qualifying learners are also capable of:
  • Supporting human resource management compassionately and/or in accordance with legislation OR
  • Developing advanced business and marketing strategies OR
  • Managing the exportation of products OR
  • Facilitating learning in modules and programmes.

    Rationale

    Legacies of the past resulted in many practitioners within the Craft sector in South Africa being denied advancement and possible recognition as qualified tradespersons. Both employers and employees in the craft sector have expressed the critical need for technical and business skills based qualifications for those practicing within the craft system. The introduction of a National Certificate in Craft Operational Management (NQF Level 5) based on unit standards will allow learners the opportunity to reach their full potential of advancement within formal education and will also allow for the recognition of prior learning. In small, medium, craft enterprises (SMMEs) this person is responsible for all functions within the enterprise where in other organisations the focus is more on the operational actions only. Craft can include all fields that refer to craftsmanship, such as furniture making.

    This qualification reflects the need of people within the craft sector both now and for the future. This qualification prepares learners for the National Certificates in Art, Craft and Design on Level 6. This will enable learners to pursue different careers within the Arts and Culture sector and contribute towards the economical and ecological sustainability and improvement of the Craft environment. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners embarking on learning towards this qualification are already competent in the areas of:
  • Communication and language (NQF Level 4).
  • Mathematic literacy (NQF Level 4).
  • Craft enterprise (NQF Level 4).

    Recognition of prior learning (RPL)

    This qualification can be achieved wholly, or in part, through recognition of prior learning. Evidence can be presented in a variety of forms, including previous international or local qualifications, reports, testimonials, mentoring, functions performed, portfolios, work records and performance records. As such, evidence should be judged according to the general principles of assessment described in the notes to assessors below. Learners who have met the requirements of any Unit Standard that forms part of this qualification may apply for recognition of prior learning to the relevant Education and Training Quality Assurance body (ETQA). The applicant must be assessed against the specific outcomes and with the assessment criteria for the relevant Unit Standards. A qualification will be awarded should a learner demonstrate that the exit level outcomes of the qualification have been attained. 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
    All the Fundamental Component Unit Standards are compulsory (25 credits).
    All the Core Component Unit Standards are compulsory (112 credits).
    For the Elective Component learners are required to attain 8 credits out of 30 credits. 

    EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    Fundamental

    1. Communicate in variety of ways to manage a small/micro craft enterprise

    Core

    2. Control and maintain administrative and financial records
    3. Communicate in a variety of ways to manage a craft enterprise
    4. Control and maintain administrative and financial records
    5. Manage the implementation of designs
    6. Supervise production processes of craft products
    7. Position a small/micro craft enterprise in an optimal location
    8. Manage human resources to promote an optimal level of productivity
    9. Strategise and plan for the sustainability and growth of a craft enterprise

    Elective

    10. Support human resource management compassionately and /or in accordance with legislation
    11. Develop advanced business and marketing strategies
    12. Facilitate learning in arts and culture modules and programmes
    13. Manage the exportation of products 

    ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    Fundamental

    1.
  • Resources are procured through appropriate communication
  • Prices for materials and resources are negotiated
  • Tender documents are completed according to requirements
  • Networking is done by means of appropriate communication

    Core

    2.
  • A suitable documentation and administrative system appropriate for craft enterprise is designed
  • Records are kept according to General Acceptable Accounting principles
  • Legal principles pertaining to the craft operation enterprise are adhered to
  • Craft products are costed and priced to be competitive and sustainable
  • Calculations are performed to maintain sustainability
  • Financial controls including operational budgets, cash flow budget are designed for the small/micro craft enterprise

    3.
  • Craft products are managed for a sustainable enterprise
  • Product designs are related to production process
  • Selected product designs are implemented into a production line according to design specifications
  • Designs are implemented in an efficient way

    4.
  • The layout of production lines (equipment and floor) are researched and customised to the needs of the production process
  • Manufacturing processes are optimally adapted for final assembly and outsourcing is matched to the production requirements
  • Manufacturing and retail stock are managed and controlled in order to prevent delays and stock losses
  • The operating cycle of the craft production process makes provision for seasonal variations

    5.
  • Location and facilities are researched to suit the needs of the specific craft business
  • A Craft Exhibition / event is designed and executed to achieve the desired result
  • Branding is included in the design of a marketing campaign to establish a sustainable enterprise

    6.
  • An enterprise team is recruited, selected and placed to optimally match the Human Resource needs
  • Training needs are identified for the entire enterprise team by means of a SWOT analysis
  • Human Resource contracts are customised to suit needs of the mall/micro craft enterprise

