SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Identify and describe the physiological characteristics unique to special populations 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
13920  Identify and describe the physiological characteristics unique to special populations 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Sport 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 02 - Culture and Arts Sport 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
The qualifying learner achieving this unit standard in combination with context expertise standard(s) will be able to apply knowledge of physiological principles to special populations. Achieving this Unit Standard enables the learner to provide information and give advice on physiological adaptations that occur in exercise each unique special population. This forms a basis and provides the learner with the knowledge to progress to the next relevant Unit Standard. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
A learner aspiring to complete this unit standard must have been assessed competent against the following unit standards:
Communication NQF level 4, Literacy NQF level 4 and numeracy NQF level 2 

UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
Guides to the scope and complexity of the specific outcomes and essential embedded knowledge are provided in bullet points beneath each. These are prefaced by "for example" since they are neither comprehensive nor necessarily appropriate to all contexts. Alternatives must however be comparable in scope and complexity. These are intended only as a general guide to scope and complexity of what is required. 

Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
List and explain the physiological adaptations occurring in each population during exercise. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
1. List and explain the physiological adaptations occurring in each population during exercise.
For example:
  • Strength, flexibility, cardio, motor skills etc.
  • Primary anaerobic / aerobic energy systems and role during exercise during pregnancy 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    When conducting assessments, assessors must ensure that they are familiar with the full text of the Unit Standards being assessed.

    They must ensure that the assessment covers the specific outcomes, critical cross-field outcomes and essential embedded knowledge.

    As each situation is different, it will be necessary to develop assessment activities and tools, which are appropriate to the contexts in which practitioners are working. These activities and tools may include self-assessment, peer assessment, formative and summative assessment.

    The specific outcomes and essential embedded knowledge must be assessed in relation to each other. If a practitioner is able to explain the essential embedded knowledge but is unable to perform the specific outcomes, they should not be assessed as competent. Similarly, if a practitioner is able to perform the specific outcomes but is unable to explain or justify their performance in terms of the essential embedded knowledge, they should not be assessed as competent.

    METHOD OF ASSESSMENT
    Assessment should include practical demonstration of competence, either in the workplace or through work-realistic, out-of-classroom simulation.

    A range of assessment methods should be used, including:

    Direct observation - watch the practitioner carry out the task or produce a desired outcome during the course of his or her normal work under normal workplace conditions
    Product sample - examine the outcomes previously produced by the practitioner
    Simulation of a specific task - set a specific task for the practitioner to demonstrate in a simulated environment
    Questioning (verbal or written) - ask relevant questions linked to the unit standard
    Testimony - collect a portfolio of evidence from suitable people (e.g.: reports from a third party)

    Integrated assessment
    It may be more effective and efficient to assess a number of unit standards together thus reducing the overall number of assessment 'events'.
  • Consider a complete activity in the workplace (the 'whole of work' approach) and see which unit standards relate to this activity.
  • Work out how practitioners could collect evidence on a number of unit standards at the same time covering all the critical aspects of the standards
  • Ensure that commonalities, which exist between a number of unit standards, are captured in a way that makes sense for assessment.

    Assessing the following will ensure that the specific outcomes, essential embedded knowledge and critical-cross-field outcomes are assessed:

    Demonstrated ability to make DECISIONS about practice and to ACT accordingly:
    1. Training adaptations explained and considered with regard to each special population
    2. Metabolic factors are explained with regard to special populations and considered in the exercise recommendations
    3. Benefits and risks are considered and explained with appropriate modifications given to the programme

    Demonstrated ability to learn from our actions and to ADAPT PERFORMANCE:
    4. Modifications are made in consideration of metabolic changes or physiological risks
    5. Modifications are made in consideration of unique physiological differences
    6. Training adaptations are considered with regard to each special population and applied in the training programme 

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    List and explain the metabolic response to exercise in each special population. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    2. List and explain the metabolic response to exercise in each special population
    For example:
  • Decrease in fuel utilization in aging process
  • Changes in thermo regulation during pregnancies
  • Effects of carbohydrate loading in athletes 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    When conducting assessments, assessors must ensure that they are familiar with the full text of the Unit Standards being assessed.

