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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION: 

Further Education and Training Certificate: School Business Administration 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
60550  Further Education and Training Certificate: School Business Administration 
ORIGINATOR
Task Team - School Business Management 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
ETDP SETA - Education, Training and Development Practices Sector Education and Training Authority  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
Further Ed and Training Cert  Field 03 - Business, Commerce and Management Studies  Office Administration 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  136  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Regular-ELOAC 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Reregistered  SAQA 06120/18  2018-07-01  2023-06-30 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification does not replace any other qualification and is not replaced by any other qualification. 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
Purpose:

This qualification is intended to equip present and potential School Business Administrators to fulfil a range of roles previously undertaken by the school principal and/or senior members of teaching staff. It provides a framework for recognizing professional practice in school management which impacts the school and broader community. The qualification will provide for the recognition of leadership, administrative and management skills and associated professional knowledge necessary for envisaged new roles in revised school structures. A key feature of the required competence for future school business administrators will be the performance as a reflective practitioner. The qualification aims at supporting and promoting catalytic change at both personal and organisational level.

The Education Department has identified the need for improved leadership, administrative and managerial capacity of those providing administrative support functions in an educational setting. It is envisaged that the learners in these positions, will require additional technical knowledge, understanding, skills and experience in order to contribute to the effectiveness of the educational institutions, where they are appointed. It is expected that the learners are likely to be at different stages of development and from different professional backgrounds. This leads to the need to provide for the recognition of flexible development options to suit individual needs and development where appropriate.

School Business Administrators will also need to be able to initiate and undertake critical analysis of information, and propose solutions to problems arising from that analysis. They will be required to communicate information, arguments and analysis effectively, in a variety of forms, to specialist and non-specialist audiences, and deploy key techniques of school business management effectively. By virtue of their planned future roles on the management team, they will be required to engage in reflective debate and practice. This qualification will contribute to laying the foundation for advanced professional development for School Business Administrators.

The skills, knowledge and values which the learner will acquire through this qualification are essential for national competitiveness and will have a positive impact on social and economic transformation and upliftment of the democratic South African society.

Rationale:

This qualification responds directly to a need identified in the Department of Education for School Business Administrators to adopt revised approaches to school business administration. The qualification recognizes and makes provision for learners at different stages in their career development. Some will be experienced business administrators who wish to consolidate and extend their skills in particular areas, some will be comparatively inexperienced, seeking to extend their skills in a number of areas, some may be new and potential business managers, perhaps with experience in a related profession, who are seeking to transfer those skills to the new context of the School Business Administration. The qualification structure allows candidates to focus on their particular learning needs in the context of their school.

The FETC in School Business Administration aims to recognise two sets of competences identified as essential by subject matter experts in association with practising school business administrators. The two areas are functional competences and generic school business administration competences.

The functional competences relate to specific areas of operational responsibility in school business administration. They represent the functional competences required of effective and efficient School Business Administrators: Risk management, financial management, human resources management, facilities management, office systems management, ICT management, and the management of sustainable development.

The generic school business administration competences relate to the professional role of school business administrators and the changing context in which they work. These are generic to leadership, management and administration competences. They are reflected in criteria attached to appropriate areas of technical competence. These competences are derived from the principle that effective and reflective school business administrators should be able to:
  • Have a considered view of the distinctive contribution that school business administrators can make to defining and achieving the school's vision for learning.
  • Reflect on their individual professional role and the developing competences that they bring to that role, and plan for continued professional development.
  • Discuss the changing role of school business administrators and the impact of national initiatives on that role.
  • Analyse the professional or organisational context in which they work, and plan to make an impact on the organisation.
  • Demonstrate a key set of generic management skills that underpin each of the different areas of responsibility in school business administration. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that the leaner entering this qualification will be competent in:
  • Communication at NQF Level 3.
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3.
  • Computer Literacy at NQF Level 3.

    Recognition of Prior Learning:

    It is the intention of this qualification that learners are able to achieve part or all of the qualification by means of a formal RPL evaluation and assessment process. Candidates wishing to avail themselves of this opportunity should measure their readiness for recognition against the detailed criteria under each of the exit level outcomes in this qualification. Assessment will be designed in terms of the assessment criteria in the qualification.

    Evidence can be presented in various ways, including international and/or previous local qualifications, products, reports, testimonials mentioning functions performed, work records, portfolios, videos of practice and performance records. All such evidence will be judged in accordance with the general principles of assessment described below and the requirements for integrated assessment.

    The recognition of prior learning will include learning achieved through formal, informal and non-formal learning and work experience. Candidates should be thoroughly briefed on the mechanism to be used and support and guidance should be provided. Care should be taken that the mechanism used provides the learner with an opportunity to demonstrate competence without preventing learners from taking up the opportunity to be subjected to the RPL process.

    Access to the Qualification:

    Access to the qualification is open keeping in mind the "Learning Assumed to be in Place". 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
    To be awarded the qualification the learners must achieve the required number of credits as specified in the rules of combination below.

    The qualification consists of exit level outcomes to the total value of 136 credits.
  • The Fundamental Component includes exit level outcomes related to Communication and Mathematical Literacy totalling 56 credits and it is compulsory.
  • The Core Component has exit level outcomes to the total value of 75 credits and it is compulsory.
  • The Elective Component consists of a number of specialisations and the learner is required to choose at least one specialisation area with a minimum of 5 credits. 

  • EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    1. Communicate with clients in two South African languages (40 credits).

    2. Use mathematical literacy, concepts and formulae to solve problems and perform calculations (16 credits).

    3. Administer and manage school resources and financial management operations for a specified site or sites. (25 credits).
  • Range: This outcome is intended for support staff performing the role of bursar. Where academic staff, including principals, deputies and other senior staff achieve this outcome, it will be to enable them to fulfil the duties of bursar in the absence of this post at the school.

    4. Apply principles of risk management in managing school resources to promote an efficient and effective learning environment (15 credits).

    5. Contribute to the administration and management of school human resources operations to promote an efficient and effective learning environment (20 Credits).

    6. Administer and manage the school support services operations to promote an efficient and effective learning environment (15 Credits).

    7. Administer and manage the school resources and facilities management operations to promote an efficient and effective learning environment (10 Credits).

    8. Administer and manage the information and communications technology to promote an efficient and effective learning environment (5 Credits).

