SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Maintain heat exchangers and pressure vessels 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
253434  Maintain heat exchangers and pressure vessels 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Generic Manufacturing, Engineering, Technology 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
13278  Maintain heat exchangers and pressure vessels  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Learners in the field of mechanical installation and engineering maintenance, require the skills, values and knowledge reflected in this unit standard.

The learning outcomes in this unit standard also contribute to the exit level outcomes required for related qualifications.

Qualifying learners are able to:
  • Identify and discuss the range of heat exchangers, pressure vessels and their applications.
  • Plan and prepare for heat exchanger maintenance.
  • Maintain, repair, remove, replace, set up and conduct a pressure test on heat exchangers and pressure vessels.
  • Maintain and care for tools and equipment.

    It also reflects the understanding of:
  • Pipe components and pipe systems.
  • The operation of the plant or engineering system where applicable.
  • The effect of heat loss (and heat gained) on the operation of system.

    This unit standard would be assessed in the context of:
  • A plant or engineering system within the workplace or a structured training environment.
  • Any process controlled environment.
  • Fluid flow systems related to utilities other than domestic systems.

    The skills, knowledge and values reflected in this unit standard form part of the Exit Level Outcomes required for the National Certificate in Mechanical Engineering (Pipe-Fitting) at NQF Level 3 or 4. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    This unit standard is one of a series of unit standards associated with flow control equipment and related maintenance to be performed by learners in the field of mechanical fitting.

    The credits allocated to this unit standard assume that a learner has already learned to:
  • Use hand tools.
  • Assemble mechanical components.
  • Maintain static seals.
  • And where required, sling loads safely. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
  • For the purpose of assessment, heat exchangers and pressure vessels may be selected from a range which includes floating head, U-tube, fixed tube and plate exchanger types.
  • Problems include fouling, non-conforming components, leaks, wear, corrosion and damage to pipes/tubes, broken seals.
  • Maintenance includes inspection and elimination of corrosion, fouling, damage and wear, removal, repair and fitment of heat exchanger components and assemblies.
  • Consumables include cleaning, sealing agents and fasteners, tube brushes, plugs.

    Environment contexts include but are not limited to:
  • Manufacturing and Engineering (Metals, Plastics, Tyre and Rubber, Electrical Power Generation, Automotive Manufacturing).
  • Chemical and Petrochemical.
  • Mining.
  • Transport (Maritime, Road, Rail and Aviation).
  • Civil Engineering and Construction.
  • Food and Beverages.
  • Other engineering-related industry sectors.

    The learner should be able to:
  • Work autonomously with minimal supervision and according to worksite and manufacturer specifications and occupational safety, health and environmental legislation.
  • Work in a workshop, plant or underground environment with varying levels of light, space and safety risks.
  • Work in a team environment. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Identify and discuss the applications of heat exchangers and pressure vessels. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    This outcome covers the knowledge required in order to:
  • Identify classifications and types of heat exchangers and pressure vessels.
  • Applications.
  • Distinct features and characteristics of various types.
  • Maintenance procedures (includes cleaning procedures). 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The classifications and types of heat exchangers and pressure vessels are identified and discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Identification includes:
  • The identification of the main components included in the design and manufacture of heat exchangers and pressure vessels.
  • Operation and functions.
  • Classification and types. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The applications and the distinct features and characteristics of various types of heat exchangers and pressure vessels are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Maintenance procedures are discussed and explained in terms of worksite practice and manufacturers' specifications. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Procedures include removal, replacement, routine servicing, cleaning, de-scaling, strip and assembly and fault finding.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The terminology used when explaining and discussing heat exchangers and pressure vessels, is in keeping with manufacturer and worksite norms and standards. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Understanding confirmed:

    Respond to `what if` and `why` questions covering:
  • Heat exchangers and pressure vessels, their characteristics and working principles.
  • The maintenance process - sequence, procedures and methods for dismantling, assembly cleaning and testing.
  • Tools and equipment used for maintenance and cleaning.
  • Quality awareness: implications of heat exchanger-maintenance that do not comply with operational requirements.
  • Applicable theory of the conservation of heat and its relationship to the maintenance task.
  • Safety.
  • Reporting and documentation requirements.
  • Discuss the implications of not adhering to the sequence of activities and operations as described in the specific outcomes and making decisions inappropriate to the task.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Plan and prepare for heat exchanger maintenance. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Planning and preparation includes obtaining documentation and selecting appropriate tools and safety equipment, identification of the equipment to be maintained, cleaned and pressure tested, obtaining maintenance schedules and manufacturer specifications for specific equipment to be maintained, cleaned and pressure tested (specific pressure applicable to pressure vessel), interpreting engineering drawings. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The heat exchanger/s are inspected and assessed for work requirements in terms of maintenance, repair, removal and/or pressure testing and inspection. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The planning and preparation for the maintenance repair and/or removal of the heat exchanger/s is explained, in accordance with work instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Site and equipment are prepared for heat exchanger maintenance. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Maintenance equipment and resources are correct for the task, available on site by the agreed time, and checked for serviceability in accordance with regulatory and worksite practices. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Resources include personnel requirements, tools, equipment, vehicle/s for transport and mechanical handling, cleaning materials, applicable documentation and personal protective equipment.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Where required, handling space is cleared, potential obstructions are removed and personnel are notified, prior to the maintenance, repair and/or removal task. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Pre-operational checks are carried out on removal and securing equipment, in accordance with work instructions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Indicators:
  • System is confirmed to be isolated.
  • Heat exchangers and pressure vessels are handled and transported (where applicable) according to specifications.
  • Heat exchanger is inspected and non-conformances identified.
  • Heat exchanger maintenance requirements are determined.
  • Heat exchanger maintenance consumables, parts and/or components are selected, lapped and sealed, fitted and adjusted to meet operational requirements.
  • Maintained heat exchanger is checked for conformance with manufacturer specifications.
  • Non-conforming consumables, damaged or sub-standard components and equipment are identified and appropriate corrective action taken.
  • Heat exchanger records are completed and processed. 

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Maintain heat exchanger/s. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
  • Problems include fouling, non-conforming components, leaks, wear, corrosion and damage to pipes/tubes, broken seals.
  • Heat exchangers and pressure vessels include floating head, U-tube, fixed tube and plate exchanger types.
  • Maintenance includes inspection and elimination of corrosion, fouling, damage and wear, removal, repair and fitment of heat exchanger components and assemblies.
  • Consumables include sealing agents and fasteners, tube brushes.
  • Problems include non-conforming components, excessive heat/cold, leaks. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Heat exchanger is maintained in compliance with operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The heat exchanger is tested for conformance within operational requirements and according to manufacturer's specifications. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Operational requirements include correct pressure retention at predetermined pressure and meeting flow control criteria (includes functionality, flow-rate, pressure regulation, cooling or heating).
  • Checking for compliance may include pressure-testing and commissioning.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Work area is restored to a safe and serviceable condition. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    All work is performed safely with due care for self, fellow workers, machines, equipment, materials and environment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Heat exchanger condition is recorded and reported. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Indicators:
  • System is confirmed to be isolated.
  • The heat exchanger is handled and transported according to specifications.
  • The heat exchanger is inspected and non-conformances identified.
  • Heat exchanger maintenance requirements are determined.
  • Heat exchanger maintenance consumables, parts and/or components are selected, lapped and sealed, fitted and adjusted to meet operational requirements.
  • Maintained heat exchanger is checked for conformance with manufacturer specifications.
  • Heat exchanger records are completed and processed.
  • Work is carried out in a safe manner in accordance with schedules and manufacturer specifications.
  • Maintenance process cycle time meets workplace requirements. 