    7.
  • Strategic plans are put in place to improve the small/micro craft enterprise
  • Quality control and inspection systems are put in place, which allow for checks and balances
  • Production and sales growth are in line with the strategic plan of the enterprise
  • The procurement of export contracts is researched using reliable and valid methods
  • The need for subcontractors is identified, accurately

    Elective

    8.
  • Employees are counselled as required and referrals made where appropriate
  • Organisational rights are protected according to the Labour Relations Act
  • Employees' rights are adhered to in accordance with the Labour Relations Act
  • Safe and environmentally friendly work practices are implemented

    9.
  • The business objectives of an organisation are identified and an indication is given of how the achievement of business objectives is measured
  • Business strategy is effectively communicated in a small business
  • The target market is identified and accurately defined
  • Products are optimally positioned in the market place

    10.
  • Varied teaching strategies are used and adjusted to learners` needs and differences
  • Communication is done to aid learning

    11.
  • Learning and teaching in the classroom is managed, administered and coordinated
  • Learners are motivated, empowered and challenged to achieve their maximum potential

    12.
  • Exportation of products is comprehensively planned
  • Providers of international logistics services and modes of transport which are the most appropriate are selected
  • Payment terms are negotiated with foreign buyers and trade finance arranged, effectively
  • Statutory requirements (customs, port, health, import control) are complied with

    Integrated assessment

    The assessment criteria in the unit standards are performance-based, assessing applied competence rather than only knowledge, or skills. In addition, learners must demonstrate that they can achieve the outcomes in an integrated manner, dealing effectively with different and random demands related to the environmental conditions in occupational contexts. Evidence is required that the learner is able to achieve the exit level outcomes of the qualification as a whole and thus its purpose, at the time of the award of the qualification. Workplace experience can be recognised when assessing towards this qualification. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    The Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) recognises craft production competence within the vocational education and training sector, for Certificates I through IV. Within the ANTA system, Certificate IV is described as follows: "the breadth, depth and complexity of knowledge and competencies would cover a broad range of varied activities or applications in a wider variety of contexts most of which are complex and non-routine. Leadership and guidance are involved when organising activities of self and others as well as contributing to technical solutions of a non-routine or contingency nature."

    Craft practitioner learning falls under the field of Art, and include competence to design, make and repair objects which have both functional and artistic qualities, working in wood, metal, glass, leather, ceramics, textiles and other materials. This includes designing the style and shape of objects, using and manipulating materials to make objects according to designs, finishing objects to enhance their artistic and/or practical qualities, and repairing damaged or defective craft objects.

    Certificate I in Small Business Enterprise - Aboriginal Arts and Crafts (100 hours of learning) focuses on basic education and employment competence, and covers basic measurement, using basic power tools, occupational health and safety, writing skills, and a minimum of 20 hours of electives chosen from basic drawing, leather craft, oxy acetylene welding, basket weaving, batik, egg artistry - floral art, woodwork, painting, sewing, and traditional aboriginal artefact making.

    Certificate II in Art and Craft is a 720-hour qualification, including 400 hours core and 120 hours elective learning, resulting in semi-skilled trade competence. It includes core competence regarding business practice; professional practice; marketing; occupational health and safety; field study; exhibition practice; painting; printmaking; screen printing; and sculpture. Certificate II is a South African NQF 3 equivalent.

    Certificate IV in Aboriginal Arts and Cultural Practices includes 958 hours learning. Selection takes place from various arts areas such as painting, drawing, sculpture, printmaking, photography, ceramics, creative technology (digital arts), Aboriginal contextual studies (project based work), and core learning areas include contemporary Aboriginal arts, drawing, global art history/ theory, exhibition/presentation skills. Core subjects include: Cultural Productions; Exhibitions; Drawing the Human Figure; Drawing/Painting From the Visible World; Contemporary Aboriginal Art; Drawing; Portfolio Documentation & Presentation; Presenting Information. Electives could include: Computers; Document Production; Internet; World Wide Web; Screen Design for Interactivity; Art Photography; Painting; (Relief) Printmaking; Intaglio Printmaking; Art Screen printing; occupational health and safety in Visual Arts & Artists; Colour Theory; Sculpture; Handforming with Multi-Media/Modular Components; Ceramic Materials; Glazes for Visual Arts; Kilns & Firing for Visual Arts; Creative Technology; Arts Industries Studies; Aboriginal Contextual Studies & Art Practical; 2D Imaging for Artists; 2D Animation; Authoring - Multimedia; Design Principles; etc.

    Comparable competence is attained in the United Kingdom in the general stream (rather than vocational of occupational learning) on their Level 2, comparable with the South African NQF Level 3. Competence is art, design, business, and engineering are included:
    2D and 3D Visual language competence
    Planning and working to project briefs to ensure clients' needs are met, including planning, creating and developing ideas and prototypes, and using sources, developed through exploring others' work
    Producing work to a good standard, including producing completed art, craft or design work using materials, techniques and technology
    Presenting solutions effectively to clients
    Evaluating work in relation to briefs

    The Scottish framework currently does not have any craft standards. Design, and graphic design in marketing is pegged at Level 4 (comparable to the South African NQF Level 5).

