SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Identify and deal with factors influencing meat quality 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243023  Identify and deal with factors influencing meat quality 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
15239  Identify and deal with factors influencing meat quality  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is intended for a person working in the meat industry who needs the theoretical background of meat quality and the factors that will affect meat quality.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of animal slaughtering on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of processing and preservation on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how the intrinsic factors of the animal and the extrinsic factors involved will influence meat quality.

    Range:
  • In the context of this unit standard meat refers to meat obtained from the normal, domesticated range of animals usually used as meat suitable for human consumption, e.g. calves and cattle, lambs and sheep, piglets and pigs, kids and goats, poultry, horses and donkeys, as well as ostriches and large and small game.
  • Knowledge of at least cattle, sheep and pigs will be expected from the learner.
  • In the cases of Halaal and Kosher meat products the classification certificate should read exactly what aspects were assessed (e.g. beef forequarter and lamb for Kosher).

    This unit standard will contribute to the full development of the learner within the meat industry by providing recognition, further mobility and transportability within the field of manufacturing and assembly. The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and contribute to the upliftment and economic growth within the meat industry. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The context of this unit standard is clearly defined under the range statements contained within. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of meat quality. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The term "meat quality" is defined according to standard principles of meat science. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Definitions for meat quality should refer to the following attributes:
  • Chemical quality
  • Physical quality
  • Microbiological quality
  • Nutritional quality
  • Sensory quality
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Meat classification is described according to current legislation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Classification stages are as follows:
  • Cattle - calf, steer, "oxen", stag, bull, heifer, cow
  • Sheep - lamb, wether, ram, ewe
  • Pigs - sucking pig, barrow, gilt, boar, sow, hog
  • Goats - kid, ram, ewe
  • Ostriches - Chicks, adults (male and female)
  • Poultry - chickens, cockerels, cocks, hens and spent hens
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The types and percentages of different nutrients in different species of animals are identified according to standard food science and nutrition principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Nutrients include:
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Water
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The nutritive value (function) of the different nutrients for the consumer is explained according to standard food science principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The influence of animal nutrition on meat quality is explained according to standard principles of meat science. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The influence of growth hormones on meat quality is explained according to standard principles of meat science. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of animal slaughtering on meat quality. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The ante mortem factors that will influence meat quality are identified and explained according to standard principles of meat science. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors include:
  • State of nutrition.
  • Pre-slaughter care/handling/environment.
  • Stress.
  • Bruising.
  • Fatigue.

    Ante mortem: "Livestock", calf, cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, game, ostrich, poultry.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The different slaughtering techniques (processes) for different species are identified and explained according to standard principles of meat science. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Slaughtering techniques include:
  • Humane slaughtering - optimal stunning and bleeding
  • Electrical stimulation
  • Techniques and procedures for Halaal and Kosher meat products
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The advantages and disadvantages of each of the different slaughtering techniques, with regards to meat quality, are explained according to standard principles of meat science. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The chemical, physical, microbiological, nutritional and sensory changes that take place in meat after the slaughtering process (post mortem) are identified and explained according to standard principles of meat science. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The identification and explanation must refer to:
  • Muscle-to-meat conversion.
  • Rigor mortis.
  • The pH.
  • Chilling.
  • Ageing.
  • Sensory attributes: Texture and firmness (meat toughness/tenderness); flavour, aroma and odour; eating quality, palatability, juiciness; aroma/odour.
  • Microbial contamination.
  • Yield.

    Post mortem: Veal, beef, lamb, mutton, pork, chevon (goat meat), venison.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of processing and preservation on meat quality. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Processing and preservation techniques include:
  • Breaking of the carcass, cutting into various cuts and de-boning of cuts.
  • Freezing and thawing.
  • Refrigeration (chilling).
  • Cooking (moist- and dry-heat cooking methods).
  • Ripening/ageing/maturing.
  • Salting/brining.
  • Curing/Pickling.
  • Emulsifying.
  • Smoking.
  • Packaging. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The different processing and preservation techniques applied to fresh meat are identified and examples are described according to standard principles of meat science. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    For each of the processing and preservation techniques in the range statement above, the following are described according to standard principles of meat technology. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • The basic procedures followed, including process parameters.
  • Relevant apparatus and terminology.
  • Ideal meat cuts used for the various purposes.
  • Packaging requirements.
  • Shelf-life requirements (storage time).
  • Advantages and disadvantages.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influence of each of the processing and preservation techniques in the range statements above on meat quality is explained according to standard principles of meat science. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of how the intrinsic factors of the animal and the extrinsic factors involved will influence meat quality. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The intrinsic factors (pertaining to the animal itself) that will influence meat quality are identified and examples are described according to standard principles of meat science. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Intrinsic factors include:
  • Breed
  • Anatomy
  • Age
  • Sex
  • State of nutrition
  • Carcass mass
  • Degree of fatness
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Extrinsic factors that will influence meat quality are identified and examples are described according to standard principles of meat science. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Extrinsic factors include:
  • Good versus poor hygiene practices.
  • Microbiological contamination.
  • Temperature of the environment.
  • Humidity of the environment.
  • Post slaughter handling of the carcasses and meat.
  • Maintenance of the cold chain.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The way in which each of these intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence meat quality is described according to standard principles of meat science. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor or moderator respectively with the relevant Education and Training Quality Assurance Body (ETQA), or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA, or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA, or by another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal (provider-based) and external (ETQA-based) moderation of assessment, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment against this unit standard should encompass achievement of competencies described in the individual unit standard and may encompass achievement of integrated competencies with other unit standard(s).
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made.

