SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Optimise process technology 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
119278  Optimise process technology 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  15 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Manage and Control Process Technology
  • Measure and analyse processing conditions used to manufacture beer
  • Identify Non Conformance
  • Manage and implement corrective actions.

    This unit standard is intended for practicing brewers, brewing engineers and process control personnel who need to understand and apply measurement and control technologies to maintain the desired beer processing conditions.

    The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and upliftment for any individual. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Physics
    > Properties Gases
    > Properties Fluids
  • Engineering
    > Basic Engineering Principles
    > Heat Transfer
    > Electricity
    > Materials of Construction
  • Brewing process
    > Basic Overview
  • Basic Problem Solving Techniques
  • World Class Manufacturing
  • Basic Principles of Process Control 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    This unit standard range is applicable to the management and control of brewery processing plant from raw material acceptance to release of final product. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Manage and control process technology. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The flow of fluids employed in the manufacture of beer is controlled. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Principles of fluid flow
  • Examples of where they can be found in the manufacture of beer
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The common types of valves and their appropriate application in a typical brewery are identified and discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Butterfly
  • Mixproof
  • Globe
  • Gate
  • Ball
  • Pressure reducing
  • Pressure relief
  • Vacuum relief
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The common types of pumps and their appropriate application in a typical brewery are identified and discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Power requirement and calculation thereof
  • Net positive suction head
  • Peristaltic pumps
  • Single stage closed impeller centrifugal pump
  • Single stage open impeller centrifugal pump
  • Piston positive displacement
  • Diaphragm positive displacement
  • Lobe rotor pump
  • Mono pump
  • Application of pump curves
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The common types of heat exchange equipment and their appropriate application in a typical brewery are identified and discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Plate and frame exchangers
  • Shell and tube exchangers
  • Mash vessels
  • Cookers
  • Kettles
  • Fermenters
  • Pasteurizers
  • Deaeration plant
  • Surface fouling
    > Removal
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The basic properties of heating media and their appropriate application in a typical brewery are identified and discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Sensible heat
  • Latent heat of vaporization
  • Enthalpy and calculations
  • Temperature - entropy diagrams
  • Solids, liquids and gaseous fuels combustion
  • Electrical heating
  • Steam systems
  • High temperature hot water systems
  • Water treatment for heat generating and distribution systems
  • Health and safety aspects
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The basic properties of electrical power and distribution systems as applied in a typical brewery are identified and discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • High voltage supply
  • Low voltage supply
  • Distribution systems for high and low voltage
  • Transformers
  • Motors (AC & DC)
  • Variable speed drives
  • Power factor correction
  • Emergency supply systems
  • Uninterrupted power supply
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The basic principles of refrigeration as applied in the brewing environment are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Closed circuit vapour compression cycle
  • Temperature - entropy diagrams
  • Applications of primary refrigerant circuits
  • Applications of secondary refrigerant circuits
  • Types of refrigerants
    > Primary circuits
    > Secondary circuits
  • Health and safety aspects
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The prevention of heat loss/gain by means of insulation is described and identified. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Fundamentals of insulation
  • Simple calculations
  • Materials used
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The properties of materials of construction suited for use in the brewing industry are discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Stainless steel as the preferred material for tanks and pipes
  • Advantages and disadvantages of alternative materials of construction
  • Materials used for building finishes
  • Surface coatings
    > Process vessels
    > Building finishes
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The process of selecting stainless steel for use in the brewing environment is described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Properties of austenitic stainless steels
  • Features of 304, 316, 321, 2205
    > Composition
    > Corrosion resistance
    > Strength
    > Expansion
    > Cost
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    The various forms of corrosion of stainless steel are elucidated and evidence of corrosion is identified. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Corrosion models
  • Causes of corrosion
  • Control and prevention of corrosion
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 12 
    The status and performance of the utilities processes plant is recorded. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Quality systems
  • Documentation
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 13 
    The principles of world-class manufacturing are applied to optimize the cleaning process. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Knowledge of world class manufacturing principles
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 14 
    The management of gas levels in beer is demonstrated and discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Mechanics of dissolving gas in beer
    > Oxygen, carbon dioxide, Nitrogen
    > Sparging
    > On line injection
  • Supersaturation
    > Fermentation
    > Beer quality
    > Retail outlet
    > Consumer
  • Maintenance of gas levels in beer is demonstrated and discussed
    > Top pressure
    > Dusting
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Measure and analyse processing conditions used to manufacture beer. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The fundamentals of remote measurement systems and their applications in the brewing industry are described with the use of relevant examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Selection and siting of remote sensors
  • Design and operation of common forms of remote sensing
  • Applications in the brewing environment
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The basic principles of process control are discussed as applied in the brewing industry. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Sequence or discontinuous control (digital)
  • Process or continuous control (analogue)
  • Closed loop control systems and their components
  • Applications of commonly used control systems
  • Programmable logic controllers
    > Advantages and disadvantages of commonly used software programs
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The basic principles of computer control as applied in the brewing industry are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Definition and requirements of a PLC system
  • Applications
  • Types of architecture
  • Field bus systems
  • SCADA systems
  • MIS systems
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Identify non conformance. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Measurement and control loops are audited for conformance to standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Installation of Sensors
  • Functioning of Algorithms
  • Plant design
  • Maintenance Procedures
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Process components under control are verified for correct functioning as per design. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Pumps
  • Valves
  • Sensors
  • Switches
  • Motors
  • Gear Boxes
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Manage and implement corrective actions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The presence of non-conformance is identified and quantified. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Audit systems
  • Standard operating procedures
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    By the use of appropriate problem solving techniques plans to eliminate non-conformance are generated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Problem solving techniques
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Implement corrective actions to eliminate identified non-conformances. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Review work practices
  • Modify plant
  • Training and assessment
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The findings are accurately recorded stored and shared. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Knowledge management systems
  • Documentation management system
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Internal moderation.
  • External moderation.
  • An assessor, accredited by the relevant ETQA, will assess the learner`s competency.
  • Assessment procedures will be supplied by the ETQA in alignment with NSB requirements.
  • All assessment activities must be fair, so that all candidates have equal opportunities. Activities must be free of gender, ethnic or other bias.
  • Questions and answers to determine theoretical knowledge are expected.
  • Examination of an assessment portfolio.
  • Reporting skills are demonstrated by effective communication, using verbal (language) and/or writing skills.
  • Direct observation in simulated or actual work conditions.
  • Practical demonstration of main activity(s) reflected in the title. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected within the assessment criteria of each specific outcome.

