SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Perform pre-flight planning for large aeroplanes 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243287  Perform pre-flight planning for large aeroplanes 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  11 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable learners to gather information, and collate information taking into account any influencing factors and prescripts to develop pre-flight plans for large aeroplanes. Learners will be able to determine the different performance classes of aeroplanes when planning VFR (Visual Flight Rules) and IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) flights. It will also enable them to perform various calculations when planning a flight. This unit standard will benefit learners within the arena of transport piloting.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Determine the performance of a multi-engine aeroplane using the performance manual.
  • Plan cross-country flights.
  • Compile Air Traffic Control (ATC) flight plans for commercial flights.
  • Analyse and apply additional flight planning aspects for large aeroplanes. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Communication at NQF Level 4.
  • Physical Science at NQF Level 4.
  • Mathematics at NQF Level 4. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Pre-flight planning covers:
  • Large multi-engine aeroplanes certified for use in civil aviation.
  • Performance Class A and B aeroplanes.
  • Turbo-jet and propeller driven aeroplanes.
  • VFR and IFR flights.
  • Short-range and long-range flights.

    The typical scope of this unit standard:
  • Safe practice includes but is not limited to lookout, compliance to rules of the air, local regulations, airmanship, standard operating procedures, aircraft flight manuals.
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with CAA/MAA Regulations and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aeroplane and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the AFM/POH.
  • Competence shall be assessed in respect of commercial or operational flights under IFR and VFR.
  • Take-offs shall be conducted visually.
  • Landings shall be conducted in meteorological conditions at or above Category 1 minima.
  • Cockpit Resource Management is not to be assessed as a stand-alone element. However, the outcomes resulting from CRM can be assessed. CRM is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of CRM are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way.
  • Airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Large aircraft include but is not limited to multi-engine, long-range or intercontinental, high performance and multi-crew aircraft. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Determine the performance of a multi-engine aeroplane using the performance manual. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Multi-engine aeroplane includes Class-B, Class-A aeroplanes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Terminology used for describing aeroplane performance is described using examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Forces acting on an aeroplane during various phases of flight operations are explained in terms of their effect on a flight. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Phases include but are not limited to take-off, climb, cruise, descent, landing and after engine failure.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Aeroplane speeds are calculated for a given situation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Speeds include but are not limited to indicated airspeed, calibrated airspeed, equivalent airspeed and true airspeed.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Conversions between airspeeds are calculated using specified formulas. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Limiting aeroplane speeds are defined and explained in terms of flight planning and safety for large aircraft. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Speeds include but are not limited to; stalling speeds; Normal operating speed; Mmo; Never exceed speed; Design manoeuvring speed; Air minimum control speed.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Factors influencing various stages of flight operations are identified and explained in terms of their effect on a flight. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Flight includes but is not limited to: take-off, climb, cruise, descent go-around and landing performance.
  • Factors include but are not limited to aeroplane mass, density altitude, wind, runway surface, engine power, maximum range cruise and maximum endurance cruise operation.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Failure of one engine during various stages of flight operations is analysed in terms of its effect on a flight. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Effect includes but not limited to control, climb performance loss, speed stability, range, endurance and ceiling reduction.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Aeroplane performance is calculated from the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) and Pilot Operating Handbook (POH). 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The difference in certification criteria between Class B and Class A aeroplane is explained in terms of current regulations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Current regulations refer to International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), and Military Aviation Authority (MAA).
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Plan cross-country flights. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Cross-country flights include IFR and VFR. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A navigation plan is compiled using collated information for the purposes of flight operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Navigation planning includes but is not limited to: route, speed, altitude and aerodrome selection; track and distance measurements; headings, ground speeds, true airspeed and wind estimates; chart preparation; information on weather and aviation facilities.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Aerodromes are analysed and selected in terms of their limitations and requirements for a specific operation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Analysis of aerodromes should take into account take off, destination and alternates.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Routes are analysed and selected in terms of their limitations and requirements for a specific operation in accordance with prescribed criteria. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Prescribed criteria include but are not limited to: safe clearance altitudes; supplemental oxygen requirements; airframe icing hazards; one engine inoperative considerations; navigation facility serviceability; SIDS and STARS.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    A fuel plan is compiled using collated information. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Fuel planning includes but is not limited to: fuel usage and requirement; reserve fuel calculation; fuel uplift decision and operator prescripts.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    A contingency plan is compiled taking into account environmental conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Environmental conditions include but are not limited to weather and aviation facilities.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Compile Air Traffic Control (ATC) flight plans for commercial flights. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Flight plans must be completed in line with current ICAO specifications and formats as well as any other relevant aviation specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Flight plans are compared and compiled using gathered information relevant to a given flight. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Flight plans include but are not limited to IFR, VFR and repetitive.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    A flight plan is reviewed to determine correctness for filing purposes. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Filing purposes refer to but are not limited to the filing of flight plans with relevant aviation authorities.
