SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of Telecommunications Transport concepts and principles 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
246680  Demonstrate an understanding of Telecommunications Transport concepts and principles 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Telecommunications 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will contribute to the initial development of any learner within the Telecommunications environment, more specifically the foundational knowledge environment by providing recognition, further mobility and transportability within the field. This unit standard forms the basis for the acquisition of skills for Telecommunications networks in specific occupations at NQF Levels 4 and 5.

The knowledge, skills and understanding demonstrated in this unit standard are essential for upliftment, social and economic transformation in the Telecommunications environment.

The qualifying learner is capable of demonstrating:
  • An understanding of Analogue Telecommunication concepts and principles.
  • An understanding of digital Telecommunication concepts and principles.
  • An understanding of Telecommunication Networking concepts and principles.

    The learning outcomes in this unit standard contribute to the exit level outcomes which provide qualifying learners with access to a range of further learning in this field at NQF Level 3 and above, in the form of workplace based learning programmes for occupationally focused qualifications. Qualifying learners also have an understanding of the science and technology which underpins these activities. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The learning assumed to be in place could be on the same level of this unit standard or lower.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of Basic Concepts of Telecommunications (US# 14928).
  • Principles of Digital Logic Systems, Communication and Language Studies.
  • Mathematics and Numeracy, Sciences.
  • Principles of Electricity and Electronics. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical scope of this unit standard includes but is not limited to:
  • Telephone and data Telecommunication Concepts: Sound to AC wave conversion; Electromagnetic spectrum; Frequency; Wavelength; Bandwidth; Modulation techniques; gain/loss; hybrids; filters; principle of multiplexing.
  • Media: Copper wire; coaxial cable; optic fibre; waveguide; free space.
  • Power feeding arrangement on copper.
  • Impedance and mismatch concepts.
  • Analogue to digital conversion concepts: FDM and TDM; sampling; quantizing; encoding Plesiochronous digital hierarchy; timing recovery; line codes; switching.
  • Signaling: Pots; E&M; CCS, CCS 7; CAS.
  • Error detection: BER; CRC-4; PRBS; ITU G826; AIS.
  • Data networking principles: OSI layers; DTE and DCE; LAN and WAN; network types. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of Analogue Telecommunication concepts and principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Concepts are described in mathematical terms and explained with reference to the transport of telephone and data signals.

    Extent:
  • Sound to AC wave conversion; Electromagnetic frequency spectrum; Wavelength; Bandwidth; Modulation techniques; gain/loss; hybrids; filters; principles of multiplexing. 

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of digital Telecommunication concepts and principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Analogue to digital conversion concepts are explained according to code conversion theory.

    Extent:
  • FDM and TDM; sampling; quantizing; encoding Plesiochronous digital hierarchy; timing recovery; line codes; switching. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Signaling principles and concepts are listed and explained according to telecommunications transmission signaling theory.

    Extent:
  • POTS; E&M; CCS, CCS 7; CAS. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of line code error detection principles according to telecommunication transmission line code theory.

    Extent:
  • BER; CRC-4; PRBS; ITU G826; AIS. 

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of Telecommunication Networking concepts and principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Media used in telecommunications is listed and explained according to telecommunications theory.

    Extent:
  • Copper wire; coaxial cable; optic fibre; waveguide; free space. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Power feeding arrangements on copper are listed and explained according to remote power feeding theory. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Single/dual pair.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Impedance and mismatch concepts are listed and explained according to telecommunications transmission theory.

    Extent:
  • Maximum power transfer; standing waves; return loss; un/balanced; through; terminated. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of Data networking protocol principles according to the OSI reference model.

    Extent:
  • Access Protocols; Network Protocols; User Protocol. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Demonstrate an understanding of Data networking principles according to the OSI reference model.

    Extent:
  • Network types; dedicated and switched networks; LAN and WAN. 


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an Assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Telephone and data Telecommunication Network concepts:
  • Sound to AC wave conversion amplitude, frequency, wavelength, harmonics, bandwidth and distortion.
  • Explain using a calculation, the relationship between frequency, velocity and wavelength.
  • Identify the bands of electromagnetic frequency spectrum.
  • Differentiate between dB, dBm, dBr, dBm0.
  • Calculate different power levels.
  • Describe the function of attenuators, pads, amplifiers, equalisers, limiters and AGC circuits.
  • Identify the symbols used to indicate attenuators, amplifiers and equalizers Describe the function, symbol and application of hybrids.
  • Explain the function of signal filters.
  • Differentiate between the various signal filters.
  • Explain the four main modulation techniques used in telecommunications.
  • Identify the symbol used to indicate modulators and demodulators.
  • Explain the Duplex principles.
  • Transmission Media.
  • Name the characteristics of Parallel wires, Twisted pairs, Coaxial cable, Optic fibre, Waveguides, Free space.
  • Identify where in the telecommunications industry the different media are used.
  • State the limitations of each medium.
  • Power feeding arrangements on copper.
  • Impedance and mismatch concepts.
  • Identify the ideal conditions for maximum power transfer.
  • Define the term "standing wave".
  • Define the term "return loss".
  • Explain the difference between balanced and unbalanced circuits.
  • Explain the difference between through and terminated readings.
  • Explain a monitor reading.
  • Digital Principles and concepts.
  • Differentiate between FDM and TDM.
  • Differentiate between bit and byte interleaving.
  • Name the process to convert an analogue into a digital signal.
  • Explain the concept of aliasing noise.
  • Explain quantisation distortion.
  • Explain the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) multiplexing hierarchy.
  • Explain how 2Mbits/s tributaries are synchronized.
  • Explain the function of an Elastic Store.

