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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate knowledge of the anatomy and bio-physical functioning of the human body 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
252112  Demonstrate knowledge of the anatomy and bio-physical functioning of the human body 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Nursing 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 09 - Health Sciences and Social Services Preventive Health 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  20 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people working as clinically focused, service orientated, independent, registered staff nurses, who are able to render basic care to persons with stable and uncomplicated general health problems, as determined by the appropriate legislative framework.

This unit standard will recognise the essential knowledge and skills required to describe and explain the structure, general functions and applied bio-physics related to human body systems.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Describe and explain the structure of the tissues, organs, and organs systems of the human body.
  • Describe and explain the biophysics related to all human body systems.
  • Apply knowledge of human anatomy and related biophysics in clinical practice. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credit calculation is based on the assumption that learners are already competent in terms of the following outcomes or areas of learning when starting to learn towards this unit standard:
  • Communication and Maths Literacy skills (NQF Level 4). 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria.

    The following scope and context applies to the whole unit standard:
  • Human body systems include skeletal, nervous, respiratory, reproductive, renal, cardiovascular, gastro-intestinal, metabolic, sensory, integumentory, reticulo-endothelial and immune.
  • The Nurse functions within the scope of practice of a staff nurse as formulated by the SANC and the Nursing Act. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Describe and explain the structure of the tissues, organs, and organs systems of the human body. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    All types of tissues, organs and systems are identified and described with reference to their purpose, structure, function, and topographical location in the body. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Scientific terminology and concepts are used accurately in the description of tissues, organs, and organs systems. Terms are used in accordance with nursing practice and accepted medical usage. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Anatomical changes are identified in relation to different stages in the human lifespan. Explanations of the changes, and examples provided, are consistent with accepted understanding in the field. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The systems and their working are discussed in relation to the disease process, and the health-illness continuum. The discussion shows a clear understanding of normal functioning and how they are impacted by illness. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Different options for restoring normal functioning and/or equilibrium are described with reference to the impact of the disease process on the normal functioning of anatomical systems. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The importance of vital signs and their measurement as indicators of health status is explained with reference to the normal and abnormal functioning of these systems, and the symptoms produced. The explanation includes reference to measurement points and methods. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Describe and explain the biophysics related to all human body systems. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The relevant biophysics related to all body systems is accurately described with reference to their various mechanisms and their purpose and function, in accordance with nursing practice and accepted medical usage. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Bodily functions are described and explained with reference to the interrelation of the different tissues, organs, and systems. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Body mechanics are explained with reference to the principles of physics as they apply to muscles and how they work with and against each other. The explanation includes a discussion of reasons behind mechanical system failure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The importance of a detailed knowledge and understanding of anatomy and bio-physics is explained with reference to an understanding of the health-illness continuum, pain and transferred pain, and the illness process. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Apply knowledge of human anatomy and related biophysics in clinical practice. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The clinical implications related to the alignment, mechanics and ergonomics of the human body are integrated into clinical practice in ways that promote the comfort and well-being of the patient. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Alignment includes:
  • Alignment of the lame and/or unconscious person so that limbs are not stretched or distorted.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The importance of observing correct principles of alignment, mechanics and ergonomics are with reference to own physical well-being and effectiveness. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Principles includes:
  • Proper lifting techniques; correct posture.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The consequences of ignoring alignment, mechanics and ergonomics of the human body in care provision are explained with reference to conditions that may develop in patients and self. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Conditions include:
  • Drop foot; bed sores; contractures.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    External anatomical landmarks are correctly identified and their significance explained with reference to treatment application, measurement of vital signs and placement of sensors. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Landmarks include:
  • Sternum, umbilicus (belly button), hip bones, significant points of connection.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Treatment decisions are consistent with anatomical and bio-physical evidence and treatment is applied in ways that reflect a sound knowledge of anatomy. Evidence is gathered by approved methods at appropriate topographical points. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Treatment includes:
  • Injections; linking patient to machinery to support bodily functions (ventilators; humidifier); ECG-placement of sensors.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Record keeping with respect to patient health status is accurate in its anatomical and bio-physical references to source and location of pain, lesions, and signs and symptoms of disease. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Accreditation Options: Providers of learning towards this unit standard will need to meet the accreditation requirements of the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation Option: The moderation requirements of the relevant ETQA must be met in order to award credit to learners for this unit standard. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following essential embedded knowledge will be assessed through assessment of the specific outcomes in terms of the stipulated assessment criteria. Candidates are unlikely to achieve all the specific outcomes, to the standards described in the assessment criteria, without knowledge of the listed embedded knowledge. This means that for the most part, the possession or lack of the knowledge can be directly inferred from the quality of the candidate's performance. Where direct assessment of knowledge is required, assessment criteria have been included in the body of the unit standard.

    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in the unit standard:
  • Body cavities.
  • Introduction to histology (cells and cell structures; normal and abnormal).
  • Relevant biochemistry. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.
  • Note: Core-decision-making about illness. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.
  • Note: Nursing care provision is team based. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.
  • Note: Critical-meticulous attention to detail w.r.t. patient health. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • Note: Core to the standard-every examination involves recording and analysing information. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.
  • Note: Information sharing with patients; gathering and using information. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • Note: Important-gathering and using information. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • Note: The body as a system. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Notes to Assessors:

    Assessors should keep the following general principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessment at title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes.
  • Make sure that evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The assessment criteria provide the specifications against which assessment judgements should be made. In most cases, knowledge can be inferred from the quality of the performances, but in other cases, knowledge and understanding will have to be tested through questioning techniques. Where this is required, there will be assessment criteria to specify the standard required.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence, of the prescribed type and quality, as specified in this unit standard, that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well documented principles of assessment: appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, direct, authentic, sufficient, systematic, open and consistent.

    The following particular issues should be taken into consideration when assessing against this unit standard:
  • The SANC guidelines are used as a reference for integrated assessment.
  • Formative Assessment: A variety of assessment strategies and/or approaches integrating theory and practice must be used. These could be tests, assignments, projects, demonstrations or clinical assessments or any other applicable method.
  • Summative: This could take a form of oral, written and/or practical assessments as agreed to with the relevant ETQA.

    Definition of Terms:

    Terms have been clarified as far as possible through the use of range statements. Further clarification of terms is provided as follows:
  • The terms "patient" and "health care user" are used interchangeably in this unit standard. The term patient is used internationally, and the term health care user is used in the Nursing Act 33 of 2005, as well as the National Health Act 61 of 2003. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  59236   National Diploma: Nursing  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2021-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
    Fundamental  66389   Higher Certificate: Diagnostic and Procedural Coding  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2023-06-30  HW SETA 
    Fundamental  59257   Bachelor of Nursing  Level 7  NQF Level 08  Reregistered  2021-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.