SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

Manage and Control Raw Materials 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
119275  Manage and Control Raw Materials 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  25 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2009-07-01  2011-02-16  SAQA 0480/09 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2012-02-16   2015-02-16  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard is replaced by: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
377600  Manage and control raw materials  Level 6  NQF Level 06  25  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard is able to:

1. Select the suitable raw materials for use in the manufacture of beer.
2. Manage and control the processing of raw materials.
3. Measure, analyse and interpret process data.
4. Identify Non Conformance
5. Manage and implement corrective actions.

This unit standard is intended for practicing brewers, maltsters, hop producers who need to manufacture and prepare raw materials suitable for the manufacture of beer.

The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and upliftment for any individual. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
Chemistry
  • NQF 5 Chemistry: Water, Hop

    Brewing process
  • Basic Overview

    Basic Problem Solving Techniques
    World Class Manufacturing 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    This unit standard range is applicable to the selection and conversion of all raw materials suitable for the production of beer. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Select the suitable raw materials for use in the manufacture of beer. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The characteristics of barley and or other cereals used for malt production are described 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Morphology of the barley (or other cereals) plant and grain
  • Structure of the plant
  • Roots
  • Tillers
  • Awns
  • Structure of the grain
  • Husk
  • Rachilla
  • Pericarp
  • Tests
  • Aleurone layer
  • Endosperm
  • Embryo
  • 2 row vs. 6 row
  • Barley classification and varietal identity
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The underlying principles behind a cereal breeding and selection program for the development of new cereal varieties, suitable for malting purposes is described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Genetic enhancement
  • Commercial breeding methods
  • Disease resistance
  • Yield
  • Stability
  • Identification
  • Morphological
  • Protein fingerprinting
  • Genetic fingerprinting
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The range and role of available adjuncts used in the manufacture of beer are described and the resultant beer styles commented on. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Processed solid adjuncts
  • Starch
  • Grits
  • Flakes
  • Torrified
  • Other processed grains
  • Unprocessed solid adjuncts
  • Syrups from hydrolysed starch (carbohydrate profiles)
  • Sucrose based products
  • Solids
  • Syrups
  • Reasons for use
  • Manufacturing process
  • Nitrogen control
  • Fermentability control
  • Effects on beer stability
  • High gravity brewing
  • Priming of beers
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The range and role of speciality malts available to the brewer are described and the resultant beer styles commented on. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Types and manufacture
  • Chocolate
  • Roast
  • Crystal
  • Carapils
  • Green
  • Smoked
  • Vienna
  • Malts from cereals other than barley
  • High diastatic power malts
  • High beta-glucanase malt
  • Nitrogen control
  • Fermentability control
  • Effects on beer stability
  • High gravity brewing
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The characteristics of potable water that make it suitable for brewing purposes are discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Taste
  • Odour
  • Clarity
  • Microbiological contamination
  • Agricultural contamination
  • Commonly found organic compounds
  • Anions
  • Cations
  • Hardness
  • Temporary
  • Permanent
  • Total
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Alkalinity
  • The relevance to brewing of the following liquor components:
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Iron
  • Copper manganese
  • Zinc
  • Ammonium
  • Carbonate
  • Bicarbonate
  • Sulphate
  • Chloride
  • Nitrate
  • Free chlorine
  • Free carbon dioxide
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The hop plant and its cultivation are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Hop classification
  • Growing areas
  • Varieties
  • Cultivation program
  • Trellising
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The characters used in the selection of hops for the manufacture of beer are listed and discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Criteria
  • Cone structure
  • Yield
  • Alpha acid content
  • Aroma
  • Disease resistance
  • Agronomic factors
  • Effects of pests and diseases
  • Effects of harvest conditions
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The constituents of the hop plant that make it suitable for the manufacture of beer are elucidated and discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Hop resins
  • Alpha acids
  • Beta acids
  • Essential oils
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Oxygenated compounds
  • Sulphur compounds
  • Tannins
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The chemical changes that the hop constituents undergo during wort boiling are defined and described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Isomerisation of alpha acids