    The New Zealand framework includes 10 levels: levels 1 to 3 are of approximately the same standard as senior secondary education and basic trades training, comparable to the South African NQF Level 4. Levels 4 to 6 approximate to advanced trades, technical and business qualifications, comparable to the South African NQF Level 5. Levels 7 and above equate with advanced qualifications of graduate and postgraduate standard, comparable to the South African NQF Levels 6 and higher.

    On the New Zealand framework, craft is situated with arts, and specifically, included as a component of visual arts under the following domains:
  • Contextual craft, art, and design practices
  • Craft, art, and design management practices
  • Craft, art, and design practices
  • Craft, art, and design studio practices
  • Professional practice - arts and crafts

    No qualifications exist, and each area includes a number of unit standards that cover what is in this qualification:

    Title-Credits-Level
  • Research the changing use of craft, art, and design images and objects-2-2
  • Explore processes to generate and develop ideas and solve problems in craft, art and design practice-8-3
  • Make a presentation about own art work using audio visual equipment-3-3
  • Research the relationships between culture and craft and art making-5-3
  • Explore and identify design process within craft and art design practice-4-4
  • Explore communication and presentation methods for craft, art, and design work-7-4
  • Explore procedures to produce craft, art, and design work-25-4
  • Explore qualities of materials within craft and art design process-4-4
  • Research and explore design fundamentals within craft and art design practice-4-4
  • Research origins and use craft, art, and design media to communicate self identity-7-4
  • Research the environmental impact of craft, art, and design production-7-4
  • Research the relationships between people, the world, and craft and art making-7-4
  • Explain current tax laws as they apply to a practising artist-3-5
  • Explore and apply design fundamentals within craft and art design practice-8-5
  • Identify and apply design process within craft and art practice-8-5
  • Maintain a healthy and safe working environment for craft, art, and design group practices-20-5
  • Practise communication and presentation techniques for craft, art, and design work-4-5
  • Prepare and maintain materials to produce craft, art, and design work-20-5
  • Prepare funding applications to fund art projects-3-5
  • Produce artist statements-3-5
  • Research and communicate influences on craft, art, and design practices-12-5
  • Research resource issues relating to the use of materials for producing craft, art, and design work-4-5
  • Research the relationship between craft, artist and society-12-5
  • Use craft, art, design media, techniques, and equipment-20-5
  • Analyse, implement, and evaluate design process and principles within craft and art practice-16-6
  • Communicate intentions through presentation of craft, art, and design work-4-6
  • Examine exhibition and commission contracts in terms of art practice-4-6
  • Examine marketing strategies for craft, art, and design work-4-6
  • Identify legal practices relating to craft, art, and design practices-4-6
  • Install site specific display of own art work-4-6
  • Manage financial practices for craft, art, and design projects-4-6
  • Participate in a craft, art, and design project team-9-6
  • Produce an analysis of copyright law in terms of visual arts practice-3-6
  • Produce craft, art, and design work to communicate influences on personal identity-9-6
  • Research resource issues that impact on craft, art, and design practice in Aotearoa-New Zealand-4-6
  • Research the relationship between craft, art, and design, society and personal practice-9-6
  • Analyse the context of personal craft, art, and design work and practice-9-7
  • Develop marketing strategies and prepare and evaluate a craft, art, and design marketing plan-5-7
  • Initiate craft, art, and design management goals and objectives-5-7
  • Manage a craft, art, and design project team-9-7
  • Produce a body of craft, art, and design work which communicates personal kaupapa-30-7
  • Research and utilise community and administration structures for craft, art, and design funding-5-7
  • Research power structures and produce work on global issues that impact on personal ideology-5-7
  • Use presentation to promote and communicate as part of craft, art, and design practice-5-7 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    Vertical articulation is possible with the Further Education and Training Certificate: Small Business Financial Management (NQF Level 4), the National Certificate in Generic Management (NQF Level 4), and the National Certificate: Local Employment and Skills Development Practices (NQF Level 4). Horizontal articulation on the NQF is possible with the National Certificate: Performing Arts (NQF Level 5). 

