SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate knowledge of brewing microbiology 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
119281  Demonstrate knowledge of brewing microbiology 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  20 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard is able to:

1. Select yeast suitable for the manufacture of beer.
2. Store and maintain yeast cultures
3. Quantify the degree of microbial contamination present during the manufacture of beer.
4. Prevent microbial contamination.
5. Manage and implement corrective actions

This unit standard is intended for practicing brewers and brewery microbiologists who need to understand and apply microbiological practices and principles to the control of microbial contamination within the brewing processing plant thereby preventing contamination and spoilage of final product and brewing products in process.

The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and upliftment for any individual. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
Chemistry
  • NQF 5 Chemistry
    Microbiology
  • NQF 5 Microbiology
    Brewing process
  • Basic Overview
    Basic Problem Solving Techniques
    World Class Manufacturing 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    This unit standard range is applicable to the management and control of brewery plant and process microbiological status from raw material acceptance to release of final product. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Select yeast suitable for the manufacture of beer. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The morphology and cellular function of yeasts employed in the manufacture of beer are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Key features and functions of a yeast cell are discussed:
  • The nucleus
  • The cytoplasm
  • The mitochondria
  • The vacuoles
  • The plasma membrane
  • The cell wall
  • Sexual reproduction
  • Asexual reproduction
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The genetic characteristics of yeasts used in the manufacture of beer are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Genetic tests used for the typing of yeasts
  • The principles of genetic modification as applied to yeasts used in the manufacture of beer
  • Examples of where genetic modification may offer potential to yeasts used in the manufacture of beer
  • Public perception and legislation with regard to the commercialization of the use of genetically modified organisms for the manufacture of beer
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The phenotypic characteristics of brewing yeasts relevant for the selection of yeast strains suitable for the manufacture of beer are defined. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • The taxonomy of Saccharomyces
  • Distinguishing characteristics of ale and lager yeasts
  • Techniques used to differentiate between ale and lager yeasts
  • Techniques used to evaluate yeasts used in the manufacture of beer (eg tall tube fermentations)
  • The evaluation and techniques used to determine flocculation characteristics
  • Biochemical tests used to characterize yeasts (sugar metabolism, use of inhibitors)
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The carbohydrate metabolism in yeasts employed in the manufacture of beer is described with the aid of flow charts. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Range of assimilable sugars
  • Typical sugar spectrum of wort used in the manufacture of beer
  • Conversion of complex sugars to simple sugars
  • Uptake of sugars
  • Wort sugars that are not utilizable by brewing yeasts
  • Anaerobic metabolism versus aerobic metabolism
  • The crabtree effect
  • The main purpose and effects of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and associated equations for the conversion of glucose to energy , ethanol and carbon dioxide
  • The significance of pyruvate (source of ethanol, precursor for other key molecules)
  • NAD/NADH balance and the role of glycerol
  • The pentose phosphate pathway
  • Storage of carbohydrates as glycogen and trehalose
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The nitrogen metabolism in yeasts employed in the manufacture of beer is described with the aid of flow charts. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Sources of nitrogen in wort
  • Uptake of amino acids (classes and permease systems)
  • Typical amino acid spectrum of wort used in the manufacture of beer
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The requirement for oxygen by yeasts employed in the manufacture of beer is discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • The role of oxygen in respiration
  • The role of oxygen in the synthesis of sterols and unsaturated fatty acids
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The formation of flavour compounds by yeasts employed in the manufacture of beer is discussed with the aid of flow charts 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • The formation of esters, typical flavour descriptors and threshold values
  • The formation of higher alcohols, typical flavour descriptors and threshold values
  • The formation of vicinal diketones, typical flavour descriptors and threshold values
  • The formation of acetaldehyde, typical flavour descriptors and threshold values
  • The formation of sulphur compounds, typical flavour descriptors and threshold values
  • Fatty acids and other organic acids, typical flavour descriptors and threshold values
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The trace nutrient requirements of yeast are defined 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Anions
  • Cations
  • Salts
  • Minerals
  • Growth factors
  • Vitamins
  • pH
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The yeast cell cycle and growth is discussed with the aid of diagrams 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Cell growth
  • Cell division
  • Cell ageing
  • Cell death and autolysis
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Store and maintain yeast cultures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A sample of brewing yeast is taken and its purity determined and maintained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • From a single cell source
  • From a mixture of cell types (includes bacteria and yeast)
  • Aseptic technique
  • Pure culture techniques
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The techniques used for preserving pure yeast cultures are described and evaluated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Aseptic technique
  • Solid media techniques
  • Liquid media techniques
  • Drying techniques
  • Freeze drying techniques
  • Deep freezing techniques
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The concentration of yeast in a yeast slurry is measured. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Turbidimetric methods
  • Plate count methods
  • Direct count methods
  • Impedance methods
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The status of a sample of brewing yeast is assessed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Vitality definition and measures
  • Viability definition and measures
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The degree of contamination of a yeast culture by other microbes is determined. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
    The principles of detection and quantification of contaminating organisms
  • Selective media
  • Enrichment techniques
  • Microscopy
  • Rapid techniques
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The ability of brewing yeasts to flocculate is discussed and measured. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Mechanism
  • Sedimentation vs. flocculation
  • Lectin model of flocculation
  • Genetics of flocculation
  • Hydrophobicity
  • Cell surface charge
  • Co-flocculation
  • Early flocculation
  • Resultant beer styles
  • Flocculation tests
    Helm test
    Modified helm test
    Burns
    Magnetic bead tests
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Determine the degree of microbial contamination present during the manufacture of beer. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The susceptibility of beer to microbial spoilage is defined. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Available nutrients for contaminating organisms
  • Oxygen availability
  • Presence of hop substances
  • The role of temperature
  • The role of pH
  • The role of alcohol
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The organisms that can spoil worts and beers are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Saccharomyces spp (wild yeast)
  • Other non-saccharomyces yeast (wild yeast)
  • Gram-negative bacteria
  • Gram-positive bacteria
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The detection and quantification of beer spoilage organisms is demonstrated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Microscopic examination
  • The use of selective or enrichment media (aerobically and anaerobically)
  • The use of forcing tests
  • Filtration techniques
  • Plating tests
  • Bioluminescence
  • Rapid tests
    Eg PCR
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Different types of microbial spoilage that can occur in a beer manufacturing environment are identified. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Generation of off flavours
  • Production of hazes
  • Health and safety issues
    Nitrosamines
    Biogenic amines
    Aflatoxins and mycotoxins
    Potential pathogens
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Conditions in the brewery contributing to microbial beer spoilage are identified 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
    Incoming raw materials
  • Malt
  • Adjuncts
  • Water
  • Gasses

