SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Conduct blasting operations in dimension stone quarries 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
116614  Conduct blasting operations in dimension stone quarries 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03  15 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and contribute to the upliftment and economic growth of the mining and minerals sector.

This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of conducting blasting operations in dimension stone operations in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to
  • Demonstrate an understanding of blasting operations in dimension stone quarries
  • Prepare for dimension stone quarry blasting
  • Charge up and initiate the blast
  • Conduct split blasting operations in dimension stone quarries
  • Treat and blast misfires
  • Destroy old explosives
  • Conduct post-blasting operations 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credit calculation is based on the assumption that learners are already competent in terms of the following outcomes or areas of learning when starting to learn towards this unit standard:
  • Communication at NQF Level 2
  • Mathematics at NQF Level 2
  • Health and safety at NQF Level 2.
  • Working in a quarry 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of blasting operations in dimension stone quarries. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The different types of explosives and accessories used are identified and their functions explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The different types of initiation systems and components used are identified and their functions explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Fundamentals of fragmentation blast design are explained in terms of specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Patterns
  • Timing
  • Heave and throw requirements
  • Sub drill
  • Stemming
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Fundamentals of split blasting are explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Types of explosives
  • Charge spacing
  • Decoupling
  • Timing
  • Stemming
  • Multi planar split blasting
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Applicable legislation and the implications for blasting are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Factors of highwall stability and their implications for blasting are explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Bench stability
  • Smoothwall techniques
  • Smooth blasting
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The implications of environmental effects on blasting are explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Ground vibration
  • Flyrock
  • Dust
  • Noise
  • Air blast
  • Pollution (waste products)
  • Gas and vapours
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The procedure for and implications of the destruction of explosives is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    Safety procedures and mechanisms to be implemented during blasting are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    Risks and hazards that can be encountered during blasting are identified and mitigating measures explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Electrical hazard
  • Charging hazard
  • Firing hazards
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Prepare to conduct blasting operations in quarries. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Geological and survey data are determined and documented (blasting plan) in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The blast plan is consulted and specific measures implemented in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Occupational hazards and risks are identified and dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Support requirements are anticipated and coordinated in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Personal protective equipment is selected, checked and used in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The blast site is examined and anomalies dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The blast site is prepared in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Blasting accessories are obtained, checked and transported to site in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    Safety procedures are implemented in accordance with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Guards
  • Fences
  • Signage
  • Communication
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The explosives register is completed and maintained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Charge up and initiate the blast. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Blastholes are measured and dewatered in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Holes are loaded with explosives (coordinate with mixer-placer truck) in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Hand placing of explosives where required is conducted in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Primers are made up and installed in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Stemming is conducted in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Timing is installed in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Connections are tested in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The warning siren is activated in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    All personnel are cleared from site in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The blast is initiated in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    Blasting operations are monitored and incidents and non-conformances dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 12 
    Occupational hazards and risks are identified and dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 13 
    Environmental aspects are monitored and anomalies dealt with in accordance with specifed requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Dust
  • Water
  • Illumination
  • Noise
  • Fire and weather (lightning)
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Conduct split blasting in dimension stone quarries. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Blastholes are measured and dewatered in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Holes are loaded by hand with explosives in accordance with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explosives must include:
  • Detonating fuse and water
  • High VOD smooth blasting explosives
  • Blasting gunpowder
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Primers are made up and installed in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Stemming is conducted in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Timing is installed in accordance with specified requirements where required. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Connections are tested in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The warning siren is activated in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Personnel are cleared from site in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The blast is initiated in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    Blasting operations are monitored and incidents and non-conformances dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    Occupational hazards and risks are identified and dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 12 
    Environmental aspects are monitored and anomalies dealt with in accordance with specifed requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Dust
  • Water
  • Illumination
  • Noise
  • Fire and weather (lightning)
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Treat and/or blast misfires. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The misfired area is examined and hazards identified and dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Explosives and accessories are obtained, checked and prepared for use in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Occupational hazards and risks are identified and dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Safety procedures are implemented in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The area is cleared in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The misfire is treated in accordance with specified requirements 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Treatment must include:
  • Relieving hole
  • Extract explosives
  • Withdraw tamping, place fresh primer and reblast
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Post-blasting inspection is conducted to ensure effective treatment and blasting of the misfire. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
    Destroy old explosives. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Old explosives are identified and handled in accordance with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Damaged explosives
  • Explosives accesories
  • Frozen explosives
  • Recovered explosives
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Explosives and accessories are obtained, checked and prepared for use in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Occupational risks and hazards are identified and dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Safety procedures are implemented in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The area is cleared in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Old explosives are destroyed in accordance with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Burning
  • Detonation
  • Dilute with water
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Post destruction inspection is conducted to ensure effective destruction of old explosives. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 7 
    Conduct post-blasting operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A post-blast inspection is conducted in accordance with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Fly rock
  • Misfires
  • Dangerous ground
  • Large rocks (requiring secondary breaking)
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Occupational hazards and risks are identified and dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The blast report is prepared and submitted in accordance with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Permit documentation
  • Logbook
  • Handover
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Unused explosives and accessories are dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Blasting equipment is inspected and maintained in accordance with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Shot exploder
  • Siren
  • Circuit tester
  • Cabling
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    1. Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.

