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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION: 

National Diploma: Braille Practice 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
49277  National Diploma: Braille Practice 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Inclusive Education 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
ETDP SETA - Education, Training and Development Practices Sector Education and Training Authority  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
National Diploma  Field 05 - Education, Training and Development  Adult Learning 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  240  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Regular-Unit Stds Based 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Reregistered  SAQA 10105/14  2015-07-01  2018-06-30 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2019-06-30   2023-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification is replaced by: 
Qual ID Qualification Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Min Credits Replacement Status
101549  Occupational Certificate: Teacher's Aide Inclusive Education  Not Applicable  NQF Level 05  217  Will occur as soon as 101549 is registered 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
Purpose

A qualified learner can facilitate reading and writing in Braille for blind individuals. The qualification is not limited to becoming competent in the teaching of Braille, but includes broader aspects such as transcribing and adapting texts, proof reading, using code, maintaining equipment and modifying text to prepare it for use. Fundamental competencies such as mathematic literacy have been added to the qualification to render the learner more employable. The qualification also provides learners with the competencies to advocate causes of blind individuals where and when required.

The qualified Braille practitioner thus aids blind individuals to enhance the quality of their lives, promote inclusion in schools and benefit the economy by adding to the national competency pool.

Qualifying learners are able to:
  • Read and write fully contracted standard Braille and technical Braille that meet specified requirements. Range: Reading and writing in any one language is required; technical Braille refers to Braille codes that are technical, such as mathematic and scientific codes.
  • Plan, develop or adapt and facilitate Braille learning events for blind persons, including children, that meet specific needs. Range: Learning events include facilitated learning, self-driven learning, assessment, etc.
  • Produce original tactile materials for individual use by blind persons that meet specified requirements. Range: Industrial production is excluded; materials include tactile diagrams.
  • Advocate accessibility of Braille and promote Braille as the medium of communication for blind persons. Range: Advocacy can include promotion of inclusion, human and constitutional rights, Braille as the medium of communication, and providing Braille in public places, lifts, doorways, etc. for way finding, etc.
  • Gather information about developments in Braille using sources, methods and techniques that are appropriate for specified contexts


    Qualified learners also elect to become capable of:
  • Teach learners to communicate in one language
  • Maintain personal Braille communication equipment used by blind persons according to specification and within given limitations
  • Travel through environments in a safe manner whilst experiencing a visual barrier
  • Facilitate the enhancement of quality of life of blind persons who are experiencing additional barrier/s meeting ethical and professional requirements. Range: Additional barriers can include deafness, poverty, mental illness, etc.



    Rationale

    The demand for this qualification is primarily for the many Braille practitioners who use Braille and teach Braille to blind persons (including children) and people who are working in contexts where blind people learn, including inclusive education settings. The target learners for this qualification are teaching assistants, and parts of the qualification are aimed at teachers, occupational therapists, residential caretakers, ABET practitioners, librarians at schools for the blind, etc. who may not currently be able to read and write Braille but work with blind persons. Employers of qualified learners include schools, rehabilitation centres where Braille is taught, libraries at schools for the blind, and tertiary institution support services that produce Braille and convert text.

    Braille is for blind learners, and, therefore, it is the means to literacy for blind persons, thereby empowering them to access and manage information. This qualification is set to increase Braille practitioner competence, in order to facilitate better Braille reading and writing of blind persons. In addition, achieving this qualification demonstrates respect for blind persons who are learning, and specifically learning Braille, as Braille facilitators are able to use the medium through which blind persons learn, read and write. Communication is made easier, as feedback regarding learning can take place in the medium of Braille. This improvement in communication will empower both Braille practitioners and those persons whose learning they facilitate. It is essential for all persons working in education, training and development settings and working with blind learners.