    9. Administer and manage school grounds, electricity and water use and compliance with environmental legislation (10 Credits).

    Critical Cross-Field Outcomes:

    This qualification addresses the following Critical Cross-Field Outcomes:

    Identifying and solving problems in which responses indicate that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made:
  • This will be core to the role of the School Business Administrator. They will be tasked with the effective administration of school resources, and will play an important role in facilitating relationship building and problem-solving across all members of the school community. Problem-solving will be a core function.

    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community:
  • School Business Administrators will be part of school management teams, and also have their own 'teams' including other support staff and volunteers from parent and community bodies, the ability to work effectively in teams and accomplish tasks through teams will be vital.

    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively:
  • By definition, School Business Administrators need to evidence this competence. They will be responsible for finance, resource management, and effective administration or information and records. Organisation is critical.

    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information:
  • Without this competence, the School Business Administrator will not be able to perform the range of tasks that make up the portfolio. The collecting and analysis as well as presentation of financial information is one example. They are also tasked with contingency management, disaster planning, and communication of the school vision to the broader community. An essential competence.

    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral/written persuasion:
  • This will follow on naturally from the previous outcome, and has already been alluded to. The School Business Administrator will be required to present and even 'market' to a range of different stakeholders. The presentation of financial information is one aspect of this.

    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and the health of others:
  • Responsibility for information management and setting up management information systems implies the effective use of science and technology. This competence is also required for the more technical aspects of facilities maintenance, as well as concern for the environment which is a responsibility. The School Business Administrator is responsible for sustainable use of resources and environmental education of school and broader community.

    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation:
  • The whole role implies an awareness of the "bigger picture" and an ability to appreciate the impact of varying factors on the school community. The strategic planning role and membership of the school management team will certainly require an appreciation of macro-level policy and its application within the micro-environment. 

  • ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    Fundamental Outcomes:

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 1:
  • A range of sustained speaking and listening interactions is successfully undertaken with different stakeholders in the school community. Interactions facilitate the smooth completion of social and business transactions.
  • Sustained speaking and listening interactions take place in at least two South African languages in line with client service standards.
  • Reading and/or viewing, analysis of and response to a variety of texts meet requirements for appropriate engagement with, and responses to, written texts in a school business environment.
  • Correspondence and reports are compiled in line with organisational requirements.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 2:
  • Mathematical Literacy formulae, concepts and calculations are used to solve personal and workplace problems.
  • Mathematical calculations are performed as part of everyday work routine.

    Core Outcomes:

