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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Explain the processes of clinical technology 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243633  Explain the processes of clinical technology 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Forensic Science 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security Safety in Society 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will introduce the learner to the processes of clinical technology. This will enable learners to have an introductory knowledge of histotechnology, microbiology, toxicology and haematology. Learners will be able to understand the laboratory processes connected to the use of histotechnology, microbiology, toxicology and haematology within forensic examinations. This unit standard will enable learners to achieve a working theoretical knowledge which be used as a basis when conducting procedures in a laboratory.

Learners will be able to:
  • Explain elementary laboratory processes in histotechnology and their use in forensic pathology investigations.
  • Explain laboratory processes in microbiology and their application in the mortuary environment.
  • Explain laboratory processes in toxicology and their application in forensic pathology.
  • Explain laboratory processes in haematology and their application in forensic pathology. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Communication at NQF Level 4 or equivalent.
  • Mathematical literacy at NQF Level 4.
  • Biology at NQF Level 4.
  • Physical Science at NQF Level 4. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    In this unit standard "given situation" refers but is not limited to structured scenario's, case studies, actual and or real situations. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain elementary laboratory processes in histotechnology and their use in forensic pathology investigations. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Elementary: includes but is not limited to tissue processing and preparation, haematoxylin and eosin staining, special staining techniques used in histo-technology. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The preparation of human tissue is explained when embedding it in paraffin wax. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The process of embedding tissues in paraffin wax is explained using examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The microtomy of wax-embedded tissue samples is explained when preparing for tissues staining. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Haematoxylin and eosin staining of tissue is explained for the purposes of histological examination. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The use of specialised techniques in the processing of tissue is explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Specialised techniques: includes but is not limited to the decalcification of tissue, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Explain laboratory processes in microbiology and their application in the mortuary environment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The infective properties of microbes found in the forensic pathology and mortuary environment are described with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Microbes include but are not limited to bacteria such as mycobacterium tuberculosis, Neisseria meningitis and pneumococcus, viruses such as HIV and the hepatitis viruses, parasites such as Echinococcus, Ascaris and prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Specimen types are described in terms of their use in the identification of microbes. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Specimens may include: urine, faeces, swabs (ear, nose, throat, eye, vaginal/urethral), pus, other body fluids (CSF, effusions), sputum, blood cultures.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The processes by which bacteria can be isolated and cultured are explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Processes may include: Microscopy, Gram Staining and different types of agar.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Laboratory safety regulations related to pathogenic organisms are explained in order to ensure compliance. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The elementary processes of HIV serology and rapid testing techniques for the purpose of HIV diagnosis are explained in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Explain laboratory processes in toxicology and their application in forensic pathology. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The suitability and preparation of specimens for the purpose of toxicological analysis is explained with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Specimens that can be used to diagnose poisoning and drug overdose are described with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Poisons may include rat poison, pesticides and herbicides.
  • Drugs include recreational and medicinal.
  • Specimens may include hair, finger nails, liver, blood, urine, vitreous humor.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Analytical techniques for the identification of common poisons and drugs are described in terms of their limitations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Analytical techniques may include Gas Chromotography and Mass Spectroscopy.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Explain laboratory processes in haematology and their application in forensic pathology. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The different components of blood and their role in the physiological processes is explained in terms of forensic examinations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Blood smears are prepared and stained for microscopy in a given situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Different components of blood are identified via microscopy in a given situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Manual blood counts are performed in a given situation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Counts include white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An individual wishing to be assessed (including through RPL) against this unit standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution accredited by the relevant ETQA.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard or assessing this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be conducted by the relevant ETQA at its discretion. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Laboratory processes.
  • Histotechnology.
  • Microbiology.
  • Mortuary environments.
  • Toxicology.
  • Haematology. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Learners are required to collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information relating to the analysis of specimens. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Learners are required to communicate about identification issues using a variety of communication methods. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Learners are required to use science and technology in the laboratory environment. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  58183   National Diploma: Forensic Pathology Support  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2023-06-30  SAS SETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.