    Levels of literacy and rates of employment are crucially influenced by the ability to read and write Braille. Access to Braille is the only access to true literacy. Braille is of fundamental importance to the blind community, as access to literacy and learning, as a means to employment and as a matter of identity. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The building blocks of knowledge, skill and understanding which are assumed to be in place are reflected in the Unit standards of the qualification. In general, the qualification assumes that the following competencies have already been attained:
  • Communication and language at NQF Level 4
  • Mathematic literacy at NQF Level 4
  • Reading and writing standard Braille which contains no contractions in any one language
  • Presenting information in report format (NLRD ID Nr 110023)
  • Conduct basic lay counselling in a structured environment (NLRD ID Nr 114478)
  • Assess learners within a learning situation (NLRD ID Nr 7386)
  • Conduct advocacy campaigns and workshops in development practice (NLRD ID Nr 110056)
  • Apply self management concepts (NLRD ID Nr 14048)
  • Facilitate optimal functioning in controlled environments for blind persons


    Recognition of prior learning (RPL)

    This qualification can be achieved wholly, or in part, through recognition of prior learning. Evidence can be presented in a variety of forms, including previous international or local qualifications, reports, testimonials, mentoring, functions performed, portfolios, work records and performance records. As such, evidence should be judged according to the general principles of assessment described in the notes to assessors below. Learners who have met the requirements of any Unit Standard that forms part of this qualification may apply for recognition of prior learning to the relevant Education and Training Quality Assurance body (ETQA). The applicant must be assessed against the specific outcomes and with the assessment criteria for the relevant Unit Standards. A qualification will be awarded should a learner demonstrate that the exit level outcomes of the qualification have been attained. 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
    All Fundamental component unit standards are compulsory (49 credits).

    All Core component unit standards are compulsory (150 credits).

    From the Elective component, learners must achieve at least 41 credits of the possible 84 credits, to achieve competence in:
  • Teaching learners to communicate in one language and/or
  • Maintaining personal Braille communication equipment used by blind persons and/or
  • Travel through environments whilst experiencing a visual barrier and/or
  • Facilitate the enhancement of quality of life of blind persons who experiencing additional barrier/s meeting ethical and professional requirements 

  • EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    Fundamental and Core

    1. Read and write fully contracted standard Braille and technical Braille that meet specified requirements. Range: Reading and writing in any one language is required; technical Braille refers to Braille codes that are technical, such as mathematic and scientific codes.

    2. Plan, develop or adapt and facilitate Braille learning events for blind persons, including children, that meet specific needs. Range: Learning events include facilitated learning, self-driven learning, assessment, etc.

    3. Produce original tactile materials for individual use by blind persons that meet specified requirements. Range: Industrial production is excluded; materials include tactile diagrams.

    4. Advocate accessibility of Braille and promote Braille as the medium of communication for blind persons. Range: Advocacy can include promotion of inclusion, human and constitutional rights, Braille as the medium of communication, and providing Braille in public places, lifts, doorways, etc. for way finding, etc.

    5. Gather information about developments in Braille using sources, methods and techniques that are appropriate for specified contexts.

    Elective (achievement of two outcomes is required to qualify)

    6a. Teach learners to communicate in one language.

    6b. Maintain personal Braille communication equipment used by blind persons according to specification and within given limitations.

    6c. Travel through environments in a safe manner whilst experiencing a visual barrier.

    6d. Facilitate the enhancement of quality of life of blind persons who are experiencing additional barrier/s meeting ethical and professional requirements. Range: Additional barriers can include deafness, poverty, mental illness, etc. 

    ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    Fundamental and Core

    1.
  • Interpretation of contracted standard Braille and technical Braille is correct within and appropriate for specific contexts, and differentiation between codes is technically correct
  • Reading and writing methods used are appropriate for specific contexts and agreed principles of, practices and procedures for reading and writing Braille and rules governing relevant Braille code are adhered to
  • Writing materials selected are feasible in and appropriate for specific contexts and use of equipment meets specified criteria

    2.
  • Braille learning event plans meet requirements of specific learning and personal profiles. Range: Learning profile includes learning styles, and personal profile includes reading and tactile readiness, challenges due to physical and emotional injury or trauma, etc.
  • Development, adaptation, recommendation and justification equipment and learning material meet specific needs of blind persons
  • Facilitation of the Braille learning events meet requirements of specific contexts
  • Learning achievements are accurately assessed against specified criteria