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 3:
  • Major sources of school revenue and funding are identified and described with reference to origin, purpose and intended application. The description distinguishes between funding for Section 21, non-Section 21, No Fee schools and Independent Schools.
    > Range: Funding sources include: Education Department: Norms and Standards Allocation Funding, school generated funding.
  • Financial management structures for the school are established with clearly defined reporting lines as well as roles and responsibilities.
    > Range: Roles include: Governing Body, Principal, SBM, other staff, Segregated functions include: Authorisation, execution, custody, recording.
  • The delegation and segregation of financial duties, accountability and responsibilities is described in accordance with financial policies and procedures and explained with reference to financial control, checks and balances.
    > Range: Roles include: Governing Body, Principal, SBM, other staff, Segregated functions include: Authorisation, execution, custody, recording.
  • The importance of selecting appropriately qualified staff is explained with reference to required skills and knowledge as well as selection criteria and procedures.
    > Range: Roles include: Governing Body, Principal, SBM, other staff, Segregated functions include: Authorisation, execution, custody, recording.
  • The school accounting systems are described and explained in terms of their component parts and purpose. Manual and computerised systems are compared and discussed in terms of their relative advantages and disadvantages.
  • Financial management procedures are compiled and documented as guidelines for school financial management. Procedures are consistent with GAAP and/or departmental guidelines, and support the maintenance of integrity and security of financial data.
  • The importance of documenting and reporting financial transactions is explained with reference to school financial management policies and procedures, the range of information and documentation required, and Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).
  • Key principles of financial accounting, reporting and auditing are explained in terms of their importance and application in a school context. The explanation is consistent with GAAP.
    > Range: Principles include: Cash accounting, accruals accounting, fixed asset accounting, depreciation, fundamental aspects of GAAP (going concern, accruals, consistency, prudence), VAT, income and expense items.
  • Financial analysis and preparation for budgeting utilises appropriate techniques and is consistent with accepted practice for school budgeting cycles. The school budget prepared is realistic in terms of financial analysis and planning for the school, and the projected revenues and expenditure.
  • Income is accurately recorded and acknowledged in the manner and format required by school policies and procedures.
  • Interim and annual financial statements and reports of the financial position and operating results of the school are accurate, complete and produced by the agreed time, to the requirements of stakeholders. Financial reports are consistent with GAAP.
  • Principles and best practices underpinning school purchasing policies and procedures are identified and accurately described in line with national guidelines where these exist, and/or generally accepted accounting principles.
    > Range: Principles and practices include: Probity, honesty, fairness, accountability, value for money, economy, efficiency, effectiveness, best value, approved suppliers, segregation of duties, tendering and contracting.
  • Purchasing practices comply with generally accepted principles and best practices, and school purchasing procedures. Purchasing is carried out in the best interests of the school community, and in line with budgeting and financial planning. Payments follow the correct procedures as specified in school policies and procedures, and recordkeeping is accurate and up to date.
    > Range: Purchasing may include but is not limited to: Purchasing consortiums, leases, renting, tenders, contracts.
  • Descriptions and explanations of the concept of value for money and best value are consistent with generally accepted understanding in the sector. The principle is applied consistently in the best interests of the school community as defined in departmental policy where this exists, and/or school policies and procedures.
  • The description of best practice governing cash management, investment, and debt management is accurate with respect to required actions, scope of authority, and restrictions and/or prohibitions as specified in school policies and procedures.
    > Range: Cash management includes: Bank, petty cash, credit.
  • Cash management, investment, and debt management complies with set procedures. The consequences of non-compliance are explained with reference to personal consequences, and consequences for school/s as defined in legislation and/or regulations.
  • Cash flow management is consistent with an analysis of projected income and expenditure patterns for the school. Cash flow management maximises use of cash surpluses, minimises debts, and manages short term cash deficits in the best interests of the school community, and in line with generally accepted accounting practices.
  • Types of bank accounts and the regulations governing them are accurately described with reference to their application in a school context. Bank accounts are set up and managed to support the financial requirements of the school, in accordance with regulations, school policies and procedures and the best interests of the school community.
  • Explanations of the role and purpose of an auditor and the audit of financial records are consistent with current legislation and statutory requirements. Own roles and responsibilities with respect to audits are explained in accordance with regulations and school policies and procedures.
  • Descriptions and explanations of the principles of school finance are accurate and consistent with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and usage in the field. The application of principles of school finance is consistent with generally accepted practice and business ethics, and meets the specific requirements of authorities responsible for overseeing the management of finances in schools.
  • The nature and purpose of business ethics is described with reference to the importance of sound corporate governance, possibilities for fraud in a school context, and individual responsibility for ethical conduct. Provisions for the prevention of fraud are consistent with best practice. Financial management activities are carried out in compliance with ethical codes of practice.
    > Range: Provisions for fraud prevention include: Preventative, detective, corrective.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 4:
  • Key areas of risk in schools are identified and described with respect to their prevalence and the specific risk attached.
    > Range: Areas of risk include but are not limited to: Loss or damage to property, personnel and reputation, liability claims, breakdowns.
  • The description of risk management and loss prevention procedures is accurate with respect to purpose, scope of authority, and roles and responsibilities. The description complies with national and/or provincial policy statements on risk management and loss prevention where these exist, and/or school policies and procedures.
    > Range: National requirements include the provisions of The Disaster Management Act.
  • Risk management and loss prevention procedures are implemented in accordance with their intention, and all activities comply with set risk management procedures. The consequences of non-compliance are explained with reference to personal consequences, and consequences for learners and/or the school/s as defined in legislation and/or regulations.
  • The explanation of the implications of current health and safety legislation for school business management is accurate with respect to its provisions, and the allocation of ethical and legal responsibility and accountability.
  • School health and safety policy and procedures are confirmed to meet legal and ethical requirements. Recommendations to governing bodies or authorities, where required, address identified shortcomings, and are appropriate to the particular school context.
  • School health and safety policy and procedures are implemented in accordance with their design and purpose. The consequences of non-compliance are explained with reference to personal consequences, and consequences for learners and/or the school/s as defined in legislation and/or regulations.
  • The explanation of child protection policies and procedures is accurate with respect to purpose, scope and responses. Policies and procedures are implemented is accordance with their purpose and design, and current child protection legislation.
  • The purpose of fire safety policies and procedures at school level are explained with reference to fire precaution and prevention within schools, and school management responsibility for the implementation of fire safety procedures.
  • Fire prevention strategies and a fire training programmes within the school are confirmed to meet legal and safety requirements. Recommendations to governing bodies or authorities, where required, address identified shortcomings, and are appropriate to the particular school context.
  • Fire precaution and prevention procedures are implemented in accordance with their intention, and all activities comply with set procedures. The consequences of non-compliance are explained with reference to personal consequences, and consequences for learners and/or the school/s as defined in legislation and/or regulations.
  • The school contingency plan developed includes the input of key stakeholders, addresses all identified risk categories, provides for effective disaster recovery, and is communicated to staff and learners. Implementation of the plan includes scheduled practice and review appropriate to the nature and complexity of required activities.
    > Range: Stakeholders include but are not limited to: emergency services, departmental or other relevant authorities, parents, staff, learners.
  • Leadership provided supports the proactive, efficient and effective management of identified categories of risk in the best interests of the broader school community.
    Management of risk is carried out in an inclusive manner that promotes teamwork, and incorporates the support of multi-professional teams. Communication with different teams is appropriate to their needs and contexts, and promotes effective cooperative risk management.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 5:
  • Systems for the recruitment, selection and subsequent management of support staff in a school environment are described and explained in accordance with national and provincial policies and procedures.
    > Range: Management includes: Post allocations, post advertisements, interviews, post type, pay categories, employment contracts, appointment, induction, probation, leave, allocation of duties and responsibilities, codes of conduct, disciplinary procedures, grievance procedures, absence, redundancy, termination of employment.
  • Conditions necessary for effective performance by staff are identified and systems implemented establish and/or maintain conditions which support optimal staff performance.
  • Interactions with educators are courteous, professional and designed to promote harmonious and effective working relationships.
  • The professional development responsibilities of support staff are described in accordance with current departmental policy guidelines where these exist, and/or institution policies and procedures. Opportunities for professional development available to support staff are identified and information communicated to staff is appropriate to individual and school needs. Information is communicated timeously.
  • Understanding of labour relations and collective bargaining within the education sector is consistent with generally accepted understanding of formal and informal relationships between employers, employees and trade unions in the sector. Interactions with staff on matters pertaining to conditions of employment utilise effective negotiation skills in ways that promote positive relationships are appropriate within current labour relations paradigms.
  • The process for the implementation of payroll procedures is described and explained in accordance with departmental policy and regulations where these exist, and/or institution policies and procedures.
  • Principles underpinning the design of benefit packages are identified in terms of governing legislation and/or regulations. Queries with respect to pay for all school employees are handled in accordance with established procedures and reflect an accurate understanding of the legal implications of tax laws and requirements which govern benefit packages.
  • Leadership provided promotes the effective management of administrative support personnel in line with departmental policies, and/or institution policies and procedures, the shared vision of learning for the school, and the interests of the school community.
  • Management of human resource promotes the collaborative efforts of staff and broader school community in responding to the diverse needs and interests of learners, and contributing to learner success.
  • Management of personnel is conducted at all times with integrity, fairness and in an ethical manner.
  • Management of personnel promotes teamwork, and supports the work of multi-professional teams involved in the leadership, management and administration of the school. Communication with different teams is appropriate to their needs and contexts, and promotes effective operation and interaction.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 6:
  • The importance of a systematic approach to the management of the school administration function is described and explained with reference to the provision of an effective support function, and the appropriate role and focus of educators within a school.
  • Administrative systems and procedures are consistent with generally accepted best practice, and are compiled and readily available to guide implementation of administrative support.
  • Guidelines make provision for the systematic review and update of administrative procedures. Guidelines are updated as part of a continuous improvement process, according to the set schedule.
  • Management information systems gather, store and manage a range of information useful for the tracking of school performance in terms of established and agreed aims and objectives. Information systems are regularly reviewed, and information ensured to be up to date and available as required for performance management purposes.
  • The performance management system and programme in place meets school HR management requirements. Staff appraisals are managed in accordance with best practice and school policies and procedures.
    > Range: Appraisals include: Performance and development plans, staff reviews, SMART targets, training and development opportunities.
  • The purpose and importance of exit interviews are described in accordance with best practice and school policies and procedures.
  • Conflict is managed in accordance with generally accepted conflict management practices and principles, as outlined in school policies and procedures. Conflict is managed in ways that minimise dysfunctional conflict and promote effective working relationships.
  • Strategic planning processes are described with reference to their purpose, benefits and application in a school context.
  • The nature and purpose of teams in a school context is described with reference to their contribution and the value they add to strategic planning and service delivery. Management of support services promotes teamwork across the multi-professional teams involved in the leadership, management and administration of the school.
  • Contributions of the support team assist in the identification of short, medium and longer terms goals for the school, and help to move the school towards its mission and goals as outlined in the school improvement plan by means of efficient execution of duties and responsibilities.
  • The importance of effective communication is described with reference to public relations and marketing applications in a school context. Communication within and across different teams is appropriate to their needs and contexts, and promotes effective operation and interaction.

