SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

Demonstrate knowledge of the nature of milk and its transformation into commercial dairy products 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
9120  Demonstrate knowledge of the nature of milk and its transformation into commercial dairy products 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2004-10-13  2005-11-30  SAQA 0556/04 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2006-11-30   2009-11-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard is replaced by: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
120245  Demonstrate an understanding of the nature of milk and its transformation into commercial dairy products  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard is able to demonstrate knowledge of:
  • the origin of mammal milk,
  • the nutritional importance of mammal milk,
  • the physical-chemical nature of milk components,
  • physical properties of milk,
  • the transformation of milk into commercial dairy products.

    This unit standard is intended for a person who starts a career in the dairy industry and who needs to get acquainted with milk as a raw material being transformed into various dairy products. The understanding of the transformation of milk into various products contributes to the development of the person, society and sub-fields, as well as to an understanding of the world as a set of related systems.

    This unit will contribute to the full development of the learner within the dairy manufacturing environment by providing recognition, further mobility and transportability within the field of manufacturing and assembly. The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and upliftment within the dairy manufacturing and processing environment. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Description of required skills:
    None. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical scope of this unit standard is for anyone who wants to start a career in the dairy industry and needs an introduction to the nature, composition and uses of milk in the manufacturing of food products.

    In the context of this unit standard, mammal milk refers to milk produced for human consumption by an animal mammal.