    2. Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA.

    3. Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard
  • Characteristics and function of explosives materials and accessories
  • Characteristics and function of initiation systems
  • Fundamentals of fragmentation blast design
  • Fundamentals of split design
  • Conducting blasting operations
  • Treating and blasting misfires
  • Dealing with old explosives
  • Applicable legislation and implications for blasting
  • Relevant occupational risks and hazards and their mitigating actions
  • Relevant environmental impacts and mitigating actions
  • Typical non conformances and their mitigating actions 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.
    Note: The ability of the candidate to identify substandard and hazardous conditions, assess and take appropriate action. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community.
    Note: The ability and willingness of the candidate to accept and interpret work instructions correctly. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage himself / herself and his / her activities responsibly and effectively.
    Note: The ability of the candidate to indicate what methods, tools and personal protective equipment are required, and to communicate to fellow workers his / her intentions and the assistance required. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
    Note: The ability of the candidate to reconcile the information from visual and physical examinations and constantly evaluate the changing situation. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and / or language skills in the modes of oral and / or written presentations.
    Note: The appropriate communication with the relevant personnel with regard to the reporting of hazards and substandard conditions will indicate his / her proficiency in effective communication. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, thus showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
    Note: The ability of the candidate to use equipment, follow processes and access and record data in a technological environment in accordance with environmental, occupational health and safety requirements. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
    Note: The ability of the candidate to identify and refer anomalous behaviour to a specialist confirms his / her understanding of the fact that a specific observation, inference, action or decision may have far reaching consequences. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    Assessors should keep the following principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessment at title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes.
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The assessment criteria provide the specifications against which assessment judgements should be made. In most cases, knowledge can be inferred from the quality of the performances, but in other cases, knowledge and understanding will have to be tested through questioning techniques. Where this is required, there will be assessment criteria to specify the standard required.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence, of the prescribed type and quality, as specified in this unit standard, that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well documented principles of assessment: appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, direct, authentic, sufficient, systematic, open and consistent 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology

    Specified requirements

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice
  • SABS and other relevant Standards
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives
  • Guidelines issued by Chief Inspector of Mines

    Site specific
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA)
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme
  • Managerial Instructions
  • Mine Standard Procedures
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks
  • Working Guides
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications

    Unit standard justification

    Level:

    Attribute-Level-Justification
    Skills-3-Well-developed range
    Procedures-2-Established and familiar
    Context-3-Range of familiar
    Knowledge-3-Some relevant theoretical
    Information processing-2-Basic processing of readily available information
    Problem Solving-3-A range of known responses to familiar problems
    Orientation of activities-4-Self-directed
    Application of responsibility-4-Under broad guidance and supervision
    Orientation of scope of responsibility-3-Significant responsibility for quality and quantity of output

    Average level: 27/9 = 3
    Actual level assigned: 3

    Credits:

    Total hours required by the learner to achieve the required outcome:

    Activity-Hours
    Classroom Teaching-30
    On-The-Job Training-90
    Mentoring required-30
    Other (Specify)-
    Total-150

    Credits achieved: 150/10 = 15
    Actual credits assigned: 15 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  57121   National Certificate: Rockbreaking: Quarrying  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2008-09-17  Was MQA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  62869   National Certificate: Rockbreaking: Surface Excavations  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Anglo American Platinum Limited 
    2. Anglo American Platinum Limited - Mogalakwena Mining Training Centre 
    3. BANA BA THARI MINING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ACADEMY (PTY) LTD 
    4. COLLIERY TRAINING COLLEGE 
    5. Concor Projects (pty) Ltd 
    6. DIGGERS TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SERVICES 
    7. Exxaro Coal Pty Ltd 
    8. FOSKOR Pty Ltd 
    9. HARMONY GOLD MINING COMPANY LIMITED 
    10. KHUTALA COLLIERY 
    11. KOLOMELA MINE 
    12. Kumba Sishen HRD Centre 
    13. MINERAL MINING TRAINING INSTITUTE (PTY) LTD 
    14. MOOLMAN BROS CONST CO PTY 
    15. NKOMATI MINE 
    16. Palabora Copper Pty Ltd 
    17. PMC TRAINING CONSULTANTS AND ASSOCIATES (PTY) LTD 
    18. PRETORIA PORTLAND CEMENT CO_LTD (HEAD OFFICE) 
    19. Prisma Training Solutions 
    20. SAFETY TRAINING PRACTITIONERS PTY LTD 
    21. SENZEKO EXECUTIVE RISK CC 
    22. Technology Risk Solutions 
    23. Triton Training and Development 
    24. XSTRATA COAL 
    25. XTRACT TRAINING SERVICES (PTY) LTD 
    26. ZULEK TRAINING SPECIALISTS (PTY) LTD 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.