    Elective Outcomes:

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 7:
  • The importance of a strategic approach to facilities planning is explained with reference to the vision for the possible future use of school facilities and/or resources, and/or institution policies and procedures with respect to the creative use of premises and their possible development as a community resource. Possibilities for collaboration that involve stakeholder groups, and/or mobilise community resources are identified and communicated clearly to the broader school community in line with policy guidelines.
  • The description and explanation of facility planning and construction procedures is consistent with departmental regulations and guidelines for the development of school premises and the services associated with them. Planning is consistent with the vision of learning that is shared and supported by the school community.
  • The identification, selection and contracting of professional services to support facility planning and development is consistent with departmental guidelines and/or school policies and procedures.
    > Range: Identification, selection and contracting include: Developing a client brief, allocation of roles and responsibilities, evaluating tenders and awarding the contract, legal and contractual obligations.
  • Project planning and the management of major and minor projects is consistent with own defined role in the school, utilizes best practice, and supports the improvement of school facilities and resources, administration systems and business processes.
    > Range: Role includes: Project manager (minor projects); member of design team, facilitator of the process (major projects).
  • Different approaches to maintenance are identified, and the maintenance and operation approach selected is appropriate to the school's identified maintenance needs and priorities. Duties and responsibilities of those involved in maintenance, including maintenance staff and committees appointed for the purpose, are clarified and documented in school policies and procedures.
  • Inventories are managed and controlled through an inventory management system that is appropriate to the premises and assets of a particular school. Premise and asset registers are accurate and complete, and promote asset security and provide essential information for the planning of maintenance activities.
  • Planned maintenance and operation procedures are implemented according to schedule and in line with specified requirements to ensure that resources are operational and available for safe use. Emergency repairs, requests for additional maintenance, and/or minor infrastructural works are dealt with according to departmental and/or school policies and procedures.
  • Maintenance support staff is selected and contracted in line with identified skills requirements. The maintenance team is managed in a manner that promotes effective working relationships to the benefit of assets in particular and the school community in general.
  • The explanation of the principles of estate management as it relates to schools is consistent with generally accepted practice in the sector, departmental requirements where these exist, and/or institution policies and procedures.
    > Range: Principles include: Links between maintenance programmes and overall strategic planning for estate management, planning regulations in relation to schools, impact of developments on school property, amortisation and its application in a school context.
  • Procedures for the acquisition, management and/or disposal of assets are applied in accordance with their design and purpose, and promote the efficient and effective utilisation and maintenance of facilities and resources.
  • Vehicle and transportation procedures are described in terms of their purpose, key provisions and prohibitions, and own responsibility. Procedures are implemented in accordance with their design and purpose. The consequences of non-compliance are explained with reference to personal consequences, ethical considerations, and consequences for learners and/or the school/s as defined in legislation and/or regulations.
    > Range: Transportation procedures may include but are not limited to: Planning and operating a transport system, vehicle purchase and maintenance, license requirements, insurance, outsourced transportation.
  • School policies and procedures with respect to catering and/or sale of food and refreshments during school hours are accurately described with respect to their purpose, procurement requirements, and limitations and/or prohibitions. Policies and procedures are consistent with National School Nutrition Programme guidelines.
  • Range: Catering includes: School meal programmes, cafeterias/tuckshops, external caterers.
  • Catering policies and procedures are implemented in accordance with their intention, and serve the best interests of the school community.
  • Management of facilities and resources is carried out in a manner that utilises multi-professional team resources to the benefit of the leadership, management and administration of the school.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 8:
  • Learning support systems using ICT are implemented and maintained in accordance with departmental policy and procedures and/or school policies and procedures. Systems support the vision of learning that is shared and supported by the school community and respond to their diverse needs and interests as reflected in the ICT policies and development plans.
    > Range: Systems include: Hardware, software, networks.
  • Learner and educator needs with respect to ICT skills are identified, and training programmes and/or support provided are ensured to meet identified needs and promote the effective use of ICT in support of learning.
  • Security strategies are consistent with accepted best practice, and provide for the secure storage, back-up and/or recovery of data, as well as internet protection and security. Obligations with respect to licensing are implemented in accordance with legal and ethical requirements.
  • The benefits of effective management information systems are explained with reference to the maintenance of records essential to good school governance, information sharing and reporting, and impact on learning. Management information systems selected and implemented are appropriate in terms of identified needs, benefits, and cost.
  • Management information systems are implemented and maintained in accordance with departmental policy and procedures where these exist, and/or institution policies and procedures and ethical considerations. Information systems are used to support the effective leadership of the school as a whole, and ensure the improvement of administration systems and business processes.
  • Use of ICT promotes effective communication with different stakeholder groups, as well as greater community involvement.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 9:
  • The key provisions of environmental legislation are identified and discussed in terms of their implications for school management and sustainable resources. The discussion is consistent with national policy and legislation for responsible interaction with the environment.
  • The environmental management and sustainable development system developed for the school is appropriate in terms of identified needs and opportunities. Current performance is benchmarked against comparable institutions, and progress monitored and reported to promote good practice and the reduction of negative environmental impacts.
  • Measures to involve the broader school community in responsible use of resources are communicated clearly, consistent with own role and scope of authority, and promote greater environmental awareness in line with current legislation and policy. Measures are inclusive and participative where possible, and contribute to the translation of vision into action.
    > Range: School community includes but is not limited to: Teaching and support staff, learners, parents, local community, Resources include: Water, electricity, grounds, facilities.
  • Opportunities to develop own and staff skills and knowledge in the area are identified and communicated in a manner that promotes interest and participation and a shared sense of responsibility.
  • Measures to involve learners in responsible environmental practices are appropriate to their age, understanding and skills, and in line with the national curriculum and the vision of learning that is shared and supported by the school community. Activities are designed to show the relevance of learning to real-world issues.
  • New and ongoing projects and/or changes within the school and premises are managed in ways that are consistent with environmental best practice and promote sustainable development, sensitive management, and effective use.
  • Management of school grounds complies with regulations and best practice for effective health and safety as well as sound financial management, as reflected in departmental and/or school policies and procedures.
    > Range: Health and safety includes: Protection against vandalism, risk assessments, maintenance, development works.

