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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of thermal efficiency in a power plant 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
114470  Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of thermal efficiency in a power plant 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Power Plant Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard will be able to calculate efficiency in various heat exchange and related equipment used in a power plant. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
Apply engineering principles and concepts in a power generation process plant. 

UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
  • All types of heat exchange equipment used in the industrial process environment.
  • Recuperative and regenerative principle to be assessed. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Define the thermodynamic terminology associated with power plant efficiency. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Specific heat capacity of a substance defined. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Constant volume and constant pressure processes.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Energy flow equation defined. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Effects of pressure, volume and velocity changes with same mass flow.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The Law of conservation of energy defined. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Energy loss and gained in a heat exchange process. Heat energy converted into work done.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Specific enthalpy defined. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Feed water, wet steam, dry saturated steam, superheated steam.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Calorific value defined. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Bomb calorimeter and calculations.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Efficiency of combustion analysed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Exhaust gasses analysis by means of an Orsat apparatus.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Efficiency defined. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Economiser efficiency, Boiler efficiency, Condenser efficiency, Plant efficiency.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Investigate by means of calculations. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Investigate by means of calculations the factors that influence the efficiency of heat exchange processes in a power plant. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Feed heating efficiency calculated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Economisers, low pressure and high pressure heaters.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Air heater efficiency calculated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Recuperative and regenerative.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Boiler efficiency calculated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Equivalent evaporation, fuel consumption versus enthalpy of wet steam before entry to superheater.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Superheater efficiency calculated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Primary and secondary, superheat and reheat systems.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Steam turbine overall efficiency calculated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Exclude the turbine blade diagrams.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Condenser vacuum efficiency calculated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Conversions of Barometric and manometric readings to pressures in Pascal, total condenser pressure.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The overall heating plant efficiency calculated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Feed water, Economiser, evaporator, superheater and flue gasses.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. The total plant efficiency calculated. Electrical power output versus feul consumption. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Interpretation of causes and rectification of under average efficiencies. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Procedure for efficiency interpretation understood. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Common factors that causes out of normal efficiency identified. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Operating measures to increase efficiency under various out of normal conditions known and understood. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Maintenance and plant configuration factors that can improve the total plant efficiency interpreted. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    According to SAQA requirements

    Moderation: Standard Generating Group Fossil Power Plant - Technical Group 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Understanding of technical concepts, formulae, theories and application of efficiency in heat exchange equipment used in a power plant. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organization, community. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organizing and critically evaluating information. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognizing that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contributing to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large, by making it the underlying intention of any programme of learning to make an individual aware of the importance of:

    a. Reflecting on and exploring a variety of strategies to learn more effectively;
    b. Participating as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities;
    c. Being culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts;
    d. Exploring education and career opportunities;
    e. Developing entrepreneurial opportunities. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Occupational Role: Process Plant Operator 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  23679   National Diploma: Fossil Power Plant Process Control  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2009-02-18  Was EWSETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  23734   National Diploma: Nuclear Power Plant Process Control  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2009-02-18  Was EWSETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Fundamental  61570   National Diploma: Power Plant Process Control Operations  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2023-06-30  EWSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. ESKOM DRANKENSBURG PUMP STORAGE (PEAKING) 
    2. ESKOM INGULA PUMP STORAGE SCHEME (PEAKING) 
    3. ESKOM KRIEL POWER STATION OPERATIONS TRAINING 
    4. Kelvin Power (Pty) Ltd 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.