    They must ensure that the assessment covers the specific outcomes, critical cross-field outcomes and essential embedded knowledge.

    As each situation is different, it will be necessary to develop assessment activities and tools, which are appropriate to the contexts in which practitioners are working. These activities and tools may include self-assessment, peer assessment, formative and summative assessment.

    The specific outcomes and essential embedded knowledge must be assessed in relation to each other. If a practitioner is able to explain the essential embedded knowledge but is unable to perform the specific outcomes, they should not be assessed as competent. Similarly, if a practitioner is able to perform the specific outcomes but is unable to explain or justify their performance in terms of the essential embedded knowledge, they should not be assessed as competent.

    METHOD OF ASSESSMENT
    Assessment should include practical demonstration of competence, either in the workplace or through work-realistic, out-of-classroom simulation.

    A range of assessment methods should be used, including:

    Direct observation - watch the practitioner carry out the task or produce a desired outcome during the course of his or her normal work under normal workplace conditions
    Product sample - examine the outcomes previously produced by the practitioner
    Simulation of a specific task - set a specific task for the practitioner to demonstrate in a simulated environment
    Questioning (verbal or written) - ask relevant questions linked to the unit standard
    Testimony - collect a portfolio of evidence from suitable people (e.g.: reports from a third party)

    Integrated assessment
    It may be more effective and efficient to assess a number of unit standards together thus reducing the overall number of assessment 'events'.
  • Consider a complete activity in the workplace (the 'whole of work' approach) and see which unit standards relate to this activity.
  • Work out how practitioners could collect evidence on a number of unit standards at the same time covering all the critical aspects of the standards
  • Ensure that commonalities, which exist between a number of unit standards, are captured in a way that makes sense for assessment.

    Assessing the following will ensure that the specific outcomes, essential embedded knowledge and critical-cross-field outcomes are assessed:

    Demonstrated ability to make DECISIONS about practice and to ACT accordingly:
    1. Training adaptations explained and considered with regard to each special population
    2. Metabolic factors are explained with regard to special populations and considered in the exercise recommendations
    3. Benefits and risks are considered and explained with appropriate modifications given to the programme

    Demonstrated ability to learn from our actions and to ADAPT PERFORMANCE:
    4. Modifications are made in consideration of metabolic changes or physiological risks
    5. Modifications are made in consideration of unique physiological differences
    6. Training adaptations are considered with regard to each special population and applied in the training programme 

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    List and explain the benefits and risks associated with physical activity. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    3. List and explain the benefits and risks associated with physical activity for each special population
    For example:
  • Precautions associated with strength training in children, older adults and pregnant woman
  • Protective mechanisms of moderate exercise for pregnant woman
  • Identify risks for over-training of athletes 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    When conducting assessments, assessors must ensure that they are familiar with the full text of the Unit Standards being assessed.

    They must ensure that the assessment covers the specific outcomes, critical cross-field outcomes and essential embedded knowledge.

    As each situation is different, it will be necessary to develop assessment activities and tools, which are appropriate to the contexts in which practitioners are working. These activities and tools may include self-assessment, peer assessment, formative and summative assessment.

    The specific outcomes and essential embedded knowledge must be assessed in relation to each other. If a practitioner is able to explain the essential embedded knowledge but is unable to perform the specific outcomes, they should not be assessed as competent. Similarly, if a practitioner is able to perform the specific outcomes but is unable to explain or justify their performance in terms of the essential embedded knowledge, they should not be assessed as competent.

    METHOD OF ASSESSMENT
    Assessment should include practical demonstration of competence, either in the workplace or through work-realistic, out-of-classroom simulation.