    Principal properties of N2, CO2, O2 and air as process gases used in the brewing industry:
    > Brewery applications
    > Purity requirements
    > Health and safety issues

    Gas laws as applied in the brewing environment
  • Gas laws and equations
  • Calculation of gas solubilities in water and beer
  • Calculation of gas partial pressures
  • Calculation of equilibrium pressures
    > Fermentation
    > Pasteurization
    > Dispense

    Management of gas levels in beer
  • Mechanics of dissolving gas in beer
    > Sparging
    > On line injection
  • Supersaturation
    > Fermentation
    > Beer quality
    > Retail outlet
    > Consumer
  • Maintenance of gas levels in beer

    Principle of fluid flow and where they can be found in the manufacture of beer
  • Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids
  • Laminar and turbulent flow
    > Reynolds number
  • Conservation of mass in liquid flow
  • Conservation of energy in liquid flow
    > Bernoulli's equation
  • Pressure drops in pipework systems
  • Matching of product flow characteristics to beer quality and their appropriate application
    > Sweet wort run off
    > Hopped wort flow
    > Beer transfers
    > Pasteurization
    > Packaging lines
  • Common types of pumps and their appropriate application in a typical brewery
  • Principles of pasteurization
  • Definition
  • Time and temperature relationships
  • "z" value definition
  • "d" value definition
  • Impact on product
  • Pressure and temperature relationships
  • Principles of flash pasteurization
  • Principles of design, operation and control
  • Calculations of time and temperature relationships to deliver the required PU's
  • Impact of microbial load variations
  • Costs in comparison to tunnel pasteurisation 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made.
  • Evident in all specific outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community.
  • Evident in all specific outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively.
  • Evident in all specific outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • Evident in all specific outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.
  • Evident in all specific outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • Evident in all specific outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • Evident in all specific outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large.
  • Evident in all specific outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  49532   National Diploma: Clear Fermented Beverage Processing: Brewing  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FOODBEV 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.