  • Solubilisation
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Manage and control the processing of raw materials. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The process of cereal intake is fully described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Intake testing
  • Conformance to order
  • Damage (insect, handling, microbial)
  • Contamination (ergot, microbial, black grains, red grains, bird droppings)
  • Pesticide passports
  • Variety
  • Viability
  • Size
  • Gape
  • Moisture
  • Nitrogen
  • Temperature (sweating)
  • Sampling
  • Objectives and requirements for cereal screening
  • Cereal drying and effects on malt quality
  • Control of pests and diseases
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The barley steeping process and associated equipment are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Purpose of steeping
  • Steeping systems
  • Water for steeping
  • Physical and biochemical changes that occur during steeping
  • Design and operation of steep vessels
  • Control of process and resultant effects on malt quality
  • Methods to improve rate of steeping
  • Grain abrasion
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The physiological and biochemical changes that the barley grain undergoes during germination as related to the brewing process are discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Dormancy
  • Water uptake
  • Water sensitivity and its measurement
  • Embryo and aleurone activity and its measurement
  • The role of gibberellins
  • Endosperm modification and its importance with regard to the brewing process
  • Cell wall breakdown
  • Protein degradation (including associated enzymes)
  • Starch degradation (including associated enzymes)
  • Lipids
  • Phenols
  • Regulation of modification
  • Objectives of germination
  • Design and operation of germination systems
  • Physical and biochemical changes that the germinating grain undergoes
  • Control of process and the resultant effects on malt quality
  • Techniques to enhance germination (advantages and disadvantages)
  • Use of gibberellins
  • Use of bromate
  • Maltings systems
  • Pneumatic systems
  • Drum maltings
  • Malting boxes
  • Floor maltings
  • Multi-functional systems
  • Semi continuous plants
  • Continuous plants
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The requirements for and the importance of kilning are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Objectives of kilning
  • Design and operation of a kiln
  • Direct heating
  • Indirect heating
  • Physical and biochemical changes that occur during kilning and their subsequent effects on malt quality
  • Control of process and resultant effects on malt quality
  • Cooling and deculming
  • Roasting plant
  • Organisation of a maltings plant
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The processing conditions to produce in specification ale and lager malts are defined. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Hot water extract
  • Cold water extract
  • Fine/coarse difference
  • Total nitrogen
  • Soluble nitrogen
  • Kolbach index
  • Free amino nitrogen
  • Moisture
  • Diastatic power
  • Dextrinising units
  • Colour
  • Friarbility
  • Homogeneity
  • Dimethyl sulphide
  • S-methylmethionine
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The process of grain handling and intake into storage facilities is described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Unloading
  • Sampling
  • Match against order
  • Purity
  • Size
  • Viability
  • Moisture
  • Nitrogen
  • Reception pit
  • Health and safety
  • Moving vehicles
  • Dust
  • Waste handling
  • Solid
  • Liquid
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The various mechanisms used in the movement of grain within a processing environment are debated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Conveyors
  • Belt
  • Chain and flight
  • Screw
  • Elevators
  • Pneumatic systems
  • Mixing and blending
  • Weighing
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The process for pre-cleaning, cleaning and grading of grain are detailed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Magnetic separators
  • De-awning and polishing
  • Aspiration
  • Screening
  • Cylinder and disc separators
  • Pneumatic cleaners
  • Destoning
  • Spiral separation
  • Losses through the process
  • Aeration and ventilation
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The conditions required for the suitable storage of grain are defined. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Microbes
  • Insects and control of
  • Pests
  • Moisture content and control
  • Health and safety issues
  • Dust
  • Use of insecticides and fumigants
  • Level monitoring in silo's
  • Temperature monitoring and control
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The processes for producing brewing liquor with the desired specifications for brewing purposes are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Lime treatment
  • Acid additions
  • Salt additions
  • Demineralization
  • Selective ion removal
  • Flocculation
  • Filtration
  • Sand
  • Reverse osmosis
  • Ultra filtration
  • Activated carbon
  • Sterilization
  • Design and operation of water treatment plants
  • Process economics
  • Procedures to prepare deaerated water
  • Equipment
  • Gas laws applicable to oxygen removal
  • Sterilization
  • CO2 addition
  • Process economics
  • Desired specifications
  • Requirements for high gravity brewing
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    The manufacturing processes to produce processed hop products are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Unisomerised extract
  • Isomerised extract
  • Aroma extracts