    Signalling concepts:

    The principle behind signaling:
  • POTS signalling.
  • E&M signalling.
  • CCS and CCS 7 signalling.
  • CAS signalling.

    Error Detection:
  • Explain how BER is determined.
  • Explain how CRC4 may be used to detect errors.
  • State the difference between "in service" and "out of service" testing.
  • Name the signal components to monitor when checking for errors.
  • Describe a Pseudo Random Bit Stream (PRBS).
  • State the purpose of Performance Analysis.
  • Complete an ITU G826 simulation to detect errors.
  • Name the possible alarms on an E1 circuit.
  • Explain the operation of a Remote Alarm Indication.

    Alarm Indication:
  • Define an Alarm Indication Signal (AIS).
  • Name the 3 functions of an AIS.

    Data Networking Principles:
  • Name the OSI Layers.
  • Explain the encapsulation and de-encapsulation process.
  • Define User, Access and Network Portocols.
  • Explain the difference between a LAN and a WAN.
  • Expain the difference between real-time and non-real-time networks.
  • Explain the difference between Asynchronous and Synchronous networks.
  • Name the various types of networks (Dedicated and Switched networks. Mesh, Ring, Star, Bus and Tree networks.
  • Explain the difference between baseband and broadband. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses show that problems relating to wavelengths, power and frequency are understood and mathematically solved. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Explaining wavelength/frequency/speed of propagation in mathematical and written format. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognizing that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation by relating and explaining Electromagnetic frequency spectrum, Wavelength and Bandwidth, as well as gain/loss and power. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contributing to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large, by enabling the learner to:
  • Reflecting on and exploring a variety of strategies to learn more effectively.
  • Laying the basis for further studies in the Information and Telecommunications field. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Comment on this unit standard should reach SAQA no later than 26 October 2007.
    The level assigned to this unit standard is appropriate because the learner:
  • Has basic knowledge of some main areas of a discipline/field.
  • Has basic understanding of a discipline/field's key term, rules, concepts, principles and theories.
  • Is familiar with some of the essential methods, procedures and techniques of the discipline/field.
  • Has the ability to use the above to solve routine problems within given frameworks.
  • Has a basic information gathering, analysis and presentation skill.
  • Has the ability to communicate information reliably and accurately in the required medium of instruction.
  • Has the capacity to operate within clearly defined contexts, with limited scope for personal decision-making and responsibility.
  • Learn within a well-structured and managed environment.
  • Evaluate own performance against given criteria.

    Notes to Assessors:

    Assessors should keep the following general principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title.
  • Assessing outcomes related to the demonstration of the understanding of principles/concepts:

    > Develop an assessment which uses prior evidence as produced in written examinations.
    > Develop additional written assessment tools to supplement undependable sources of evidence in the previous bullet.
  • Assessing outcomes related to "Demonstrate an Understanding of Telecommunications Transport Concepts and Principles"; Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire Unit Standard range, wherever it applies.

    > Assessment activities should be as comprehensive as possible to ensure the extents of all assessment criteria are assessed.
    > The theoretical assessment activities should assess all knowledge requirements.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Ensure that the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The task of the Assessor is to gather sufficient evidence, of the prescribed type and quality, as specified in this unit standard, that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means Assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well documented principles of assessment: appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, direct, authentic, sufficient, systematic, open and consistent.
  • Requirements for a portfolio are that it should be valid, reliable and authentic evidence (presented as a portfolio of evidence) from past achievements and experience, which serves to supplement the assessment of applied competence.

    The portfolio may not include:
  • Evidence compiled from portions of previous examinations or assessments.

    The portfolio may include:
  • Complete previous examinations or assessments. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  80306   Further Education and Training Certificate: Electronics  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2021-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
    Elective  59057   Further Education and Training Certificate: Telecommunication Network Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MICTS 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. TELKOM SA SOC LTD 
    2. Tira Telecoms 
    3. Triple Play Fibre Optic Solutions 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.