SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

Demonstrate knowledge of the functional components of milk 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
9181  Demonstrate knowledge of the functional components of milk 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2004-10-13  2006-04-20  SAQA 0556/04 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2007-04-20   2010-04-20  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard is replaced by: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
123348  Demonstrate an understanding of the functional components of milk  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard is able to demonstrate knowledge of:
  • the physical -chemical nature of milk components,
  • the chemical composition of milk proteins, fat and lactose,
  • the nutritional and health aspects of milk proteins, fat and lactose,
  • the functional properties of milk proteins, fat and lactose,
  • the changes in milk proteins, fat and lactose that influence the quality of dairy products.

    This unit standard is for anyone who works in the production department of a dairy facility.

    This unit will contribute to the full development of the learner within the dairy manufacturing environment by providing recognition, further mobility and transportability within the field of manufacturing and assembly. The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and upliftment within the dairy manufacturing and processing environment. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Description of required skills:
    Knowledge of introductory chemistry and physics.
    Knowledge of the nature of milk. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The scope of this unit standard is for anyone who works in the production department of a dairy facility.

    The context of this unit standard is described in the range statements under the assessment criteria.

    The level assigned to this unit standard is appropriate because a broad knowledge base incorporating some theoretical concepts, analytical interpretation of information, informed judgement and a range of sometimes innovative responses to concrete but often unfamiliar problems are employed. The application of this unit standard is to qualify the person for certification in advanced trade and technical occupations. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the physical-chemical nature of milk components. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The concept of an emulsion is defined according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The components of milk contributing to an emulsion are identified according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The concept of a colloidal solution and suspension is defined according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The components of milk contributing to a colloidal solution and suspension are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The concept of a true solution is defined according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The components of milk contributing to a true solution are identified according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The concept of a buffer solution is defined according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. The components of milk contributing to buffering capacity are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. The principles and function of homogenisation of milk are explained according to standard chemical and physical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    10. The principles of denaturation are explained according to standard dairy principles and in a chemical and physical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    11. The principles of oxidation are explained according to standard dairy principles and in a dairy context. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the chemical composition of milk proteins, fat and lactose. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The chemical structure of an amino acid is described according to standard chemical and biological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The structural building blocks of proteins are described according to standard chemical and biological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The structural building blocks refer to:
  • Amino acids,
  • Peptides,
  • Poli-peptides,
  • Protein molecules.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The different protein structure forms found in nature are identified according to standard chemical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The protein structure refers to:
  • Straight,
  • Coiled,
    < Folded.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The polarities of amino acids and its application during manufacturing are identified according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Classes of milk proteins are described according to standard chemical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The classes are described as:
  • Casein,
  • Whey proteins,
  • Immunoglobulins,
  • Membrane proteins in milk fat globules.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The chemical status of amino acids in neutral, acidic and alkaline solutions are explained according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The natural inhibiting system (NIS) in milk is defined according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The definition includes:
  • The function of NIS,
  • The components of NIS.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. The iso-electrical point of milk proteins is identified according to standard dairy chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. The importance of the iso-electrical point of milk proteins during product manufacturing is explained according to standard dairy and chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    10. The phases in which whey and casein are dispersed in milk are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    11. The chemical structure of a fatty acid is described according to standard chemical and biological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 12 
    12. The structural building blocks of fats are described according to standard chemical and biological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The structural building blocks refer to:
  • Fatty acids,
  • Glycerol,
  • Fat globule membrane.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 13 
    13. The different states of fat and fatty acids are identified and described according to standard chemical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description includes:
  • Trans fatty acids,
  • Saturated fatty acids,
  • Unsaturated and poli-unsaturated fatty acids.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 14 
    14. The phases in which fat is dispersed in milk are identified according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description refers to:
  • Liquid and solid fat, relating it to temperature,
  • Fat-in-water emulsion.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 15 
    15. The chemical structure of lactose is described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 16 
    16. The phase in which lactose is dispersed in milk are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the nutritional and health aspects of milk proteins, fat and lactose. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The purpose of proteins, fat and lactose in our diet is described according to standard biological and nutritional principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description refers to:
  • Tissue growth or maintenance,
  • Development of cells, organs and hormones,
  • Biological reactions,
  • Immune system,
  • Energy,
  • Sensory quality of food products.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The essential amino and fatty acids needed for adequate health and growth are identified according to standard dairy and nutritional principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Somatic cells are defined according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The definition includes:
  • The composition of somatic cells,
  • A synonym for somatic cells.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The implication of high somatic cell counts for the health of the cow is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The implication of high somatic cell counts on milk production processes is explained according to standard dairy and health principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The method by which somatic cells in milk are detected is identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Lactose intolerance is defined and the implication and prevention thereof are described according to standard dairy principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the functional properties of milk proteins, fat and lactose. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Enzymes are defined according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The mechanism and specificity of biochemical catalysts is explained according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Factors that influence biochemical catalyst activities are explained according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Natural enzymes and bacterial enzymes are defined according to standard chemical and biological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Enzymes in milk are defined by referring to their substrates, their end products and their significant characteristics, according to standard dairy and chemical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Enzymes in milk are defined as:
  • Lipase,
  • Protease,
  • Catalase,
  • Phosphatase,
  • Peroxidase.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The functional properties of milk fat in dairy products are described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Emulsifying is described according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description includes:
  • A definition of an emulsion,
  • The role of milk fat during formation of an emulsion.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. Examples of where milk proteins, fat and lactose are applied in the production of dairy products are given. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Two (2) examples of each are given.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. The importance of lactose in the production of fermented dairy products is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the changes in milk proteins. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the changes in milk proteins, fat and lactose that influence the quality of dairy products. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The effects of heat, acid and enzymes on casein and whey proteins are explained according to standard dairy and chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The behaviour of milk proteins and fat during dairy production is described according to standard dairy and chemical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Dairy production includes:
  • Heating,
  • Refrigeration,
  • Pumping,
  • Homogenisation.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Denaturation of proteins are defined and explained according to standard dairy and chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The effect of storage on milk proteins, fat and lactose is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Proteolysis is described according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description includes:
  • A definition of proteolysis,
  • The effect of proteolysis on product quality.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The quality defects occurring during storage and processing of dairy products are defined according to protein and biochemical catalyst activities. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Quality defects of milk or milk products refers to:
  • Taste defects,
  • Texture defects,
  • Appearance defects.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The Maillard reaction is described in terms of a definition and the effect it has on the quality of dairy products. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. Lipolysis is described according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description includes:
  • A definition of lipolysis and rancidity,
  • The effect of lipolysis on product quality.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. Homogenisation is described according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description includes:
  • A definition of homogenisation,
  • The purpose of homogenisation.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Internal moderation.
  • External moderation.
  • An assessor, accredited by the relevant ETQA, will assess the learner`s competency.
  • Assessment procedures will be supplied by the ETQA in alignment with NSB requirements.
  • All assessment activities must be fair, so that all candidates have equal opportunities. Activities must be free of gender, ethnic or other bias.
  • Assessment and moderation procedures, activities and tools must be transparent, affordable and support development within the field, sub-field and NQF.
  • Questions and answers to determine theoretical knowledge are expected. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected within the assessment criteria of each specific outcome. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information by:
  • Demonstrating an understanding of the chemical composition, health aspects, functional properties and changes in milk proteins, fat and lactose.

    Evident in all specifi outcome. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Demonstrating an understanding of the chemical composition, health aspects, functional properties and changes in milk proteins, fat and lactose.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large.

    Evident in all specific outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard has been replaced by unit standard 123348, which is "Demonstrate an understanding of the functional components of milk", Level 5, 8 credits.

    1. Legal requirements:

    The following acts and/or codes, current and future regulations and amendments will be applicable:
  • Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, No. 54 of 1972,
  • Health Act, No 63 of 1977,
  • Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993,
  • SABS Food Hygiene Management Code 49: 1989. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  20212   National Certificate: Food Laboratory Practices: Dairy Laboratory Analyst  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FOODBEV 
    Core  20516   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Butter and Butter Related Spreads Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20553   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Cottage Cheese Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20521   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Dried Dairy Products Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20520   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Fermented Dairy Products Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20519   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Frozen Ice Cream and Frozen Ice Cream Related Products Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20518   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Liquid Long Life Dairy Products Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20517   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Processed Cheese Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20515   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Ripened Cheese Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20514   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Sweetened Condensed Milk Products Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.