SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Perform piping off-set calculations 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
253588  Perform piping off-set calculations 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Generic Manufacturing, Engineering, Technology 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Learners in the field of engineering require the skills, values and knowledge reflected in this unit standard.

The learning outcomes in this unit standard also contribute to the exit level outcomes required for related NQF Level 3 qualifications.

Qualifying learners are able to:
  • Use specific information and explain scientific concepts.
  • Perform right-angle trigonometry.
  • Calculate take-outs using trigonometry.

    It also reflects the understanding of:
  • Pipe components and pipe systems.
  • The operation of the plant or engineering system where applicable.
  • The application of mathematical principles in the workplace.

    This unit standard would be assessed in the context of:
  • A plant or engineering system within the workplace.
  • Any process controlled environment.
  • Fluid flow systems related to utilities other than domestic systems.
  • The production of piping spools and/or special pipe lengths.

    The skills, knowledge and values reflected in this unit standard form part of the Exit Level Outcomes required for the National Certificate in Mechanical Engineering (Pipe-Fitting): NQF Level 3. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    This unit standard has been designed as part of a progression for pipe-fitting, pipe-fabrication or related qualifications.

    The credits allocated to this unit standard assume that a learner has already completed Fundamental mathematics at NQF Level 2. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The ranges as indicated under the specific outcomes determine the scope and level of this unit standard.

    However for the purpose of assessment, the performing of pipe off-set calculations include but are not limited to the following industry contexts, for the purpose of the fabrication and/or installation of welded pipes:
  • Manufacturing and Engineering (Metals, Plastics, Tyre and Rubber, Electrical Power Generation, Automotive Manufacturing).
  • Chemical and Petrochemical.
  • Mining.
  • Transport (Maritime, Road, Rail and Aviation).
  • Civil Engineering and Construction.
  • Food and Beverages.
  • Other engineering-related industry sectors.

    For the purpose of assessment:
  • Decimal equivalents include decimal equivalents of common fractions.
  • Equivalent units of measure include linear, square, cubic and liquid measures and equivalent values (millimetres, meters, kilometres).
  • Pipe offset calculations include but are not limited to welded elbows (with the 30; 45 and 90 angles).
  • Formulas for determining the take-out angles are sine; cosine; tangent ; turn elbows; radius of elbows.
  • Standard conversions include but are not limited to terms using millimetre to meter; square millimetres to square meters; cubic millimetres to cubic meters; kilograms of water to liters; kilogram to milligrams; atmospheres to bars to pascal; pounds per square inch to kilograms per square millimetre.
  • Expansion tables related to materials (Copper, aluminium, cast iron, intermediate alloy steel, carbon moly-steel, low chrome steel, austenitic stainless steel) over a specific saturated temperature in relation to pipe diameter and length.

    NB: Work is carried out in a classroom or similar learning environment. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Use specific information and explain scientific concepts. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    This outcome covers the knowledge required in order to:
  • Use tables of equivalents.
  • Use unit conversion tables.
  • Explain thermal expansion (accommodation for expansion and contraction). 
  • OUTCOME RANGE 
    Understanding confirmed:

    Respond to `what if` and `why` questions related to:
  • The purpose of tables of equivalents.
  • Explain decimal equivalent tables and demonstrate how they are used.
  • Purpose of unit conversion tables.
  • Explanation of equivalent units of measure and demonstrate how they are used.
  • The basic principles of thermal expansion.
  • Factors that affect the length of the material.
  • Factors that affect the changes in temperature.
  • Implications of thermal expansion.
  • The implications of not following safe working procedures. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Tables of equivalents are explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation of equivalents includes:
  • The purpose of tables and equivalents.
  • The explanation of equivalent units of measure and a demonstration of how they are used.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Unit conversion tables are explained and how they are used is demonstrated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation of equivalents includes:
  • Explanation of the purpose of standard conversion tables.
  • Explanation of standard conversion tables and a demonstration of how they are used.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The concept of thermal expansion and the factors affecting it, are explained according to principles of science and technology and thermal expansion tables. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Thermal expansion tables include:
  • Expansion of different types of pipe materials.
  • Demonstration of the use of thermal expansion tables.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The terminology used when explaining and discussing concepts and specifications is in keeping with manufacturer and worksite norms and standards. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Perform right-angle trigonometry. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Calculations may be performed by:
  • Using an example of a piping offset.
  • Interpolating angles from numerical values.
  • Interpolating numerical values from angles.
  • Determining sizes of angles using any trigonometric function.
  • Determining the trigonometric function of an angle and how to find the size of the angle using the trigonometric functions using tables or a scientific calculator. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Right-angled triangles are identified and how a right angled triangle resembles a piping offset is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The Pythagorean Theorem is reviewed and how it is used to determine the length of the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle is explained and demonstrated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Trigonometric calculations are explained and how they are made by using ratios of the triangle-sides is demonstrated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The ratios among the sides of a right-angled triangle and relationship to one of the internal angles is explained and demonstrated according to conventional mathematical rules. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The trigonometric functions are identified and calculated according to conventional mathematical rules and the use of a scientific calculator. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The trigonometric functions include:
  • Sine.
  • Cosine.
  • Tangent.
  • Cosecant.
  • Secant.
  • Cotangent.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    A calculation of the sine of an angle and its location from its decimal value using trigonometric tables or a calculator is demonstrated. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Calculate take-outs using trigonometry. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Welded elbows include take-out with the 30; 45 and 90 angles.