    The level assigned to this unit standard is appropriate because the learning demand employs basic operational knowledge and readily available information. The application of this unit standard is to qualify the person for certification in sub-trades. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the origin of mammal milk. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Milk is defined according to its origin and nursing purposes. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The definition refers to:
  • Species of mammals giving milk,
  • Anatomical structure of the mammary gland responsible for lactation,
  • Nutritional value of milk for the mammal's off-spring after birth.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The mammal`s milk production cycle is described in terms of its reproduction cycle, which can be a normal cycle or artificially manipulated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description includes any animal mammal currently bred and used for milking purposes.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The lactation cycle of a mammal is described in terms of its normal milk producing cycle.Range: The description includes any animal mammal currently bred and used for milking purposes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    3. Factors that cause variations in milk production and composition are explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors include climate, feeding, genetic and physiological aspects.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Methods of obtaining mammal milk on a dairy farm are explained according to standard milking methods and hygiene practices. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Acceptable and unacceptable to health and hygiene practices during milk collection are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    4. Mastitis and its significance in the dairy industry is explained according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The explanation refers to:
  • A definition of mastitis,
  • Pathogens causing mastitis in the milk cow,
  • Treatment of mastitis,
  • Effect of mastitis on milk composition,
  • Effect of the treatment of mastitis on dairy product manufacturing.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    5. Factors that make raw milk unacceptable for intake are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors include:
  • Mastitis,
  • Colostrum,
  • Milk with high temperature,
  • Unstable milk.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    6 The maintenance of the cold chain on the farm, from milking to bulk milk storage, is described. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the nutritional importance of mammal milk. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The nutritional importance of mammal milk for the new born, as well as for the young and older consumer, is described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The constituents of cow's milk and the average % of each component are identified according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Constituents include:
  • Water,
  • Proteins,
  • Fat,
  • Sugar (Lactose),
  • Mineral salts,
  • Vitamins.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The structural building blocks of milk proteins are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The types of milk proteins are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The structural building blocks of milk fat are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The structural building blocks of lactose are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The main functions of each constituent are identified in terms of its nutritional value. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. Colostrum is described in terms of its definition and function. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the physical-chemical nature of milk components. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The concept of an emulsion is defined according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The components of milk contributing to an emulsion are identified according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The concept of a colloidal solution and suspension is defined according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The components of milk contributing to a colloidal solution and suspension are identified according to tandard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The concept of a true solution is defined according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The components of milk contributing to a true solution are identified according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The concept of a buffer solution is defined according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. The components of milk contributing to buffering capacity are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. The principles and function of homogenisation of milk are explained according to standard chemical and physical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    10. The principles of denaturation are explained according to standard dairy principles and in a chemical and physical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    11. The principles of oxidation are explained according to standard dairy principles and in a dairy context. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the physical properties of milk. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The reasons for specific colour appearances in milk and milk related products are given according to standard chemical and dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The colour appearances refer to:
  • White to yellow colour of full cream milk,
  • Bluish colour of skimmed milk,
  • Green yellow colour of whey.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The components in milk contributing to the specific taste in milk are explained according to standard chemical and dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The components in milk contributing to taste of milk refer to:
  • Lactose,
  • Protein,
  • Fat,
  • Minerals.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Factors that influence the taste and colour of milk are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The density of milk is identified according to standard dairy and chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The effects of temperature, water and solids-non-fat content of milk on the density of milk are explained according standard dairy and chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The freezing point of milk is identified according to legal requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The importance of determining the freezing point of milk is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. Factors that influence the freezing point of milk are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. The acidity of milk is identified in terms of pH and titratable acidity and according to legal requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    10. The importance of determining the acidity of milk is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    11. Factors that influence the acidity of milk are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the transformation of milk into commercial dairy products. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The transformation of milk is identified in terms of the different types of dairy products that can be manufactured from milk. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    One example of each type of dairy product should be identified. Types of dairy products include:
  • Fresh dairy products,
  • Frozen dairy products,
  • Churned dairy products,
  • Fermented dairy products,
  • Long life dairy products,
  • Dried dairy products,
  • Concentrated dairy products,
  • Dairy fruit mixes and
  • Combinations of the above.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The main manufacturing processes for each of the above dairy products are identified and described according to standard dairy manufacturing principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The main route that milk follows, from the mammal to the final dairy product on the consumer's table, is described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Chemical changes that occur in milk during cold storage, due to reactions of protein and fat are identified according to standard dairy and chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The influence of chemical changes on the sensory quality of milk is identified according to standard dairy and chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Effects of heat treatment on milk and its components are explained according to standard dairy pnciples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The explanation refers to:
  • The effect on milk fat,
  • The effect on milk proteins,
  • The effect on lactose,
  • The effect on vitamins and minerals.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Internal moderation.
  • External moderation.
  • An assessor, accredited by the relevant ETQA, will assess the learner`s competency.
  • Assessment procedures will be supplied by the ETQA in alignment with NSB requirements.
  • All assessment activities must be fair, so that all candidates have equal opportunities.
    Activities must be free of gender, ethnic or other bias.
  • Questions and answers to determine theoretical knowledge are expected.
  • Examination of an assessment portfolio.
  • Reporting skills are demonstrated by effective communication, using verbal (language) and/or writing skills.
  • Proof of an understanding of the factors contributing to the nature and composition of raw milk and methods of converting raw milk into commercial dairy products. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected within the assessment criteria of each specific outcome. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made by:
  • Applying knowledge of the nature, composition and nutritional importance of milk, the collection of raw milk on the farm and the manufacturing of dairy products from such milk.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Evident in all specific outcome. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard has been replaced by unit standard 120245, which is "Demonstrate an understanding of the nature of milk and its transformation into commercial dairy products", Level 3, 6 credits.

    Supplementary Information:
    1. Definition of terms within this unit standard:
    Terminology: Clarification/ explanation/ definition.
    Churned dairy products: Include butter and butter related products.

    Concentrated dairy products: Include all kinds of cheeses and condensed milk.

    Dairy fruit mixes: Include fruit-milk mixtures.

    Dried dairy products: Include milk, whey, buttermilk and cheese powders.

    Fermented dairy products: Include yoghurt, sour cream, buttermilk and maas.

    Fresh dairy products: Include fresh milk and fresh cream.

    Frozen dairy products Include ice cream.

    Long life dairy products: Include UHT and steri products.

    Mammal milk: Includes any animal milk produced for human consumption. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  20207   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Processing: Raw Milk and Cream Handling and Storing  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2004-12-05  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20212   National Certificate: Food Laboratory Practices: Dairy Laboratory Analyst  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FOODBEV 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.