    3.
  • Materials quality and quantity are appropriate for intended purpose and specified reader requirements. Range: Quality includes layout and requirements for representing information electronically, and learners are required to proofread materials to ensure quality
  • Software used or selected is appropriate for translation into Braille, and material adaptation meets requirements for successful conversion of documents into Braille
  • Legal requirements regarding copyright are adhered to

    4.
  • Factors that impact on advocacy effectiveness are accurately described for specific contexts
  • Plans for advocating accessibility of Braille and promoting Braille as the medium of communication for blind persons are feasible for specific contexts
  • Community awareness initiatives are justified in terms of fostering positive attitudes towards Braille, accessibility of Braille and promoting Braille as the medium of communication for blind persons
  • Participation in public activities meet the requirements for participation within specific contexts

    5.
  • Information collected is from recognised field-specific sources that are appropriate for specified contexts
  • Selected information collection and recording methods and recognised techniques are appropriate for information/data, and methods of analysis are appropriate for purpose of analysis
  • Information storage systems are accessible for future use

    Elective

    6a.
  • National education and training standards for ABET/NQF Level 1 are adhered to
  • Key principles of language development within a communicative language teaching framework are correctly applied in terms of specific learner and learning factors

    6b.
  • Specified rules and manufacturer instructions for handling, use, maintenance, and operation of personal Braille communication equipment are adhered to
  • Testing of equipment functionality meets specified procedural requirements

    6c.
  • Orientation is effective whilst experiencing a visual barrier and safety requirements are adhered to
  • Assistive devices are used effectively for specific environments. Range: Assistive devices, such as guides and long canes, are devices that assist a blind or partially sighted person to travel through an environment
  • Empathy for blind persons is explained within the context of specific environments

    6d.
  • The impact of additional barriers on practitioner behaviour and facilitation is analysed in terms of specific requirements for facilitation of quality of life
  • Facilitation meets specific requirements for quality of life
  • Conduct adheres to specified ethical and professional requirements at all times


    Integrated assessment

    The assessment criteria in the unit standards are performance-based, assessing applied competence of Braille practitioners, rather than only underpinning knowledge, or only skills. The critical cross-field outcomes are also achieved in the unit standards. In addition to the competence assessed to achieve the unit standards, learners must demonstrate that they can achieve the outcomes in an integrated manner. They should be able to deal effectively with different and random demands related to Braille practitioner occupational and learning contexts, to qualify. Assessment approaches used should be appropriate for assessing applied competence of Braille practitioners. Integrated assessment is meaningful if there are clear relationships between the purpose statement, exit level outcomes and integrated assessment of this qualification.

    Learners who qualify must be able to integrate concepts, ideas and behaviours across unit standards to achieve the purpose of the qualification. Evidence (as specified in the associated assessment criteria) is required that the learner is able to achieve the exit level outcomes of the qualification as a whole and in an integrated way.

    Evidence of integration may be presented by learners when being assessed against the unit standards, and separate assessment for integration may not be necessary. Workplace experience can be recognised when assessing towards this qualification. Integrated assessment should include observable performance as well as the quality of thinking behind such performance. Formative assessment can be employed during learning towards the unit standards and during integration to achieve exit level outcomes, to ensure that integration takes place when summative assessment is employed. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    Countries with published information regarding Braille facilitation/teaching and practice include the United States of America (USA), Germany, Norway, New Zealand, and Canada. Most countries place this area of competence within the field of so-called special education.

    In the USA, Braille practitioners are required to have a degree (the equivalent of the South African NQF Level 6). The content of the qualification includes:
  • A general understanding of the basic terminology related to the visual system, a historical view of education of the blind, and an understanding of federal programmes;
  • Characteristics of learners, and the effects of blindness on development, and physiological and psychosocial issues related to blindness
  • Individual learning differences and effects of blindness on learning
  • Instructional strategies to teach Braille reading and writing, specialised daily living skills, and techniques to modify instructional materials and methods to best meet the needs of blind children
  • Modifying the environment for visually impaired students learning/social interactions
  • Strategies for teaching alternatives to nonverbal communication for visually impaired students
  • Instructional planning, and implementing and evaluating learning objectives for visually impaired students
  • Specialised techniques for assessment of visually impaired students
  • Professional and ethical practice
  • Collaboration with families and other professionals.