    MODERATION OPTIONS 
    Moderation of assessment and accreditation of providers shall be at the discretion of a relevant ETQA as long as it complies with the SAQA requirements. The ETQA is responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. Particular moderation and accreditation requirements are:
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA. Providers offering learning towards achievement of any of the unit standards that make up this qualification must also be accredited through the relevant ETQA accredited by SAQA.
  • The ETQA will oversee assessment and moderation of assessment according to their policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation, or in terms of agreements reached around assessment and moderation between the relevant ETQA and other ETQAs and in terms of the moderation guideline detailed here.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments for the qualification, unless the relevant ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in Unit Standards as well as the integrated competence described in the qualification.
  • Internal moderation of assessment must take place at the point of assessment with external moderation provided by a relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines and the agreed ETQA procedures.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
    Assessment of learner achievements takes place at providers accredited by the relevant ETQA (RSA, 1998b) for the provision of programs that result in the outcomes specified for this qualification. Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this qualification must be registered as an assessor with the ETQA. Assessors registered with the relevant ETQA must carry out the assessment of learners for the qualification and any of the Unit Standards that make up this qualification.

    To register as an assessor, the following are required:
  • Detailed documentary proof of relevant qualification/s, practical training completed, and experience gained
  • NQF recognised assessor credit

    Assessors should keep the following general principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments:
  • Focus the initial assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcomes expressed in the titles of the Unit Standards to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember that the learner needs to be declared competent in terms of the qualification purpose and exit level outcomes.
  • Where assessment across Unit Standard titles or at Unit Standard title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes. Take special note of the need for integrated assessment.
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies.

    In particular, assessors should assess that the learner demonstrates an ability to consider a range of options by:
  • Measuring the quality of the observed practical performance as well as the theory and underpinning knowledge.
  • Using methods that are varied to allow the learner to display thinking and decision making in the demonstration of practical performance.
  • Maintaining a balance between practical performance and theoretical assessment methods to ensure each is measured in accordance with the level of the qualification.
  • Taking into account that the relationship between practical and theoretical components is not fixed, but varies according to the type and level of qualification.

    All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well-documented principles:
  • Appropriate: The method of assessment is suited to the performance being assessed.
  • Fair: The method of assessment does not present any barriers to achievements, which are not related to the evidence.
  • Manage: The methods used make for easily arranged cost-effective assessments that do not unduly interfere with learning.
  • Integrate into work or learning: Evidence collection is integrated into the work or learning process where this is appropriate and feasible.
  • Valid: The assessment focuses on the requirements laid down in the standards; i.e. the assessment is fit for purpose.
  • Direct: The activities in the assessment mirror the conditions of actual performance as close as possible.
  • Authentic: The assessor is satisfied that the work being assessed is attributable to the learner being assessed.
  • Sufficient: The evidence collected establishes that all criteria have been met and that performance to the required Standard can be repeated consistently.
  • Systematic: Planning and recording is sufficiently rigorous to ensure that assessment is fair.
  • Open: Learners can contribute to the planning and accumulation of evidence. Learners for assessment understand the assessment process and the criteria that apply.
  • Consistent: The same assessor would make the same judgement again in similar circumstances. The judgement made is similar than the judgement that would be made by other assessors. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    NOTES 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARDS: 
      ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
    Core  114737  Cost and price a product  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  114588  Develop, implement and monitor a quality policy for a new venture  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  11473  Manage individual and team performance  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  114738  Perform financial planning and control functions for a small business  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  114585  Plan strategically to improve business performance  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  114736  Record business financial transactions  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  117522  Conceive, develop and realise exhibition designs  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117529  Develop a marketing plan for a small/micro craft enterprise  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117514  Install and dismantle exhibition elements  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117520  Manage individual careers in a small/micro craft enterprise  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117517  Network in order to source information, advice or support to conclude contracts for a small/micro craft enterprise  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117518  Organise and monitor exhibition installation/dismantling  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117524  Outsource contracts to match the craft production process  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117521  Research and apply techniques for application to spatial design  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117519  Research and generate ideas for craft exhibitions  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117523  Research and identify appropriate craft products that are current in market trends  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117525  Research the viability of a new craft enterprise and a new venture within a small/micro craft enterprise  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117526  Select and implement craft product designs into production line  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117527  Set up production lines in craft operations  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Fundamental  117528  Comply with legal requirements in a small/micro craft enterprise  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Fundamental  115171  Generate resources for projects  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Fundamental  117516  Procure and buy stock in a small/micro craft enterprise  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Fundamental  117515  Tender for projects  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  13942  Demonstrate a basic understanding of the role of a business strategy in managing a small business or a business unit  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  10016  Demonstrate an understanding of product positioning  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  13952  Demonstrate basic understanding of the Primary labour legislation that impacts on a business unit  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  13224  Monitor the application of safety, health and environmental protection procedures  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  11387  Perform the processes and procedures required for the administration of export transactions  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  13203  Counsel workgroup members in respect of HIV/AIDS  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  115487  Facilitate learning in arts and culture modules and programmes  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 


    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
     
    NONE 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.