    Integrated Assessment:

    Assessment should take place within the context of:
  • Given Quality Assurance policies, procedures and processes.
  • A guided and supported learning environment.

    Assessment will take place according to the detailed specifications provided in the exit level criteria above.

    Assessment principles:

    Assessment should be in accordance with the following general and specific principles:
  • The initial assessment activities should focus on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcomes expressed in the titles of the exit level outcomes to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Take special note of the need for integrated assessment.
  • Evidence must be gathered across the entire range specified in each outcome, as applicable. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to prove that the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • All assessments should be conducted in accordance with the following universally accepted principles of assessment:
    > Use appropriate, fair and manageable methods that are integrated into real work-related or learning situations.
    > Judge evidence on the basis of its validity, currency, authenticity and sufficiency.
    > Ensure assessment processes are systematic, open and consistent. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    School Business Management qualifications from a number of countries including United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia and the United States of America were sourced to be compared with the FETC: School Business Management.

    Best Practice:

    Research conducted by the National Department of Education and the Task Team determined that the qualification currently offered in the United Kingdom is regarded as "best practice". The Institute of Administrative Management, operating in 67 countries, regards this programme as best practice for the sector, and accredits it jointly with the National College for School Leadership.

    Market Leaders:

    New Zealand, Australia and the United States of America were selected as market leaders in educational thinking and school administration models.

    United Kingdom:

    The National Certificate in School Business Management has been developed by the Department for Education and Skills in conjunction with the National College for School Leadership (NCSL), and is accredited by the Institute of Administrative Management (IAM). At the completion of the programme, candidates are awarded dual certification: a Certificate in SBM from the NCSL, and a Diploma in Administrative Management from the IAM. The qualification is recognized internationally and in use in many countries around the world.

    The Certificate of School Business Management (CSBM) is designed to develop professional knowledge, understanding and competence so that school business managers are able to contribute effectively to a number of key areas of school business management. The programme is closely linked to the workforce remodelling agenda, and equips school business managers to fulfil a range of roles formerly undertaken by senior teaching staff.

    The programme aims to provide a framework for developing and improving professional practice and through this to enhance the outcomes for the community in which school business managers work. The programme seeks to give school business managers the opportunity to explore and develop leadership, administrative and management skills and to acquire professional knowledge.

    The CSBM programme develops two sets of competences in school business management. These are divided into functional competences and generic SBM competences.

    The functional competences include specific areas of operational responsibility in school business management. They represent the functional competences required of effective and efficient SBMs: Risk management, financial management, human resources management, facilities management, office systems management, ICT management and sustainable development.

    The generic SBM competences relate to the professional role of school business managers and the changing context in which they work. These are generic to leadership, management and administration competences. These competences ensure that SBMs:
  • Have a considered view of their distinctive contribution to defining and achieving the school's vision for learning.
  • Reflect on their individual professional role and the developing competences that they bring to that role, and plan for continued professional development.
  • Are able to discuss their changing role and the impact of national initiatives (such as school workforce remodelling) on that role.
  • Analyse the professional or organisational context in which they work, and plan to make an impact on the organisation.
  • Demonstrate a key set of generic skills that underpin each of the different areas of responsibility in school business management.

    The Diploma of School Business Management (DSBM) is designed at a level higher than the CSBM and is aimed at the school business manager (SBM) who is working within the school senior management team. It focuses on the role the SBM can play in determining the strategic direction of their school.

    The course has three subject areas:
  • Strategic management.
  • Change management.
  • Managing school improvement.

    Completion of the DSBM programme results in dual certification: A Diploma in School Business Management from NCSL and an Advanced Diploma in Administrative Management from IAM (Level 5). In 2007, the NCSL in association with the Manchester Metro University introduced the Bachelor of Arts (Honours) Degree in School Business Management. The first cohort completing the Degree programme will be awarded dual certification: BA (Hon) Degree in SBM from the MMU/NCSL and a BA (Hon): Strategic Administrative Management from the IAM. The intention is to extend the scope of the course to Masters and Doctoral level in 2008 and 2009 respectively.

    ASBO International [Southern African Bursars of Independent Schools Association (SABISA) is a member, they are part of the WCED initiative]:

    Internationally there is the Association of School Business Officials International (ASBO), which was founded in 1910. The ASBO International is a professional association of 6,000 school business management professionals. Their mission is to provide programs and services to promote the highest standards of school business management practices, professional growth, and the effective use of educational resources.

    ASBO members are employed in K-12 school districts, community colleges, universities, and state departments of education. They manage the business side of school district operations, including the areas of budgeting, purchasing, and financial management, facility operations and maintenance, human resources, technology, transportation and security, food service, health care, and much more. With an average budget oversight of $60 million annually, ASBO International members are the finance decision makers in school districts around the world.

    In March 2006, ASBO released its 2nd Edition of the International School Business Management Professional Standards and Code of Ethics, detailing nearly 200 professional standards and a 28-point Ethical Code that encompasses Standards, Conduct, and Expectations of Personal and Professional Integrity.

    The professional standards cover:

    The Educational Enterprise:
  • Organization and Administration.
  • Public Policy and Intergovernmental Relations.
  • Legal Issues.