    Presence of biofilms
  • Hygiene status
  • Cleaning and sanitizing procedures
  • Pasteurization of product
  • Aseptic filling procedures
  • HACCP
  • Quality control
  • Quality assurance
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Prevent microbial contamination. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The beverage processing plant is audited against best practice hygiene principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Definition of best practice
  • Identification of unhygienic practices and conditions
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The beverage processing plant is cleaned and sanitized according to accepted hygienic practices. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Standard operating procedures
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The hygienic status of the beverage processing plant is measured. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Visual observation
  • Microbial detection
  • ATP measurement
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Manage and implement corrective actions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The hygienic status and performance of the beverage processing plant is recorded. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Quality systems
  • Documentation
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The presence of non-conformance is identified and quantified. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Audit systems
  • Standard operating procedures
  • Product specifications
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    By the use of appropriate problem solving techniques plans to eliminate non-conformance are generated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Problem solving techniques
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Implement corrective actions to eliminate identified non-conformances. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Review work practices
  • Modify plant
  • Training and assessment
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The findings are accurately recorded stored and shared. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include:
  • Knowledge management systems
  • Documentation management system
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Internal moderation.
  • External moderation.
  • An assessor, accredited by the relevant ETQA, will assess the learner`s competency.
  • Assessment procedures will be supplied by the ETQA in alignment with NSB requirements.
  • All assessment activities must be fair, so that all candidates have equal opportunities. Activities must be free of gender, ethnic or other bias.
  • Questions and answers to determine theoretical knowledge are expected.
  • Examination of an assessment portfolio.
  • Reporting skills are demonstrated by effective communication, using verbal (language) and/or writing skills.
  • Direct observation in simulated or actual work conditions.
  • Practical demonstration of main activity(s) reflected in the title 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected within the assessment criteria of each specific outcome.
  • Impact of contamination on product
  • The significance of microbiologists role in controlling plant and process
  • Resistance of beer to spoilage
  • Application of Rapid Microbiological Technique to in process control 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made. Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community. Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively. Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information. Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations. Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others. Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation. Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large. Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  49532   National Diploma: Clear Fermented Beverage Processing: Brewing  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FOODBEV 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.