    A range of assessment methods should be used, including:

    Direct observation - watch the practitioner carry out the task or produce a desired outcome during the course of his or her normal work under normal workplace conditions
    Product sample - examine the outcomes previously produced by the practitioner
    Simulation of a specific task - set a specific task for the practitioner to demonstrate in a simulated environment
    Questioning (verbal or written) - ask relevant questions linked to the unit standard
    Testimony - collect a portfolio of evidence from suitable people (e.g.: reports from a third party)

    Integrated assessment
    It may be more effective and efficient to assess a number of unit standards together thus reducing the overall number of assessment 'events'.
  • Consider a complete activity in the workplace (the 'whole of work' approach) and see which unit standards relate to this activity.
  • Work out how practitioners could collect evidence on a number of unit standards at the same time covering all the critical aspects of the standards
  • Ensure that commonalities, which exist between a number of unit standards, are captured in a way that makes sense for assessment.

    Assessing the following will ensure that the specific outcomes, essential embedded knowledge and critical-cross-field outcomes are assessed:

    Demonstrated ability to make DECISIONS about practice and to ACT accordingly:
    1. Training adaptations explained and considered with regard to each special population
    2. Metabolic factors are explained with regard to special populations and considered in the exercise recommendations
    3. Benefits and risks are considered and explained with appropriate modifications given to the programme

    Demonstrated ability to learn from our actions and to ADAPT PERFORMANCE:
    4. Modifications are made in consideration of metabolic changes or physiological risks
    5. Modifications are made in consideration of unique physiological differences
    6. Training adaptations are considered with regard to each special population and applied in the training programme 

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Identify the unique physiological characteristic and considerations of each special population 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    4. Identify the unique physiological characteristic and considerations of each special population
    For example:
  • Degeneration of bones in aging
  • Ratio between fast and slow twitch muscle fibres in athletes 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    When conducting assessments, assessors must ensure that they are familiar with the full text of the Unit Standards being assessed.

    They must ensure that the assessment covers the specific outcomes, critical cross-field outcomes and essential embedded knowledge.

    As each situation is different, it will be necessary to develop assessment activities and tools, which are appropriate to the contexts in which practitioners are working. These activities and tools may include self-assessment, peer assessment, formative and summative assessment.

    The specific outcomes and essential embedded knowledge must be assessed in relation to each other. If a practitioner is able to explain the essential embedded knowledge but is unable to perform the specific outcomes, they should not be assessed as competent. Similarly, if a practitioner is able to perform the specific outcomes but is unable to explain or justify their performance in terms of the essential embedded knowledge, they should not be assessed as competent.

    METHOD OF ASSESSMENT
    Assessment should include practical demonstration of competence, either in the workplace or through work-realistic, out-of-classroom simulation.

    A range of assessment methods should be used, including:

    Direct observation - watch the practitioner carry out the task or produce a desired outcome during the course of his or her normal work under normal workplace conditions
    Product sample - examine the outcomes previously produced by the practitioner
    Simulation of a specific task - set a specific task for the practitioner to demonstrate in a simulated environment
    Questioning (verbal or written) - ask relevant questions linked to the unit standard
    Testimony - collect a portfolio of evidence from suitable people (e.g.: reports from a third party)

    Integrated assessment
    It may be more effective and efficient to assess a number of unit standards together thus reducing the overall number of assessment 'events'.
  • Consider a complete activity in the workplace (the 'whole of work' approach) and see which unit standards relate to this activity.
  • Work out how practitioners could collect evidence on a number of unit standards at the same time covering all the critical aspects of the standards
  • Ensure that commonalities, which exist between a number of unit standards, are captured in a way that makes sense for assessment.

    Assessing the following will ensure that the specific outcomes, essential embedded knowledge and critical-cross-field outcomes are assessed:

    Demonstrated ability to make DECISIONS about practice and to ACT accordingly:
    1. Training adaptations explained and considered with regard to each special population
    2. Metabolic factors are explained with regard to special populations and considered in the exercise recommendations
    3. Benefits and risks are considered and explained with appropriate modifications given to the programme

    Demonstrated ability to learn from our actions and to ADAPT PERFORMANCE:
    4. Modifications are made in consideration of metabolic changes or physiological risks
    5. Modifications are made in consideration of unique physiological differences
    6. Training adaptations are considered with regard to each special population and applied in the training programme 


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the ETQAs policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation; in terms of agreements reached around assessment and moderation between ETQAs (including professional bodies); and in terms of the moderation guideline detailed under point 4 immediately below.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments at exit points of the qualification, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described both in individual unit standards as well as the integrated competence described in the qualification.