    Financial Resource Management:
  • Principles of School Finance.
  • Budgeting and Financial Planning.
  • Accounting, Auditing, and Financial Reporting.
  • Cash Management, Investments, and Debt Management.
  • Technology for School Finance Operations.

    Human Resource Management:
  • Personnel and Benefits Administration.
  • Professional Development.
  • Labor Relations and Employment Agreements.
  • Human Relations.

    Facility Management:
  • Planning and Construction.
  • Maintenance and Operations.

    Property Acquisition and Management:
  • Purchasing.
  • Supply and Fixed Asset Management.
  • Real Estate Management.

    Information Management:
  • Strategic Planning.
  • Instructional Support Program Evaluation.
  • Instructional Program Evaluation.
  • Communications.
  • Management Information Systems.

    Ancillary Services:
  • Risk Management.
  • Transportation.
  • Food Service.

    USA (California):

    A performance review conducted in California found that there were no uniform minimum qualifications and no credential, license or certification process required for Chief Business Officer (CBO) positions in the state's 1,000 school districts, despite the high level of fiscal responsibility these positions hold. The performance review discovered several instances of poor practice, and identified the need for training and development of those fulfilling the role of Chief Business Officer in Californian schools: Equivalent to the position under consideration in South African schools. The performance review recommended that the Secretary of Education should work with the State Superintendent of Public Instruction and other appropriate parties to determine the qualifications necessary for CBO positions, whether a license, certificate or credential should be a voluntary or mandatory requirement, and what impact such a requirement might have on recruiting.

    Recommendations of the Review included:
  • The Secretary for Education, or his or her successor, should work with the State Superintendent of Public Instruction and appropriate parties such as the California Association of School Business Officials, the Association of California School Administrators, the Fiscal Crisis and Management Assistance Team, and the Department of Finance, or its successor, to determine the qualifications necessary for chief business officer positions; whether a license, certificate, or credential should be a voluntary or mandatory requirement; and the impact of such a requirement on CBO recruitment.

    Prior to making licensure mandatory, the Secretary or his or her successor should evaluate the efficacy of existing training programs and the extent to which they have a beneficial impact on chief school business officers.
  • The Secretary for Education, or his or her successor, should send a memorandum to all school districts recommending that, as of Spring 2005, all recruitment bulletins and advertisements for chief school business officers indicate that preferential consideration should be given to candidates with training and certification by the Fiscal Crisis and Management Assistance Team, the California Association of School Business Officials or an equivalent training provider.

    The envisaged curriculum for business managers in Californian schools equates well to the curriculum under consideration for School Business Managers in South Africa. The recognition of the need for the qualification, as well as the need for improved, uniform training and development of those in bursar roles, parallels the findings in South Africa.

    New Zealand:

    New Zealand has five qualifications in educational "administration" (as opposed to management). The qualifications are:
  • National Certificate in Educational Administration (Administrative Support) Level 4.
  • National Certificate in Educational Administration (Governance) Level 6.
  • National Diploma in Educational Administration (Administrative) Level 6.
  • National Diploma in Educational Administration (Middle Management) Level 6.
  • National Diploma in Educational Administration (Senior Management) Level 7.

    The Level 4 Certificate includes the following unit standards within specified domains as described below:

    Domain: Operations in educational administration:
  • Develop a client focus in educational organisations.

    Domain: People management in educational administration:
  • Practice self management in educational administration.
  • Develop networks within the context of educational administration.

    Domain: Policy issues and research in educational administration:
  • Identify contemporary educational issues, trends, and research.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the New Zealand education system.

    Domain: Operations in educational administration:
  • Develop office and administrative systems in an educational organisation.
  • Control document presentation in an educational organisation.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of information technology in educational administration.
  • Work with school support agencies in educational administration.

    Domain: People management in educational administration:
  • Demonstrate knowledge of performance appraisal in educational administration.
  • Plan for, and participate in, peer review in an educational organisation.
  • Prepare for and participate in performance appraisal as an appraisee in an educational organisation.

    Domain: Planning in educational administration:
  • Identify and describe the information output needs of an educational organisation.
  • Investigate the potential application of information technologies in an educational environment.

    Australia:

    Under Public Management, Australia recognizes four certificate qualifications for school business management:

    School Support Services:
  • SP30604: Certificate III in Government (School Support Services).
  • PSP41904: Certificate IV in Government (School Support Services).
  • PSP30704: Certificate III in School Support Services.
  • PSP42004: Certificate IV in School Support Services.

    Typical certificate content (there are variations) for School Support Services include:

    Qualification Descriptor:

    This specialist qualification covers the competencies required by those providing school support services in government schools in a range of functions such as finance, administration, technology, scientific assistance, library assistance, disability support, hospitality, janitorial and grounds services. It is not targeted at teacher aide occupations. Electives may be taken from a single stream, such as finance or disability support, or from a range of streams to suit the particular workplace. If, however, all electives are chosen from units coded PSPGOV, the resulting qualification is a generalist Certificate III in Government, rather than this specialist qualification. Electives should reflect the responsibilities of the individual and the job skills required for effective performance. Where a free choice of Electives is possible in the qualification packaging rules, Electives may also be drawn from other Training Packages to reflect the work context and career plans of the individual.

    General areas of competence include:
  • Uphold the values and principles of public service.
  • Work effectively in the organisation.
  • Contribute to workgroup activities.
  • Work effectively with diversity.
  • Comply with legislation in the public sector.
  • Contribute to workplace safety.
  • Work safely in accordance with defined policies and procedures.
  • Build and maintain internal networks.
  • Work with a coach or mentor.
  • Access and use resources and financial systems.
  • Use workplace communication strategies.
  • Implement change.
  • Compose workplace documents.
  • Organise workplace information.
  • Contribute to conflict management.
  • Address client needs.
  • Give and receive workplace feedback.
  • Work in and with small, regional and remote organisations.

    Competency Stream: Administration:
  • Undertake basic procurement.
  • Maintain business resources.
  • Produce texts from notes.
  • Control records.
  • Design and develop text documents.
  • Support operational plan.
  • Create and use databases.
  • Support continuous improvement systems and processes.
  • Search and assess online business information.
  • Support a workplace learning environment.
  • Use and maintain electronic mail.