  • A flight plan refers to but is not limited to pre-flight plans and -in the air- flight plans.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Actions to be taken if it becomes necessary to deviate from the flight plan or amend the flight plan while in-flight are explained in line with applicable regulations and standards. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Applicable regulations and standards refer to the country over which the aeroplane is flying or ICAO.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Responsibilities and procedures for closing flight plans are determined in terms of their impact on air traffic management. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Analyse and apply additional flight planning aspects for large aeroplanes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Factors, which influence the planning of flights for large aeroplanes, are analysed in terms of their effect on the planning. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors include but are not limited to centre of gravity shift, large mass change, step climbing and range optimisation.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Fuel uplift is calculated and planned in accordance with prescribed criteria. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Planning methods include but are not limited to computerised flight planning, manual computation, integrated range tables, simplified planning data.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The requirements for in-flight re-clearance are explained and applied when planning a flight. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Critical point, point of equal time and maximum range are calculated for use when planning a flight. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Methods of calculation include but are not limited to formulas, tables and graphs from AFM and "Howgozit" charts.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • AFM/POH procedures for operating the aeroplane.
  • Aeroplane systems.
  • AFM/POH procedures for normal, non-normal and emergency situations that might occur during flight operations.
  • Air traffic control procedures.
  • Procedures specific to the airport being used.
  • Airport charts.
  • Point of no return (PNR).
  • Critical point (CP).
  • Airways charts.
  • Weather charts.
  • Depressurisation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Determining the performance of Multi-engine aeroplanes (Performance Class B).
  • Determining the performance of Multi-engine aeroplanes (Performance Class A).
  • Planning cross-country VFR flights.
  • Evaluating flight planning data for large jet aeroplanes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Planning ahead for a flight.
  • Complying with applicable legislation during planning and determining aircraft performance.
  • Performing appropriate checks and procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • The performance of Multi-engine aeroplanes.
  • ATC flight plans for commercial flight.
  • Flight planning data for large jet aeroplanes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion when:
  • Preparing and submitting ATC flight plans for commercial flight.
  • Evaluation of flight planning data for large jet aeroplanes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • Airmanship is displayed.
  • Safe flying practice is planned for.
  • Aircraft performance is considered during flight planning. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Definitions:
  • Airmanship
    The application of the principles of skill, proficiency and discipline. It includes but is not limited to: knowledge of equipment, knowledge of self, knowledge of the environment, risks associated with flight operations, appropriate situational awareness and judgment.
  • Situational Awareness
    The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.
  • Safe practice in flight operations
    Means a systematic and proactive process that minimises risks to aviation and the public whilst integrating flight operations, technical systems and resource management.
  • Where the term "Cockpit Resource Management" is used it also means "Crew Resource Management" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "non-normal" is used it also means the term "abnormal" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Captain" is used it also means "Commander" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Standard Operating Procedures" are used it also means "Operator Procedures" or "Operating Procedures" or vice versa.
  • The terms "airport" and "aerodrome" and "airfield" are used as synonyms where appropriate.
  • The information contained in this unit standard does not supersede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.
  • Assessment Guidelines:
    > Assessors must note that Standard Operating Procedures are used as guidance to harmonise and standardise training and a flight operation. Deviation from SOP's or omission of individual items occurs and should be allowed for during assessment if such deviation can be justified. Checklists however, contain critical items and must be followed. Thus deviation from a checklist should only be considered if the nature of an emergency or non-normality dictates such deviation as an appropriate behaviour.

    Abbreviations:
  • AFM: Aircraft Flight Manual
  • ATC: Air Traffic Control
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority
  • CRM: Crew Resource Management (Cockpit Resource Management)
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority
  • POH: Pilot Operating Handbook
  • SID: Standard Instrument Departure
  • STAR: Standard Terminal Arrival Routes Procedure
  • IFR: Instrument Flight Rules
  • VFR: Visual Flight Rules
  • ICAO : International Civil Aviation Organisation
  • SOP's: Standard Operating Procedures
  • VNO: Normal operating speed
  • VNE: Never exceed speed
  • VA: Design manoeuvring speed
  • VMCA: Air minimum control speed 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  66109   National Diploma: Aircraft Performance Engineering  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Elective  58008   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.