    Anyone wishing to be assessed against this qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution which is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    1. Anatomy and physiology of the energy systems of the body
    2. Physiological mechanisms that underlie adaptations to training.
    3. The principles of training in the design of fitness programmes
    4. Fitness requirements for sport and fitness.
    5. Physiological basis of endurance, strength, speed, power, agility, balance, flexibility and co-ordination. 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Problem solving relates to:

    List and explain the physiological adaptations occurring in each population during exercise.
    For example:
    Strength, flexibility, cardio, motor skills etc.
    Primary anaerobic / aerobic energy systems and role during exercise during pregnancy

    List and explain the metabolic response to exercise in each special population
    For example:
    Decrease in fuel utilization in aging process
    Changes in thermo regulation during pregnancies
    Effects of carbohydrate loading in athletes

    List and explain the benefits and risks associated with physical activity for each special population
    For example:
    Precautions associated with strength training in children, older adults and pregnant woman
    Protective mechanisms of moderate exercise for pregnant woman
    Identify risks for over-training of athletes

    Identify the unique physiological characteristic and considerations of each special population
    For example:
    Degeneration of bones in aging
    Ratio between fast and slow twitch muscle fibres in athletes 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Team work relates to:

    List and explain the physiological adaptations occurring in each population during exercise.
    For example:
    Strength, flexibility, cardio, motor skills etc.
    Primary anaerobic / aerobic energy systems and role during exercise during pregnancy

    List and explain the metabolic response to exercise in each special population
    For example:
    Decrease in fuel utilization in aging process
    Changes in thermo regulation during pregnancies
    Effects of carbohydrate loading in athletes

    List and explain the benefits and risks associated with physical activity for each special population
    For example:
    Precautions associated with strength training in children, older adults and pregnant woman
    Protective mechanisms of moderate exercise for pregnant woman
    Identify risks for over-training of athletes

    Identify the unique physiological characteristic and considerations of each special population
    For example:
    Degeneration of bones in aging
    Ratio between fast and slow twitch muscle fibres in athletes 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Self-organisation and management relates to:

    List and explain the physiological adaptations occurring in each population during exercise.
    For example:
    Strength, flexibility, cardio, motor skills etc.
    Primary anaerobic / aerobic energy systems and role during exercise during pregnancy

    List and explain the metabolic response to exercise in each special population
    For example:
    Decrease in fuel utilization in aging process
    Changes in thermo regulation during pregnancies
    Effects of carbohydrate loading in athletes

    List and explain the benefits and risks associated with physical activity for each special population
    For example:
    Precautions associated with strength training in children, older adults and pregnant woman
    Protective mechanisms of moderate exercise for pregnant woman
    Identify risks for over-training of athletes

    Identify the unique physiological characteristic and considerations of each special population
    For example:
    Degeneration of bones in aging
    Ratio between fast and slow twitch muscle fibres in athletes 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Information evaluation relates to:

    List and explain the physiological adaptations occurring in each population during exercise.
    For example:
    Strength, flexibility, cardio, motor skills etc.
    Primary anaerobic / aerobic energy systems and role during exercise during pregnancy

    List and explain the metabolic response to exercise in each special population
    For example:
    Decrease in fuel utilization in aging process
    Changes in thermo regulation during pregnancies
    Effects of carbohydrate loading in athletes

    List and explain the benefits and risks associated with physical activity for each special population
    For example:
    Precautions associated with strength training in children, older adults and pregnant woman
    Protective mechanisms of moderate exercise for pregnant woman
    Identify risks for over-training of athletes

