SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Apply microbiological principles in a food environment 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
9147  Apply microbiological principles in a food environment 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2015-07-01  2018-06-30  SAQA 10105/14 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2019-06-30   2022-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • demonstrate knowledge of the occurrence of micro-organisms in a food or beverage environment,
  • demonstrate knowledge of the preventative methods and procedures for microbial growth in a food or beverage environment,
  • maintain microbiological food safety procedures and practices in a food or beverage environment.

    This unit standard is intended for a person who works in a food or beverage environment. The person needs to understand the influence that micro-organisms have on food safety and how microbiological food safety procedures and practices can be maintained.

    This unit will contribute to the full development of the learner within the food or beverage manufacturing environment by providing recognition, further mobility and transportability within the field of manufacturing and assembly. The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and upliftment within the food or beverage manufacturing and processing environment. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Description of required skills:
    Maintain personal hygiene, health and presentation.
    Apply knowledge of the effect of micro-organisms on personal health, hygiene and food safety. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The scope of this unit standard includes any person working in a food or beverage environment where microbiological contamination can lead to inferior product quality, product deterioration or legal claims against the company.

    In the context of this unit standard, microbial contamination refers to any contact with micro-organisms or transformation of micro-organisms from a person, animal, equipment or the surroundings to food or beverage products via any actions or procedures.A food environment includes all areas relating to food handling, including primary production, processing, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, marketing, retailing, preparation and final presentation to the consumer.

    The level assigned to this unit standard is appropriate because the process requires a range of well-developed skills and offers a significant choice of procedures. Some relevant theoretical knowledge, interpretation of available information, discretion and judgement, as well as a range of known responses to familiar problems are employed. The application of this unit standard is to qualify the person for certification in skilled occupations and sub-trades. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the occurrence of micro-organisms in a food or beverage environment. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Micro-organisms refer to bacteria, yeasts, moulds and food viruses. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The sources of microbial contamination in the food or beverage environment are identified. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Five (5) examples are given of sources of microbial contamination.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The implication of the occurrence of micro-organisms in food or beverage products is described according to standard food and microbiological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Bacterial spores are described according to standard microbiological principles 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description refers to:
  • Main groups (genus) of bacteria that produce spores,
  • The generation of bacterial spores and their release into the environment,
  • The function of bacterial spores,
  • Germination of bacterial spores,
  • Resistance of bacterial spores to unfavourable conditions,
  • Production and health problems due to spore formation and germination.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The growth curve of bacteria is described according to standard microbiological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description refers to:
  • The lag phase,
  • The logarithmic phase,
  • The stationary phase,
  • Dying of phase,
  • Rate of bacterial growth during each phase.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Symbiotic relationships between bacteria are described according to standard microbiological principles.. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description refers to:
  • The principle of symbiosis,
  • Types of symbiosis (mutual and parasitic),
  • Examples of symbiotic relationships between bacteria in food production.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The physical structure and reproduction of bacteriophages is described according to standard microbiological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The mechanism of bacteriophage reproduction is described according to standard microbiological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description refers to:
  • Attachment of the bacteriophage to the surface of the host,
  • Injection of phage-DNA,
  • Development of new phages,
  • Phage lyses and release
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the preventative methods and procedures for microbial growth in food. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the preventative methods and procedures for microbial growth in a food or beverage environment. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Micro-organisms refer to bacteria, yeasts, moulds and food viruses. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The difference between the inhibiting of microbial growth and the killing of micro-organisms is explained according to standard microbiological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The methods of inhibiting microbial growth and reproduction, which result in spoilage of food or beverage products, are described according to standard microbiological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Five (5) examples should be given.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Hurdle technology, as a method of inhibiting or terminating microbial growth and reproduction, is described with examples according to standard food science and microbiological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description refers to:
  • The principles of hurdle technology,
  • Examples of how hurdle technologies are applied in the food industry,
  • Principles of preservation, as well as methods of preservation applied in the food industry,
  • Conditions and nutrients in food products.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Inhibitory substances that prevent to the growth and reproduction of micro-organisms are identified and explained according to standard food or beverage principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Maintain microbiological food safety procedures and practices in a food or beverage environment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Best food or beverage handling practices and procedures that ensure food safety are identified for the designated food or beverage environment and according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The importance of identifying and controlling microbiological critical control points in a food or beverage environment is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Good handling principles as a methodology to inhibit or prevent microbiological contamination are described according to standard industry principles and microbiological standards. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Microbiological critical control points in the designated food or beverage environment are identified. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Microbiological critical control points include areas of microbiological cross contamination, as well as actions and procedures that can jeopardise the safety of food or beverages.Five (5) critical control points are identified.
    Five (5) critical control points are identified.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Internal moderation.
  • External moderation.
  • An assessor, accredited by the relevant ETQA, will assess the learner`s competency.
  • Assessment procedures will be supplied by the ETQA in alignment with NSB requirements.
  • All assessment activities must be fair, so that all candidates have equal opportunities.
    Activities must be free of gender, ethnic or other bias.
  • Assessment and moderation procedures, activities and tools must be transparent, affordable and support development within the field, sub-field and NQF.
  • Questions and answers to determine theoretical knowledge are expected.
  • Examination of an assessment portfolio.
  • Reporting skills are demonstrated by effective communication, using verbal (language) and/or writing skills.
  • Proof of an understanding of the influence that micro-organisms have on food safety and how microbiological food safety procedures and practices can be maintained. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected within the assessment criteria of each specific outcome. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation by:
  • Maintaining personal hygiene, health and presentation and the influence thereof on food safety.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    1. Legal requirements:

    The following acts and/or codes, current and future regulations and amendments will be applicable:
  • Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, No. 54 of 1972,
  • Health Act, No 63 of 1977.

    2. Definition of terms within this unit standard:

    Terminology and clarification/ explanation/ definition.

    Best practices:
    Refer to any practices that promote hygienic conditions, food safety and personal health in the working place.

    Critical control points:
    Refer to the places in a process with a high risk for microbial contamination of food products and where it is critical to carry out strict control in order to minimise this contamination.

    Food or beverage environment:
    Refers to all areas relating to food or beverage handling, including primary production, processing, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, marketing, retailing, preparation and final presentation to the consumer.

    Food safety:
    Refer to all practices and procedures from raw material receiving, handling and storing until the final product is manufactured, stored and sold to the customer.

    Micro-organisms:
    Refer to the group of living organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Group of micro-organisms refers to bacteria, yeasts, moulds and food viruses.

    Standard operating procedures:
    Refer to company procedures, prescribed procedures from the manufacturer, personal and food safety procedures, good manufacturing practices, best practices, applicable legislation and time frames. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  20508   National Certificate Food and Beverages Processing: Soft Drinks Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2018-06-30  FOODBEV 
    Core  20655   National Certificate: Craft Bread Baking  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20656   National Certificate: Flour Confectionery Baking  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  23138   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Laboratory Practices: Food and Beverage Laboratory Analysis  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2005-12-04  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  22630   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Yeast Manufacturing Technology  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  FOODBEV 
    Core  20214   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Processing: Dairy Primary Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2004-12-05  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20658   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Processing: Plant Baking Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  FOODBEV 
    Core  20509   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Processing: Spirits Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2018-06-30  FOODBEV 
    Core  20505   National Certificate: Food and Beverages Processing: Brewing Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2018-06-30  FOODBEV 
    Core  20197   National Certificate: Food and Beverages Processing: Cereals, Snacks, Pasta, Spices, Condiments and Culinary Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2009-12-02  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20506   National Certificate: Food and Beverages Processing: Malting Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  FOODBEV 
    Core  20510   National Certificate: Food and Beverages Processing: Wine Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2008-11-26  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20212   National Certificate: Food Laboratory Practices: Dairy Laboratory Analyst  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2018-06-30  FOODBEV 
    Elective  21813   National Certificate: First Line Manufacturing Management: Food and Beverage  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2005-06-12  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Distell (Pty) Ltd. 
    2. SAB - Training Institute 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.