SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Apply entomological principles in forensic investigations 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243248  Apply entomological principles in forensic investigations 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Forensic Science 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security Safety in Society 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable learners to understand necrophagous (or carrion) feeding insects that typically infest human remains. Learners will have knowledge about insects that affect man and his immediate environment and which insects to collect for further forensic entomology examinations. Learners will also understand the significance of entomology within the forensic examination environment. This unit standard will also enable learners to use this knowledge when dealing not only with death of humans but neglect and abuse of children and the elderly.

A person credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Provide forensic entomology information at a scene of death.
  • Assess the scene of death to collate entomological findings in a given situation.
  • Collect insects for forensic examinations purposes. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Biology at NQF Level 4. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Wherever this unit standard refers to a given situation it should be understood (but is not limited to) to include a practical scenario or a mock scenario or a theoretical scenario or case study. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Provide forensic entomology information at a scene of death. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Entomological evidence is identified which may assist in determining ante-mortem and post-mortem circumstances of death. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Forensic entomological techniques are described to determine the post-mortem interval. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Techniques include, but are not limited to, species succession, larval weight, larval length, accumulated degree hour.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Alternate species succession of insects on the body is identified in order to determine the sequence of post-mortem events in given situations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Assess the scene of death to collate entomological findings in a given situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A given situation is evaluated in order to determine environmental contributing factors. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Environmental contributing factors include, but are not limited to, meteorological conditions general habitat and location of the body in reference to vegetation, sun or shade conditions, and its proximity to any open doors or windows if recovered within a structure; locations of insect infestations on the body; stages (such as eggs, larvae, pupae, or adults of insects are observed; evidence of scavenging from vertebrate animals and predation of eggs and larvae by other insects such as ants).
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Meteorological data is collated in a given situation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Meteorological data include, but is not limited to, ambient temperature at the scene, maggot mass temperature, ground surface temperature, temperature of the body and ground, temperature of the soil, weather data.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Collect insects for forensic examinations purposes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Techniques for collecting insects are explained for forensic examination purposes. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Techniques also refer to preservation techniques.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The type of insects to be collected at the scene is identified for forensic examination purposes. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Type includes, but is not limited to, types of insects to be collected and the identification of adult insects.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Insect and larvae are collected from the incident scene for forensic examination purposes. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Scene refers to the body, surroundings and also where the body was lying after the body was removed. Insect and larvae collection includes, but is not limited to, collecting fast moving insects first and placing in the entomological jars; labelling of the jars with respect to geographical location, date and hour of collection, case number, location on the body where removed, name of the collector; and also the packaging and shipping requirements to a forensic entomologist.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures.
  • Assessors must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Identification of different insects and larvae in forensic entomology.
  • Life cycles of forensically important insects.
  • Post mortem interval is defined.
  • What entomology evidence can be submitted for forensic science examinations including, Toxicology and DNA analysis.
  • Damage caused by mandibles (or mouthparts) on the body.
  • Diverse application of forensic entomology including, but not limited to, the detection of abuse in children and neglect of the elderly.
  • Affect insects can have on the interpretation of blood spatter pattern analysis.
  • Use of utensils, containers and equipment for the collection of entomological equipment (including the use of nets, vials, forceps and collection containers).
  • Documenting forensic entomology data (such forms and identification cards).
  • Storage conditions of entomological evidence.
  • Evaluation of articles in entomology in forensic journals.
  • Evaluation of published case studies, including but not limited to, summer carrion study of the pig; incubation period of eggs of certain muscoid flies at different constant temperatures; homicide case studies of the green blow fly as indicator of human post-mortem interval; immature stages of some flies of forensic importance. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in a critical and creative way to establish time of death, timelines and any other factors which may contribute to a forensic examination. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organize and manage one-self and one's activities in order to collate planning when assessing a scene of death or any other scene where knowledge of entomology is used. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, evaluate, organise and critically evaluate information related to collecting information pertaining to entomology in order to apply deductive reasoning when using the information in forensic examinations. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terms:
  • Post-mortem interval means time since death. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  58183   National Diploma: Forensic Pathology Support  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2023-06-30  SAS SETA 
    Elective  57977   National Certificate: Forensic Biology  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  Reregistered  2023-06-30  SAS SETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.