    In Canada, practitioners are mostly teachers. The qualification that relates best to this South African qualification is a post graduate qualification. It provides a basic foundation in the field of Special Education, and the choice of electives allows for any specialisations. Core areas addressed include education, education psychology, and special education.

    In New Zealand, no qualification exists that is the equivalent of this qualification. However, unit standards at an equivalent level to this South African qualification and addressing equivalent competencies are registered on their framework, in the field of special education:
  • Develop and implement programmes in music for young people who use Braille, 20 Credits
  • Read and write Braille for working with young people with vision impairment, 15 Credits
  • Read and write Nemeth and adapt programmes in numeracy for young people who use Braille, 15 Credits
  • Teach reading and writing of Braille to young people with vision impairment, 7 Credits

    Short programmes (units within modules) are offered in German that form part of education qualifications. The focus is on methods and didactics of teaching, the teaching of writing and communication skills, the Braille system history, teaching method and materials, and the learning process for reading and writing by touch. In Norway, relevant courses are also much shorter (about two weeks) than the South African qualification but are based on the assumption that the learner is already a teacher. The programmes include methods of teaching blind pupils the different subjects in a group of sighted pupils, practicing Braille reading and writing, mobility and orientation techniques, social and educational integration of blind pupils, mathematics with abacus, adjustment to daily living, teaching aids (adapted Braille paperprint books, electronic Braille/computer books, computers, tape recorders, etc.), reading readiness, mathematics readiness, Perkins Brailler and PC, and fully contracted standard Braille.

    Two differences are evident between the South African qualification and the international examples:

    1. Other countries require a higher level of competence to enter the field than this South African qualification, which in the local context would prevent access to the qualification for most learners
    2. International examples work from a framework of special education, rather than inclusive education as is the case in South Africa 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    Vertical articulation is possible with the National First Degree: ABET Practice (NQF Level 6). Horizontal articulation on the NQF is possible with the National Certificate: Orientation and Mobility Practice (NQF Level 5), the National Certificate: Management (NQF Level 5), the National Diploma: Occupationally Directed Education, Training and Development Practices (NQF Level 5) and the Higher Education and Training Certificate: Development Practice (NQF Level 5). 

    MODERATION OPTIONS 
    Moderation of assessment and accreditation of providers shall be at the discretion of a relevant ETQA as long as it complies with the SAQA requirements. The ETQA is responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. Particular moderation and accreditation requirements are:
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA. Providers offering learning towards achievement of any of the unit standards that make up this qualification must also be accredited through the relevant ETQA accredited by SAQA.
  • The ETQA will oversee assessment and moderation of assessment according to their policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation, or in terms of agreements reached around assessment and moderation between the relevant ETQA and other ETQAs and in terms of the moderation guideline detailed here.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments for the qualification, unless the relevant ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in Unit Standards as well as the integrated competence described in the qualification.
  • Internal moderation of assessment must take place at the point of assessment with external moderation provided by a relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines and the agreed ETQA procedures.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
    Assessment of learner achievements takes place at providers accredited by the relevant ETQA for the provision of programmes that result in the outcomes specified for this qualification. Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this qualification must be registered as an assessor with the ETQA. Assessors registered with the relevant ETQA must carry out the assessment of learners for the qualification and any of the Unit Standards that make up this qualification.

    To register as an assessor, the following are required:
  • Detailed documentary proof of relevant qualification/s, practical training completed, and experience gained at a level above the level of this qualification
  • NQF recognised assessor credit


    Assessors should keep the following general principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments:
  • Focus the initial assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcomes expressed in the titles of the Unit Standards to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember that the learner needs to be declared competent in terms of the qualification purpose and exit level outcomes.
  • Where assessment across Unit Standard titles or at Unit Standard title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes. Take special note of the need for integrated assessment.
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies.


    In particular, assessors should assess that the learner demonstrates an ability to consider a range of options by:
  • Measuring the quality of the observed practical performance as well as the theory and underpinning knowledge.
  • Using methods that are varied to allow the learner to display thinking and decision making in the demonstration of practical performance.
  • Maintaining a balance between practical performance and theoretical assessment methods to ensure each is measured in accordance with the level of the qualification.
  • Taking into account that the relationship between practical and theoretical components is not fixed, but varies according to the type and level of qualification.