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Care for and store system maintenance tools and equipment. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Tools and equipment include absorbent material, hand tools and cleaning equipment, fluids, lifting equipment and tackle. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The proper care and storage procedures for tools and equipment are explained in accordance with work site practices and specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Work area is restored to a safe and serviceable condition. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Tools, equipment, lifting equipment and tackle is stored in accordance with manufacturer's specification and requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Malfunctioning tools and equipment is reported and the necessary arrangements for the repair thereof is made according to accepted worksite practice. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
  • A clean and tidy work environment is maintained.
  • No delays are caused as a result of poor planning for heat exchanger maintenance and identifying problems.
  • Applicable health, safety and environmental procedures are adhered to.
  • Non-conforming consumables, damaged or sub-standard components and equipment are identified and appropriate corrective action taken. 


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • The assessment will be governed by the policies and guidelines of the relevant Education and Training Quality Assurance Body which has jurisdiction over this field of learning. The assessor will (at the very least) be accredited and have a technical qualification in this learning area.
  • The learner can be assessed in the language of his/her choice although s/he has to report incidents or conditions to someone else. The learner will be assessed on his/her ability to report in the language commonly used in his/her working environment.
  • The learner will be assessed in the workplace but s/he can submit documents, projects, test results and assignments that were not produced in the workplace.
  • The learner can be assessed against this unit standard to obtain credits or as part of an integrated assessment for a qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Names & functions of:
  • Types of heat exchangers and pressure vessels.
  • Heat exchanger and components.
  • Tools and equipment used in the heat exchanger maintenance process.
  • Quality terminology and concepts.

    Attributes, descriptions, characteristics & properties:
  • Various classifications, types and characteristics of heat exchangers and pressure vessels.
  • Typical heat exchanger faults and defects.
  • Heat exchanger and components and cleaning equipment.

    Sensory cues:
  • Sensory cues (what I see, hear, smell, feel) utilised for identifying heat exchanger related defects and non-conformances and the causes thereof.

    Purpose of:
  • Preparing site and equipment for maintenance process.
  • Maintaining heat exchangers and pressure vessels.
  • Quality checks and procedures.
  • Reporting problems.
  • Identification of wear and corrosion patterns on components.
  • Pressure testing and setting.
  • Sealing and/or locking on completion.

    Processes, events, causes and effects, implications:
  • Implications of non-conformance.
  • Causes of and implications of not regulating pressure.
  • Causes and responses to common problems.
  • Maintenance sequence and process.
  • Implications and consequences of situations such as, e.g., using poor quality, damaged or faulty equipment in the maintenance process, delaying reports about problems in work area.

    Procedures and techniques:
  • Tube-cleaning procedures.
  • Ensuring system is safe (isolation) and permit to work procedures.
  • Identifying component defects.
  • Maintaining heat exchanger components.
  • Pressure testing and setting.
  • Preparing consumables, replacement components/parts for maintenance.
  • Quality checks and procedures.
  • Reporting procedures.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies, standards:
  • Applicable safety, health and environmental protection legislation and standards.
  • Applicable company policies and procedures related to pressure testing.
  • Policies related to the Approved Inspection Authority and the commissioning of a heat exchanger.
  • The Pressure Equipment Regulations (current).

    Theory: rules, principles, laws:
  • Applicable physical science related to thermodynamics and heat conservation (heat loss/heat gained, radiation, convection, conduction, induction).
  • Applicable mechanical theory relating to the maintenance of heat exchangers and pressure vessels, e.g. torque, pressure, flow-control, pneumatic and hydraulic theory.
  • Applicable mathematical concepts.
  • Safety.

    Relationships, systems:
  • The relationship of heat exchanger maintenance to the production process. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems:
  • Recognise and respond to non-conforming components/parts. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team:
  • Interact with colleagues and team members in order to maintain heat exchanger. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage my activities and myself:
  • According to procedures, following regular, consistent methodical work patterns.
  • Manage resources and my time. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information:
  • Collect sensory and numeric information from the heat exchanger maintenance process.
  • Classify the information and identify deviations from the norm. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively:
  • Record outputs and incidents. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically:
  • Understand and explain mechanical theory relevant to the heat exchanger maintenance process. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems:
  • Understand and explain the purpose of heat exchanger maintenance to the production process.
  • Justify my actions as appropriate. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standard 13278, "Maintain heat exchangers and pressure vessels", Level 3, 8 credits.

