SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of operation and use of radio aids in air navigation 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
120059  Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of operation and use of radio aids in air navigation 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Air Defence 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security Safety in Society 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
The learners will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the principles of operation and use of radio aids in air navigation. They will be able to navigate an aircraft safely using long and short-range radio aids.
  • Describe radio wave propagation.
  • Describe different types of radar systems used in aviation.
  • Describe area navigation systems.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of satellite navigation systems.
  • Describe the use of radio aids to facilitate navigation.

    This unit standard forms part of the core learning of the learner operating in the field of air transport aviation.
    Learners who have achieved this unit standard will increase their opportunities for professional development and employability within the Aviation industry. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Mathematics at NQF Level 4.
  • Physical Science at NQF Level 4. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The terms "aircraft" and "aeroplane" are used as synonyms where appropriate.

    Radio navigation aids commonly used in present-day short and medium range airline and military transport operations. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Describe radio wave propagation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Wave phenomena are explained in terms of concepts, principles and terminology. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Concepts, principles and terminology include but are not limited to:
  • Frequency, wavelength, speed and amplitude.
  • Transverse and longitudinal waves.
  • Reflection, refraction, diffraction and attenuation.
  • Interference and modulation.
  • Polarisation.
  • Bandwidth.
  • Electromagnetic spectrum.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Types of radio waves are identified and described in terms of propagation in the earth's atmosphere and space. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Types of radio waves include but are not limited to:
  • Ground waves.
  • Sky waves.
  • Waveguide waves.
  • Carrier waves.
  • Amplitude modulated waves.
  • Frequency modulated waves.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Types of antenna are identified and described in terms of their characteristics and application. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Characteristics include but are not limited to:
  • Size.
  • Directionality.
  • Gain.
  • Polarisation.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Identified types of radiotelephony (R/T) airborne equipment are described in terms of their technical construction, purpose and methods of operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Aviation emergency channels are described in terms of their use and frequency. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Describe different types of radar systems used in aviation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Pulse radar is described in terms of principles, components and its use. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Identified ground-based primary radar systems are described in terms of their application in aviation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Primary radar systems include but are not limited to:
  • En-route surveillance radar.
  • Terminal approach radar.
  • Precision approach radar.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Airborne weather radar is described in terms of its principles, operations and use. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Secondary surveillance radar (SSR) and transponders are described in terms of principles of operations and use. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The use of radar observations by air traffic control is described in the context of in-flight navigation. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Describe area navigation systems. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Identified types of area navigation systems are explained in terms of principles of operation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Principles of operation include but are not limited to:
  • Terminology.
  • Definition of Area Navigation (RNAV) routes.
  • Advantages and limitations.
  • Sources of navigation data.
  • System components.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    RNAV system operation is described in terms of sources of information. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Sources of information include but are not limited to:
  • External reference data.
  • Self-contained reference systems.
  • Air data.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Very high frequency omni-directional radio range (VOR) and distance measuring equipment (DME) area navigation (RNAV) systems are described in terms of principles of operation and use. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Coupled RNAV and auto pilot/flight director systems are described in terms of system management. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of satellite navigation systems. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Global Satellite Navigation Systems refer to those systems approved for air navigation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are compared in terms of functionality and availability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Global Navigation Satellite System components are described in terms of their principles of operation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Principles of operation include but are not limited to:
  • User position determination.
  • GPS segments.
  • Signals.
  • Accuracy and errors.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The uses of global positioning system (GPS) in air navigation are described in terms of usage modes, limitations and enhancements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Usage modes include but are not limited to:
  • Visual flight rules (VFR) navigation.
  • Instrument flight rules (IFR) navigation.
  • Flight management system (FMS) input.
  • Automatic dependant surveillance (ADS) information.

    Limitations include but are not limited to:
  • Availability.
  • Integrity.
  • Accuracy.