  • Pellets
  • Ethanol extracts
  • Carbon dioxide extracts
  • Chemically modified products
  • Hops and hop product storage
  • Temperature
  • Self combustion
  • Oxidation
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 12 
    The status and performance of the raw materials processing plant is recorded. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Quality systems
  • Documentation
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 13 
    The principles of world-class manufacturing are applied to optimise the appropriate raw materials processing process. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Knowledge of world class manufacturing principles
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Measure, analyse and interpret process data. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Typical calculations are performed in order to calculate yields and losses through the maltings process 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Barley intake losses
  • Steeping losses
  • Germination losses
  • Kilning losses
  • Overall yield
  • Maltings effluents
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    A sample of barley is evaluated for its suitability for malting. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Desirable characteristics
  • Endosperm structure
  • Nitrogen content
  • Cell wall composition
  • Husk
  • Dormancy
  • Pre-germination
  • Uniformity of size
  • Variety
  • Extract potential
  • Assessment methods
  • Hand evaluation
  • Germinative capacity
  • Germinative energy
  • Micro malting
  • Water sensitivity
  • Extract recovery
  • Microbial metabolites
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The features and criteria that describe malt of good quality are debated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • High extract recovery
  • Total nitrogen
  • Soluble nitrogen
  • Colour
  • Resultant wort viscosity
  • Diastatic power
  • Homogeneity
  • Ease of milling
  • Husk condition
  • Moisture content
  • Beta-glucan content
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The amount of grist required to produce a given wort is calculated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • grist calculation
  • Malt input
  • Adjunct inputs
  • Factors influencing choice of product
  • Measurement of extract utilisation
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The amount of hops required to produce a given bitterness is calculated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Hop grist calculation
  • Hopping rate
  • Factors influencing choice of product
  • Measurement of hop utilisation
  • Storage of hops
  • Dry hopping
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Identify non conformance. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The process areas within raw materials processing are audited for conformance to standard operating procedures 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Barley Processing
  • Malt Processing
  • Water Processing
  • Hops Processing
  • Adjuncts Processing
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The processed raw materials are analysed for conformance to specification. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Barley
  • Malt
  • Brewing Liquor
  • Hop Products
  • Adjuncts
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Manage and implement corrective actions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The presence of non-conformance is identified and quantified. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Audit systems
  • Standard operating procedures
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    By the use of appropriate problem solving techniques plans to eliminate non-conformance are generated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Problem solving techniques
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Implement corrective actions to eliminate identified non-conformances. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Review work practices
  • Modify plant
  • Training and assessment
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The findings are accurately recorded stored and shared. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Knowledge management systems
  • Documentation management system
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Internal moderation.
  • External moderation.
  • An assessor, accredited by the relevant ETQA, will assess the learner`s competency.
  • Assessment procedures will be supplied by the ETQA in alignment with NSB requirements.
  • All assessment activities must be fair, so that all candidates have equal opportunities. Activities must be free of gender, ethnic or other bias.
  • Questions and answers to determine theoretical knowledge are expected.
  • Examination of an assessment portfolio.
  • Reporting skills are demonstrated by effective communication, using verbal (language) and/or writing skills.
  • Direct observation in simulated or actual work conditions.
  • Practical demonstration of main activity(s) reflected in the title. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected within the assessment criteria of each specific outcome.

    Hop and Barley Industry Water Supply and Treatment thereof
    Availability and properties of market related raw materials. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard has been replaced by unit standard 377600, which is "Manage and Control Raw Materials", Level 6, 25 credits. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  49532   National Diploma: Clear Fermented Beverage Processing: Brewing  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FOODBEV 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.