    Identify the unique physiological characteristic and considerations of each special population
    For example:
    Degeneration of bones in aging
    Ratio between fast and slow twitch muscle fibres in athletes 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communication relates to:

    List and explain the physiological adaptations occurring in each population during exercise.
    For example:
    Strength, flexibility, cardio, motor skills etc.
    Primary anaerobic / aerobic energy systems and role during exercise during pregnancy

    List and explain the metabolic response to exercise in each special population
    For example:
    Decrease in fuel utilization in aging process
    Changes in thermo regulation during pregnancies
    Effects of carbohydrate loading in athletes

    List and explain the benefits and risks associated with physical activity for each special population
    For example:
    Precautions associated with strength training in children, older adults and pregnant woman
    Protective mechanisms of moderate exercise for pregnant woman
    Identify risks for over-training of athletes

    Identify the unique physiological characteristic and considerations of each special population
    For example:
    Degeneration of bones in aging
    Ratio between fast and slow twitch muscle fibres in athletes 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use of science and technology relates to:

    List and explain the physiological adaptations occurring in each population during exercise.
    For example:
    Strength, flexibility, cardio, motor skills etc.
    Primary anaerobic / aerobic energy systems and role during exercise during pregnancy

    List and explain the metabolic response to exercise in each special population
    For example:
    Decrease in fuel utilization in aging process
    Changes in thermo regulation during pregnancies
    Effects of carbohydrate loading in athletes

    List and explain the benefits and risks associated with physical activity for each special population
    For example:
    Precautions associated with strength training in children, older adults and pregnant woman
    Protective mechanisms of moderate exercise for pregnant woman
    Identify risks for over-training of athletes

    Identify the unique physiological characteristic and considerations of each special population
    For example:
    Degeneration of bones in aging
    Ratio between fast and slow twitch muscle fibres in athletes 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Inter-relatedness of systems relates to:

    List and explain the physiological adaptations occurring in each population during exercise.
    For example:
    Strength, flexibility, cardio, motor skills etc.
    Primary anaerobic / aerobic energy systems and role during exercise during pregnancy

    List and explain the metabolic response to exercise in each special population
    For example:
    Decrease in fuel utilization in aging process
    Changes in thermo regulation during pregnancies
    Effects of carbohydrate loading in athletes

    List and explain the benefits and risks associated with physical activity for each special population
    For example:
    Precautions associated with strength training in children, older adults and pregnant woman
    Protective mechanisms of moderate exercise for pregnant woman
    Identify risks for over-training of athletes

    Identify the unique physiological characteristic and considerations of each special population
    For example:
    Degeneration of bones in aging
    Ratio between fast and slow twitch muscle fibres in athletes 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Professional development relates to:

    List and explain the physiological adaptations occurring in each population during exercise.
    For example:
    Strength, flexibility, cardio, motor skills etc.
    Primary anaerobic / aerobic energy systems and role during exercise during pregnancy

    List and explain the metabolic response to exercise in each special population
    For example:
    Decrease in fuel utilization in aging process
    Changes in thermo regulation during pregnancies
    Effects of carbohydrate loading in athletes

    List and explain the benefits and risks associated with physical activity for each special population
    For example:
    Precautions associated with strength training in children, older adults and pregnant woman
    Protective mechanisms of moderate exercise for pregnant woman
    Identify risks for over-training of athletes

    Identify the unique physiological characteristic and considerations of each special population
    For example:
    Degeneration of bones in aging
    Ratio between fast and slow twitch muscle fibres in athletes 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Demonstration of the knowledge and skills outlined in this unit standard must be consistent with the principles of:

    1. Respecting the natural and cultural environment.
    2. Accepting and maintaining a non-discriminatory attitude towards diversity including, For example, differences in gender, race, religion, physical ability and culture. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  67691   National Diploma: Fitness  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2021-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Health and Fitness Professionals Academy (Pty) Ltd 
    2. New Hope Revival Organisation 
    3. Oxigym Fitness Academy cc 
    4. Xtyle Fitness and Entertainment Academy NPC 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.