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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Explain thermodynamic principles and concepts as applied in nuclear power generating plant 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
13710  Explain thermodynamic principles and concepts as applied in nuclear power generating plant 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Power Plant Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard is able to describe the operation and application of sensors, detectors, controllers and positioners as in use at nuclear power generating plant. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
None 

UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
Reactor engineering fundamentals as prescribed by the National Nuclear Regulator for the Generic Fundamental Requirements of nuclear power plant operators. 

Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
Explain the properties and principles of steam. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Concepts related to the properties of steam explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Wet steam, saturated steam, superheated steam.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. The relationship of steam quality and moisture content explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Moisture content in steam using a Mollier Diagram determined. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. The use of steam tables to explain properties demonstrated. 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
Explain the properties and principles of sub cooled liquid. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The term sub cooled liquid defined. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Factors that effect sub cooled liquid and its effect on plant efficiency understood. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The conditions of a fluid for a throttling process determined. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. The purpose for establishing a vacuum in the condenser and the factors that effect pressure explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
5. The function and operation of equipment related to the condensing process understood. 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
Define the thermodynamic processes used for the transformation of energy. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Rankine and Carnot Cycles concepts and thermodynamic applications understood. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Secondary system parameters that affect thermodynamic efficiency explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Turbine blade erosion concepts in steam turbines understood. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. Feed water heating effects on steam cycle efficiency explained. 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
Define the hydraulic characteristics of fluid behaviour. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Operational implications of water hammer explained 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Cavitational effects on pump behaviour understood 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Mass and volumetric flow rate defined 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. Two phase flow and the measurement thereof explained 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
5. Methods of controlling system flow rates known 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
Define the mechanisms of heat transfer. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The basic modes of heat transfer known 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Conduction, convection and radiation.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Core thermal power using simplified heat balances calculated 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Core heat transfer under accident condition described 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. Heat exchanger parameters that affect heat transfer understood 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
Define the concepts related to thermal hydraulics with respect to boiling heat transfer. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Boiling processes and other heat transfer processes differentiated. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
local boiling, bulk boiling, film boiling, partial film boiling, reflux boiling, nucleate boiling and sub nucleate boiling.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) concept explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) effects and parameters understood. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. Temperature profile from fuel pellet centreline to coolant flow during power operations explained 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
5. Reactor coolant flow relationships understood 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Core differential temperature, fuel temperature, reactor power and single and two phase flow
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
6. Reactor coolant pump cavitation indications known 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
7. Core bypass flow and function described 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
8. Natural circulation concepts and effects on the system explained 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 7 
Describe the core thermal limits. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Peaking factors defined and calculated 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Axial, heat flux, hot channel, local peaking, nuclear enthalpy, total peaking and radial factors
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Thermal limits basis for normal and transient operations understood 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Peak cladding temperature limits basis understood 


UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
According to SAQA requirements.

Moderation:

Standard Generating Group Power Plant Operations-Technical Group. 

UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
Understanding of the fundamental concepts, theories and characteristics related to reactor engineering principles. 

UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
N/A 

UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
N/A 


Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
Identifying & solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organization, community. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
Organising and managing oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
Collecting, analysing, organizing and critically evaluating information. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognizing that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
Contributing to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large, by making it the underlying intention of any programme of learning to make an individual aware of the importance of:
a. Reflecting on and exploring a variety of strategies to learn more effectively.
b. Participating as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities.
c. Being culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts.
d. Exploring education and career opportunities.
e. Developing entrepreneurial opportunities. 

UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
N/A 

REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
Occupational Role:

Process Plant Operator. 

QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
  ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
Core  23733   National Certificate: Nuclear Power Plant Operation  Level 4  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L4  Reregistered  2023-06-30  EWSETA 
Elective  63209   National Certificate: Energy Regulation  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2021-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
Elective  61570   National Diploma: Power Plant Process Control Operations  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2023-06-30  EWSETA 


PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
 
1. ESKOM DRANKENSBURG PUMP STORAGE (PEAKING) 
2. ESKOM DUVHA POWER STATION - OPERATIONS 
3. ESKOM INGULA PUMP STORAGE SCHEME (PEAKING) 
4. ESKOM KOEBERG - RADIATION PROTECTION 
5. ESKOM KRIEL POWER STATION OPERATIONS TRAINING 
6. ISAZI TRAINING 
7. Kelvin Power (Pty) Ltd 
8. PERSEVCON CONSTRUCTION PTY LTD 



All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.