    Enhancements include but are not limited to:
  • Differential GPS.
  • Satellite-based augmentation systems: wide area augmentation system (WAAS), European geostationary navigation overlay system (EGNOS).
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Describe the use of radio aids to facilitate navigation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Ground direction finding (D/F) is described in terms of principles, applications and classification of bearings. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The automatic directional findering (ADF) / non-directional beacon (NDB) system is described in terms of the principles of operations, components and use. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Principles, components and use include but are not limited to:
  • Ground equipment.
  • Airborne equipment.
  • Signals.
  • Accuracy and errors.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    ADF/NDB bearing calculations are performed in a simulated environment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    VOR and DVOR systems are described in terms of the principles of operations, components and use. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Principles of operation, components and use include but are not limited to:
  • Ground equipment.
  • Airborne equipment.
  • Signals.
  • Accuracy and errors.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    VOR and DVOR bearing calculations are performed in a simulated environment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Distance measuring equipment (DME) systems are described in terms of the principles of operation, components and use. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Principles of operation, components and use include but are not limited to:
  • Ground equipment.
  • Airborne equipment.
  • Signals.
  • Accuracy and errors.
  • Calculation of ranges.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) systems are described in terms of the systems, principles of operation, components and signals. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The Instrument Landing System (ILS) is described in terms of the systems, principles of operation, components, signals and displays. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Principles, components and use include but are not limited to:
  • Ground equipment.
  • Airborne equipment.
  • Signals.
  • Accuracy and errors.
  • Interpretation of displays.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this unit standard. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Radio aids
  • Radio wave properties.
  • Radio wave propagation in the atmosphere.
  • Ground direction finder (D/F) including classification of bearings.
  • ADF including NDBs and use of RMI.
  • VOR and DVOR including use of RMI.
  • DME (distance measuring equipment).
  • ILS (instrument landing system).

    Basic radar principles
  • Pulse radar techniques and associated terms.
  • Ground radar systems.
  • Airborne weather radar.
  • SSR (secondary surveillance radar) and transponders.
  • Use of radar observations and application to in-flight navigation.

    Area navigation systems
  • General philosophy.
  • Flight deck equipment and operation.
  • Instrument indications.
  • Types of area navigation systems input.
  • VOR/DME and TACAN area navigation (RNAV).

    Self contained and external referenced navigation systems
  • Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) GPS and GLONASS. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    The learner is able to identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made by:
  • Using radio navigation aids within their limitations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Following prescribed and recommended procedures in the use of radio navigation aids. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse and critically evaluate information by:
  • Interpreting the cockpit displays of the radio navigation aids to enhance situational awareness. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Using radio aids to optimise navigation.
  • Using observations and applications of radar for in-flight navigation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation:
  • Integrating information from various types of radio navigation aids to facilitate navigation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Supplementary information:
    Definitions & acronyms

    Abbreviations:

    ADF: Automatic direction finder.
    ADS: Automatic Dependent Surveillance.
    ATC: Air traffic control.
    ATS: Air traffic service.
    D/F: Direction finding.
    DME: Distance measuring equipment.
    DVOR: Doppler VOR.
    EGNOS: European geo-stationing navigation overlay system.
    FMS: Flight management system.
    GLONASS: Global'naya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema.
    GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite Systems.
    GPS: Global positioning system.
    IFR: Instrument flight rules.
    ILS: Instrument Landing System.
    NDB: Non-directional beacon.
    R/T: Radiotelephony.
    RNAV: Area Navigation.
    SSR: Secondary surveillance radar.
    TACAN: Tactical air navigation system.
    VFR: Visual flight rules.
    VOR: Very high frequency omni-directional radio range.
    WAAS: Wide area augmentation system.
    RMI: Remote Magnetic Indicator 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  63309   National Certificate: Defensive Mission Control  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Reregistered  2023-06-30  SAS SETA 
    Core  49853   National Diploma: Defensive Mission Control  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2008-09-17  Was SAS SETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  59256   National Diploma: Flight Dispatch  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Fundamental  49950   National Certificate: Navigation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  TETA 
    Fundamental  58023   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Elective  58581   National Certificate: Air Traffic Support  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Reregistered  2023-06-30  TETA 
    Elective  50500   National Diploma: Electronic Warfare  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2023-06-30  SAS SETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Aviation Training Academy 
    2. Westline Aviation Pty Ltd 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.