    Refer to all specific outcomes
  • Demonstrate an understanding of meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of animal slaughtering on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of processing and preservation on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how the intrinsic factor of the animal and extrinsic factors involved will influence meat quality. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community.

    Refer to all specific outcomes
  • Demonstrate an understanding of meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of animal slaughtering on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of processing and preservation on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how the intrinsic factor of the animal and extrinsic factors involved will influence meat quality. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively.

    Refer to all specific outcomes
  • Demonstrate an understanding of meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of animal slaughtering on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of processing and preservation on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how the intrinsic factor of the animal and extrinsic factors involved will influence meat quality. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Refer to all specific outcomes
  • Demonstrate an understanding of meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of animal slaughtering on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of processing and preservation on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how the intrinsic factor of the animal and extrinsic factors involved will influence meat quality. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or langauage skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Refer to all specific outcomes
  • Demonstrate an understanding of meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of animal slaughtering on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of processing and preservation on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how the intrinsic factor of the animal and extrinsic factors involved will influence meat quality. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and criticallly, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Refer to all specific outcomes
  • Demonstrate an understanding of meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of animal slaughtering on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of processing and preservation on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how the intrinsic factor of the animal and extrinsic factors involved will influence meat quality. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Refer to all specific outcomes
  • Demonstrate an understanding of meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of animal slaughtering on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of processing and preservation on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how the intrinsic factor of the animal and extrinsic factors involved will influence meat quality. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large.

    Refer to all specific outcomes
  • Demonstrate an understanding of meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of animal slaughtering on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of processing and preservation on meat quality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how the intrinsic factor of the animal and extrinsic factors involved will influence meat quality. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standard 15239, " Idenfity and deal with factors influencingmeat quality ", Level 4, 10 credits.

    Supplementary Information:
  • Legal requirements:

    The following acts and/or codes, current and future regulations and amendments will be applicable.

    > Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, No. 54 of 1972.
    > Health Act, No 63 of 1977.
    > Animal Diseases Act, No. 35 of 1984.
    > Meat Safety Act, No. 40 of 2000.
    > Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993.
    > Labour Relations Act, No. 66 of 1995.
    > Basic Conditions of Employment Act, No. 75 of 1997.
    > Employment Equity Act, No. 55 of 1998.
    > Fertilisers, Farm Feeds, Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act, No. 36 of 1947. (Control over the use of feed additives).
    > Medicines and Related Substances Act, No. 101 of 1965. (Medication programmes using prescribed scheduled products (S4 and higher scheduled products) need veterinary prescription).
    > Regulations regarding control over the sale of poultry meat, Government Notice R946, of 27 March 1992; published under the Agricultural Product Standards Act, No. 119 of 1990.

    Where applicable, the following International and National Standards should be considered:

    > SANS 1049 - Food Hygiene Management.
    > SANS 10330 - Requirements for a HACCP system.
    > ISO 22000 - Food safety management systems - Requirements for organisations throughout the food chain.
    > ISO 9001 - Quality Management System - Requirements.
  • Definition of terms within this unit standard:

    > Terminology: Dry heat cooking methods, Clarification/explanation/definition: Cooking methods where the meat is subjected to direct heat or circulating hot air and where the atmosphere surrounding the meat is dry (free of moisture), e.g. oven-roasting, grilling (over-the-coals or oven), pan grilling, shallow frying, deep-fat frying, stir-frying). It is usually used for tender cuts of meat.
    > Terminology: Meat, Clarification/explanation/definition: Refers to meat obtained from the normal, domesticated range of animals usually used as meat suitable for human consumption, e.g. calves and cattle, lambs and sheep, piglets and pigs, kids and goats, poultry, horses and donkeys, as well as ostriches and large and small game.
    > Classification stages: Cattle - calf, steer, "oxen", stag, bull, heifer, cow.Sheep - lamb, wether, ram, ewe. Pigs - sucking pig, barrow, gilt, boar, sow, hog.Goats - kid, ram, ewe.Ostriches - Chicks, adults (male and female) - actually classified as "poultry", but falls under "red meat" as outlined in the following unit standards:
    > Break meat carcasses into primal cuts.
    > De-bone and cut meat primal cuts into retail cuts,as it is dark red in colour, even though they get poultry-type diseases. Poultry - chickens, cockerels, cocks, hens and spent hens.
    > Terminology: Moist heat cooking methods, Clarification/explanation/definition: Cooking methods where the atmosphere surrounding the meat is moist, e.g. boiling, stewing, casseroling, braising, pot roasting, steaming, cooking in cooking bag or wrapped in aluminium foil. It is generally used for tough cuts of meat that contain a high proportion of connective tissue that is to be converted to gelatine (collagen) during cooking.
    > Terminology: Quality, Clarification/explanation/definition: Refers to:

    > Chemical.
    > Physical.
    > Microbiological.
    > Nutritional.
    > Sensory quality attributes. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  59386   National Certificate: Fresh Meat Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FOODBEV 
    Core  57880   National Certificate: Meat Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FOODBEV 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Freddy Hirsch Butchers Training School 
    2. InnerOut Training Solutions 
    3. Vleisopleidingsentrum cc. 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.