    Competency Stream: Finance:
  • Buy online.
  • Maintain financial records.
  • Bank online.
  • Evaluate and authorise payment requests.
  • Process payroll.
  • Process payment documentation.
  • Process accounts payable and receivable.
  • Process journal entries.
  • Maintain a general ledger.
  • Prepare reports for management.

    Competency Stream: Technology:
  • Use and adapt to changes in technology.
  • Provide basic system administration.
  • Install software to networked computers.
  • Maintain equipment and software in working order.
  • Support system software.

    Competency Stream: Human Resource Management:
  • Develop work priorities.
  • Implement effective workplace relationships.
  • Develop teams and individuals.
  • Implement operational plan.
  • Promote innovation and change.
  • Promote team effectiveness.
  • Administer human resource systems.
  • Manage a small team.
  • Process human resource documents and inquiries.
  • Administer human resource processes.
  • Co-ordinate human resource services.
  • Provide a consultancy service for human resource management.

    Other competency streams include:
  • Competency Stream: Disability Support.
  • Competency Stream: Library Support.
  • Competency Stream: Scientific Assistance.
  • Competency Stream: Hospitality.
  • Competency Stream: Janitorial and Grounds.

    Asian Education Management:

    The following statement is a clear indication of the importance with which school business management is regarded across APEC countries.

    Joint Statement from the 2nd APEC Education Ministerial Meeting, "Education for Learning Societies in the 21st Century", 7 April 2000:

    Reforming Education Management Systems:
  • The Ministers acknowledged that all sectors within APEC economies should have access to an affordable education. Effective school leadership and management of education systems and the requisite resources must be set in place so that all students can benefit from quality education suited to their needs and abilities.
  • The Ministers agreed that the monitoring and evaluation of outcomes will be an essential component of education management systems, especially with the new educational objectives of the 21st century. Using data at the school, system, and global levels in a continuous improvement process would be an essential part of a quality education management system.
  • An education system is only as good as its individual schools. A good monitoring system should be developed to ensure that education policies and reforms are effectively translated at the school level. This could be done, for instance, through school appraisal systems that are aligned with the desired outcomes of education. At the systemic level, education management systems should be focused on achieving efficiency, effectiveness and equity. Quality assurance systems should be developed to ensure that good standards of school management lead to good learning outcomes. At the global level, the introduction and comparison of educational indicators will be helpful tools in facilitating comparisons and learning across education systems.
  • Principles and practices similar to those outlined above should be applied to educational institutions at all levels.

    The extraordinary success of many Asian countries in expanding access and improving education quality is strong evidence of success in education management. While recognizing the remarkable achievements in the region, this research focuses on the challenges and problems that remain. Five generalizations about education management in Asia are supported by recent literature and country experience, and provide a framework for discussion:
  • The management of education across Asia has improved greatly over the last 10 years, but remains one of the weakest links in quality and efficiency of schooling in the region. In part this is so because the education sector has not been able to compete for the best managers in the booming economy of the region.
  • Many of the most serious problems facing education managers across Asia are not themselves education problems, but stem from factors within the larger environment that constrain the range of options available to education leaders. These factors include competition for resources, lack of attention from senior government officials, and lack of public support for the education sector. Education managers will need to become increasingly articulate about the payoff from continued investment in education, increasingly knowledgeable about strategies that are effective in producing those outcomes, and skilled at moving the system toward those ends with even fewer resources than in the past.
  • The judged adequacy of education management depends, in part, on what problems are laid at the feet of school and system administrators. The tendency is to hold administrators responsible for fixing virtually all the problems that beset the education system.
  • The present weaknesses in education management are essentially the same ones identified in virtually every previous study of education administration in the region. The curious issue is not that weaknesses persist, but that previous efforts to strengthen education management have not been more successful. The research suggests that better management probably depends on careful analysis and new thinking.
  • Given the issues that are likely to dominate education development agendas over the next decade, the school head teacher and support staff is the level of management that will experience the greatest change in role and responsibility, and is the level least prepared to do so.

    Education management in virtually all Asian countries follows a pyramid model, in which national policy, programs, and logistics are formulated by a central ministry of education organized into a set of divisions, bureaus, and units. This central ministry then works through a network of provincial, regional, and district education offices that largely duplicate the structure of the central Ministry of Education (MoE) and are responsible for ensuring that central policies are communicated and implemented in the schools. Individual schools are managed by head teachers, whose authority and responsibilities differ by country, but usually involve some combination of school management, school-ministry communications, school-community relations, and instructional supervision. The administrative and management issues at the various levels of the pyramid differ, and, given the new pressures for decentralization and community participation, are changing substantially.

    Indicators of Effective Education Management:

    Across Asia, authorities are reasonably clear about what constitutes good education management, regardless of the strengths or weaknesses encountered in any particular country. While the indicators below are not comprehensive, they present a sound picture of what effective management looks like. In general, good management is indicated when resource needs are correctly anticipated, resources are allocated when and where they are required, and effective instructional practices occur in the classroom. Despite widespread agreement, these conditions often are difficult to achieve, due to resource constraints and the complex social and political context in which education operates. To provide a framework for understanding these indicators better, the next section examines the management challenges facing the different levels of the system.

    Indicators of Effective Management of an Education System.
    Indicators of effective system level management (central ministry level):
  • Textbooks are produced in sufficient numbers and distributed to schools on time.
  • Instructional supplies are delivered to schools on time.
  • Supply of qualified teachers meets demand.
  • Teachers are appropriately assigned/deployed to schools.
  • Teachers' salaries are paid on time.
  • Schools have copies of syllabuses.
  • The ministry knows the location of schools throughout country.
  • Schools are appropriately located across the country.
  • A national plan is available which provides vision and focus for education activities.

    Indicators of effective intermediate level management (regional and district levels):
  • Teachers are appropriately assigned/deployed to schools.
  • School inspection occurs on an appropriate and regular basis.
  • Teachers receive instructional supervision.
  • Questions from head teachers and teachers receive timely responses.
  • Ministry information flows to schools in a timely way.
  • School information is conveyed to the ministry in a timely way.
  • Staff development activities for school personnel are well designed and implemented.

    Indicators of effective school-level management: [The School Business Manager level]:
  • Instructional supplies are ordered on time.
  • Teachers come to school on time.
  • Teacher absenteeism is low.
  • School facilities are in good repair.
  • Teachers have copies of syllabuses.
  • Teachers receive instructional supervision.
  • Each school has a functioning parent-teacher association.
  • Parents know how their children are progressing in their studies.