    All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well-documented principles:
  • Appropriate: The method of assessment is suited to the performance being assessed.
  • Fair: The method of assessment does not present any barriers to achievements, which are not related to the evidence.
  • Manage: The methods used make for easily arranged cost-effective assessments that do not unduly interfere with learning.
  • Integrate into work or learning: Evidence collection is integrated into the work or learning process where this is appropriate and feasible.
  • Valid: The assessment focuses on the requirements laid down in the standards; i.e. the assessment is fit for purpose.
  • Direct: The activities in the assessment mirror the conditions of actual performance as close as possible.
  • Authentic: The assessor is satisfied that the work being assessed is attributable to the learner being assessed.
  • Sufficient: The evidence collected establishes that all criteria have been met and that performance to the required Standard can be repeated consistently.
  • Systematic: Planning and recording is sufficiently rigorous to ensure that assessment is fair.
  • Open: Learners can contribute to the planning and accumulation of evidence. Learners to be assessed understand the assessment process and the criteria that apply.
  • Consistent: The same assessor would make the same judgement again in similar circumstances. The judgement made is similar to the judgement that would be made by other assessors. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    NOTES 
    Glossary of Terms

    In this qualification and its unit standards, the terms below have the following meanings:
  • Cell: 6-dot matrix which is the basis of Braille
  • Character: any one of the 63 combinations of dots that can occupy a Braille cell
  • Composite sign: a sign consisting of more than one character
  • Composition sign: a Braille sign which has no print equivalent
  • Contraction: a Braille sign which represents a word or a group of letters
  • Grade 1: standard Braille which contains no contractions
  • Grade 2: fully contracted standard braille
  • Lettergroupsign: a contraction representing a group of letters
  • Lower sign: a sign lacking dots 1 and 4
  • Sequence: two or more words written in braille without a space
  • Shortform: a composite contraction representing a word, and which consists either of letters or of a combination of one or more letters and a contraction
  • Sign: one or more characters with indivisible meaning
  • Simple sign: a sign consisting of one character
  • Space: an empty cell
  • Upper sign: a sign containing dot 1 and _stor dot 4
  • Wordsign: a contraction which represents a word 

  • UNIT STANDARDS: 
      ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
    Core  15234  Apply efficient time management to the work of a department/division/section  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117846  Communicate in technical Braille Code  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  12 
    Core  115753  Conduct outcomes-based assessment  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  15 
    Core  10292  Conduct research and liaison relevant to the learning situation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 
    Core  115855  Create, maintain and update record keeping systems  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  116484  Evaluate a specified code of ethics and/or code of conduct  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  10290  Evaluate, select and adapt published learning materials and develop, use and evaluate own supplementary learning aids  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  12 
    Core  15229  Implement codes of conduct in the team, department or division  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  114925  Manage learner information using an information management system  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  110063  Plan advocacy campaigns and workshops in development practice  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117857  Prepare Braille reading readiness  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 
    Core  117868  Produce tactile materials for blind persons  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  15 
    Core  115755  Design and develop outcomes-based assessments  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  10 
    Core  10299  Design learning programmes and related learning materials  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  20 
    Core  10305  Devise interventions for learners who have special needs  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  16 
    Fundamental  10289  Facilitate a programme of learning  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  24 
    Fundamental  117872  Read and write fully contracted standard Braille in any one language  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  15 
    Fundamental  117876  Write reports regarding learner progress  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 
    Elective  10297  Facilitate Communications at ABET levels 3 and 4  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  20 
    Elective  10298  Facilitate Mathematics at ABET levels 3 and 4  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  20 
    Elective  10294  Identify and respond to learners with special needs and barriers to learning  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 
    Elective  117851  Maintain communication equipment used by blind persons  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  117088  Orientate self to the environment whilst experiencing a visual barrier  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 
    Elective  117090  Travel through environments whilst experiencing a visual barrier  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  15 


    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    When qualifications are replaced, some of their learning programmes are moved to being recorded against the replacement qualifications. If a learning programme appears to be missing from here, please check the replacement.
     
    NONE 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.