    Formulas for determining the take-out angles are:
  • Sine, cosine, tangent.
  • turn elbows.
  • Radius of elbows. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The characteristics of take-outs and reasons why it is necessary to perform calculations is explained in terms of the standard operational procedures and industry requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Formulas for determining the take-out at specific angles for welded pipe-elbows are explained, reviewed and applied according to work instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Formulas for determining the take-out of any welded elbow is explained and examples of calculations are demonstrated. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • The assessment will be governed by the policies and guidelines of the relevant ETQA which has jurisdiction over this field of learning. The assessor will be registered and have a technical qualification in this learning area.
  • The learner can be assessed in the language of his/her choice although s/he has to report incidents or conditions to someone else. The learner will be assessed on his/her ability to report in the language commonly used in his/her working environment.
  • The learner will be assessed in the workplace but s/he can submit documents, projects, test results and assignments that were not produced in the workplace.
  • The learner can be assessed against this unit standard to obtain credits or as part of an integrated assessment for a qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Names and functions of:
  • Trigonometric formulation.
  • Various welded pipe elbows and joints.
  • Equipment on which calculations are performed.
  • Associated units of measure.

    Attributes, descriptions, characteristics and properties:
  • Typical pipe-offset calculations.
  • End users of the system.

    Purpose of:
  • Pipe offset calculations.
  • Interpreting instructions.
  • Adhering to thermal expansion principles.
  • Adhering to safety, health and environmental legislation.
  • Signing off the task instruction.
  • Reporting non-conformances, incidents and problems.

    Processes, events, causes and effects, implications:
  • Implications of overlooking system maintenance.
  • Implications of thermal expansion.
  • Acquiring required lubricants, consumables and cleaning agents.
  • Performing system maintenance.
  • Implications of not adhering to safety, health and environmental legislation.
  • Making pipe system safe.
  • Causes and responses to common problems.

    Procedures and techniques:
  • Making system safe.
  • Servicing components.
  • Performing visual inspections.
  • For minimising wastage.
  • Identifying problems.
  • Identify and select required components.
  • Reporting on system operation.
  • Handling and storage of components.
  • Isolation technique and procedure.
  • Posture during hand tool usage.
  • Applying pressure.
  • Communication procedures.
  • Applicable recording and reporting procedures.
  • Applicable safe working procedures.
  • Applicable quality assurance procedures.
  • Removing and replacing defective components.
  • System earthing, regulations, legislation, agreements, policies, standards.
  • Applicable safety, health and environmental protection legislation.
  • Applicable company policies and procedures.

    Theory: Rules, principles, laws:
  • Trigonometry.
  • Different types of materials have different expansion rates.
  • Associated engineering principles.
  • Principles of thermal expansion and specification tables.
  • Pressure, temperature and volumetric rules of physics (Thermodynamics).

    Relationships, systems:
  • Relationship between mathematics and the world of work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems:
  • Related to the performing calculations and taking the environmental context into account. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team:
  • Interact with colleagues and team members in order to acquire information. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage my activities and myself:
  • Apply the correct procedures and techniques for performing calculations in a specific sequence.
  • Manage resources and my time. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information:
  • Interpret information off job instructions to perform the calculations required.
  • Make decisions based on that information. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems:
  • Understand and explain mathematic principles in terms of work requirements and the operation of the pipe system or installation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
  • This unit standard is meant to ensure a structured application of trade mathematics for persons engaging with pipe-fitting and pipe-fabrication at NQF Level 3.
  • Recommended links for integrated assessment are for those fundamental unit standards related to trigonometric calculations.

    Notes to Assessors:

    Assessors should keep the following general principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessments at title level are unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes.
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The assessment criteria provide the specifications against which assessment judgements should be made. In most cases, knowledge can be inferred from the quality of the performances, but in other cases, knowledge and understanding will have to be tested through questioning techniques. Where this is required, there will be assessment criteria to specify the standard required.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence, of the prescribed type and quality, as specified in this unit standard, that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well documented principles of assessment: Appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, directness, authenticity, sufficiency, openness and consistency.

    Recognition of Prior Learning:

    Credits may be obtained by applying to an accredited/approved training provider/institution in order to have prior learning recognised in lieu of past work experience. Past experience must relate to the specific outcomes contained within this unit standard. The ensuing assessment of candidates seeking recognition of prior learning should not be so onerous as to deter them from doing so. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  59750   National Certificate: Mechanical Engineering: Pipe-Fitting  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2021-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
    Elective  66071   Further Education and Training Certificate: Computer Aided Drawing Office Practice (CAD)  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  CETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. AFRICAN ACAD.FOR COM.ASSIS.ENGINEERING 
    2. Belique Training Centre cc (ALBERTON) (TP) 
    3. CTU Training Solutions 
    4. Gola Institute of Engineering 
    5. Inisys Africa Bim Solutions Pty Ltd 
    6. istudent Academy (Pty) Ltd 
    7. Jericho Safety Consultants (Pty) Ltd (TP) 
    8. S & S Training & Construction (SPRINGS) (TP) 
    9. Wilbat Projects 148 (Pty) Ltd (ISIPINGO) (TP) 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.