    Central-Level Management: Growth and Elaboration:

    The countries of Asia are rightly proud of the extraordinary growth of their education systems over the last two decades. So dramatic has it been that, across much of Asia, education is the largest public sector employer after the military, and in many cases commands one of the largest shares of government resources.
    The rapid growth has exacted a cost. In many countries, the education system expanded faster than qualified teachers and administrators could be recruited or trained. This led to larger proportions of unqualified teachers trying to teach without adequate textbooks or understanding their subject matter, led by school and system administrators with limited management skills working within poorly organized ministry structures. With the increasing size of education systems came greater elaboration and compartmentalization (though not necessarily greater clarity) of functions. Instead of solving the problem, this only drove up costs and further reduced effectiveness.

    While some countries have encountered serious problems in their central-level management of education, the story is not all bleak. Other countries in the region have been in the forefront in experimenting with administrative practices and programs through which central governments can influence what happens at the school and classroom levels, many with considerable success. Strategies that have most often been employed in the region to improve education management include:
  • Resource allocation to schools.
  • Improved management information systems.
  • Decentralization of decision making.
  • Decentralization of an information system to provincial, district, or local levels.

    The research warns, though, that decentralization is not an automatic solution, unless decision making reflects a clearly defined division of authority and responsibility between different levels of the system. School head teachers are on the cutting edge between the administration of education and the actual delivery of instruction to children. Yet few have adequate preparation for their jobs or authority to change the way their schools operate. They have difficult tasks that will only become more difficult over the next decade. Significantly, the research notes that "One of the ironies of education development is that the push toward decentralization now under way to varying degrees in virtually all countries in the region shifts more responsibility to the group of education administrators least ready to accept it".

    While there is considerable agreement on the indicators of effective education management, the majority of DMCs still suffer from weak management. This is most often because:
  • Lines of authority and responsibility for education management are confusing.
  • Education managers do not have the knowledge or skills to do their jobs. Both problems must be solved if education management is to improve, and the solutions need to be synchronized. Training is wasted if managers, once trained, do not have the authority, responsibility, or motivation to act. Structural reform is wasted if managers still do not know how to do their jobs. Some central-level interventions to improve school level practice have been successful but, across the region, the movement is toward more decentralized management. Ironically, this movement to improve local management of education may only exacerbate the problem. Decentralization may shift more responsibility to the group of education administrators least prepared to handle it.

    African Education Management:

    The Southern African Bursars of Independent Schools Association (SABISA) is the most prominent African body connected with school business management. As they are an integral part of the Task Team generating this qualification, they cannot be considered here.

    Many African countries are concerned at the effectiveness or otherwise of school business management, but none have qualifications in place or have made provision for these posts in schools. Most are concerned with improving the quality of the academic staff and struggling with ratios, finance and facilities. This is borne out by direct TLN experience of Namibia while generating National Standards for Professional Teachers in Namibia during 2006. Huge concern was expressed at all levels from the Ministry to the School Heads and teachers about the increased administrative load and the negative impact on classroom management and the quality of learning.

    Kenya:

    An investigation conducted recently in Kenya suggested that the Education Ministry is concerned about complacency and administrative flaws which have been associated with most of the principals and head teachers in Kenyan schools, leading to deteriorating performance in schools (source: Education Assistant Minister Dr Kilemi Mwiria).

    Education experts are also warning that mounting role of head teachers could be leading to poor performance in most schools, as the school heads struggle to juggle the tasks arising from increased enrolment and enhanced managerial responsibilities, negating their teaching role. Head teachers are increasingly deserting classrooms to attend to other administrative duties and private businesses, therefore not playing their role-modelling task to the other teachers. Dr Andrew Riechi, an education policy analyst at the Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR) -a policy research outfit- reckons the absence of principals and school teachers in the practical implementation of the schools is to blame for falling education standards in most schools in the country.

    Two months ago, the Ministry of Education in Kenya stepped up efforts to bring discipline into the management of school finances. According to Musau Ndunda, the secretary of the Kenya National Parents Association (KNAP), most of the school heads admitted they had no time for class work as they were busy attending to other matters of administration.

    The recommendation is that the Government hire trained non-teaching staff such as bursars to handle administrative matters for both primary and secondary schools holding off school heads from managerial duties where they will only operate as overseers.

    Conclusion:

    There is strong international support for the existence of professional school business administration. No-one doubts the importance of the school business manager and many are decentralising and localising without considering the skills required at local level to deal with administration which is choking learning.

    The Education Department's own research has identified the Certificate in School Business Management as the most appropriate equivalent for the South African context. The programme will be trialled in the Western Cape during 2008.

    This qualification will provide for the recognition of the schools identified as critical by the Education Department as they develop new approaches to school management in the interests of improved delivery of education services. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    This qualification has horizontal articulation possibilities with the following qualifications:
  • Further Education and Training Certificate: Business Systems Operations: End User (ERP).
  • Further Education and Training Certificate: Generic Management.
  • National Certificate: Business Administration Services.
  • Further Education and Training Certificate: HR Management and Practices Support.

    This qualification has vertical articulation possibilities with the following qualifications:
  • National Certificate: Management, NQF Level 5.
  • National Certificate: Organisational Transformation and Change Management, NQF Level 5.
  • National Diploma: Organisational Transformation and Change Management NQF Level 5.
  • National Diploma: Human Resource Management and Practices, NQF Level 5.
  • Advanced Certificate: Education (School Management and Leadership) NQF Level 6. 

  • MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Providers offering learning towards this qualification or the component exit level outcomes must be accredited by the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to moderation principles and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
    Assessors must be registered in terms of the requirements of SAQA and the relevant ETQA and have a qualification in administration at NQF Level 5 or higher. 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    NOTES 
    N/A 

    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
     
    NONE 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. ABASUNGULI TRAINING SPESIALISTS (PTY) LTD 
    2. Goldfields FET College 
    3. Marematlou Training Institute 
    4. Northern Cape Urban College: Kimberley Campus 
    5. TLN HUMAN PERFORMANCE SYSTEMS (PTY) LTD 
    6. Vuselela FET College - Potchefstroom Campus 
    7. Waterberg FET College - Central Office 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.