    Recognition of Prior Learning:

    Credits may be obtained by applying to an accredited/approved training provider/institution in order to have prior learning recognised in lieu of work experience. Work experience must relate to the specific outcomes contained within this unit standard. The ensuing assessment of candidates seeking recognition of prior learning should not be so onerous as to deter them from doing so.

    Notes to Assessors:

    Assessors should keep the following general principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessments at title level are unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes.
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The assessment criteria provide the specifications against which assessment judgements should be made. In most cases, knowledge can be inferred from the quality of the performances, but in other cases, knowledge and understanding will have to be tested through questioning techniques. Where this is required, there will be assessment criteria to specify the standard required.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence, of the prescribed type and quality, as specified in this unit standard, that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well documented principles of assessment: appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, directness, authenticity, sufficiency, openness and consistency. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  59669   National Certificate: Mechanical Engineering: Fitting  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2021-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
    Elective  59750   National Certificate: Mechanical Engineering: Pipe-Fitting  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2021-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
    Elective  63929   National Certificate: Spirits Production  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FOODBEV 
    Elective  59709   Further Education and Training Certificate: Mechanical Engineering: Fitting  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2021-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
    Elective  59769   Further Education and Training Certificate: Mechanical Engineering: Pipe-Fitting  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2021-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Belique Training Centre cc (ALBERTON) (TP) 
    2. Blue Horison Properties 53 (Pty) Ltd T/A Durnacol Skills Innovation Hu 
    3. Coastal Kzn F.E.T. College - Swinton Road Campus 
    4. Customised Training Specialists Trust T/A CTS (PINETOWN) (TP) 
    5. Eastcape Midlands Public FET College - Uitenhage (High Street)Campus 
    6. Eastcape Training Centre 
    7. Enstra Learning and Development Centre (Pty) Ltd (SPRINGS) (TP) 
    8. False Bay Public FET College - Westlake Campus 
    9. Gijima AST Holdings (Pty) Ltd T/A Fundi Training Centre (BENONI) (TP) 
    10. Izizwe Training Centre (Pty) Ltd T/A Simtech Training (NORTHDENE) (TP) 
    11. Jericho Safety Consultants (Pty) Ltd (TP) 
    12. Lesedi Skills Academy (TP) 
    13. Majuba FET College - Newcastle Technology Centre 
    14. MSC Artisan Academy (Pty) Ltd T/A Master Artisan Academy SA (EAST LOND 
    15. Mthetana Trading & Construction T/A Multi Skill Training Centre (DURBA 
    16. Northlink College - Wingfield Campus 
    17. S & S Training & Construction (SPRINGS) (TP) 
    18. Scaw Metals Group (Pty) Ltd T/A Scaw Metals (DINWIDDIE) (TP) 
    19. SEDIBENG TRAINING CENTRE 
    20. Shine The Way 281 cc T/A Industrial Training Centre (NEW GERMANY) (TP) 
    21. Shukela Training Centre 
    22. Tekmation (Pty) Ltd T/A Tekmation Training Institute (DURBAN) (TP) 
    23. THE SAJ COMPETENCY TRAINING INSTITUTE CC 
    24. Toyota Academy Toyota SA Motors (Pty) Ltd (ISIPINGO) (TP) 
    25. Umfolozi FET College 
    26. Umfolozi FET College - Mandeni Campus 
    27. Volkswagen of South Africa (Pty) Ltd - Technical Learning Academy (UIT 
    28. Wilbat Projects 148 (Pty) Ltd (ISIPINGO) (TP) 
    29. World Focus 382 cc T/A Richards Bay Technical Training & Assessment Centre (ZCBF) (RICHARDS BAY) (TP) 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.