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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION: 

Foundational Learning Competence 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
88895  Foundational Learning Competence 
ORIGINATOR
QCTO Task Team - Foundational Learning Competence 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
QCTO - Quality Council for Trades and Occupations  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
Foundational Learning Cert  Field 05 - Education, Training and Development  Adult Learning 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  40  Not Applicable  NQF Level 02  Regular-ELOAC 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Reregistered  SAQA 10105/14  2015-07-01  2018-06-30 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2019-06-30   2022-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification does not replace any other qualification and is not replaced by any other qualification. 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
Purpose:
Foundational Learning refers to the competence needed in the two key areas of Communication and Mathematical Literacy in order to deal successfully with occupational learning at NQF Levels 2-4. Its key purpose is to remove barriers to learning and progress in occupational pathways and skills development.

The part qualification component 'Foundational Communication' describes the language skills, processes, knowledge and practices needed in the language of instruction for occupational training and in the language of formal usage in the workplace. The purpose of this component is to enable individuals to deal confidently and successfully with the Language of Learning and Teaching (LOLT) of formal occupational training, in relation to oral skills, print-based learning and the language of external assessments such as trade tests. People who achieve the part qualification will be able to speak, listen, read and write meaningfully and effectively in the language of instruction, so that they can progress further in their chosen occupational pathways and workplace contexts.

The part qualification component 'Foundational Mathematical Literacy' is the minimum, generic mathematical literacy that will provide learners with the necessary foundation to cope with the mathematical demands of occupational training and to engage meaningfully in real-life situations involving mathematics. Foundational Mathematical Literacy will also serve as the foundation for further development of an individual in mathematical literacy contexts and mathematical concepts that may be specific to an occupation or trade.

Individuals who have met all the requirements of Foundational Mathematical Literacy are able to make sense of and solve problems in real contexts by responding to information about mathematical ideas that are presented in a variety of ways. Individuals will solve problems by defining their goals, analysing and making sense of problem situations, planning how to solve problems, executing their plans, interpreting and evaluating the results, and justifying the method and solution. Individuals will respond by means of identifying or locating, ordering, sorting, comparing, counting, estimating, computing, measuring, modelling, interpreting and communicating. The mathematical ideas will revolve around number and quantity, space and shape, patterns and relationships, data and chance and measurements.

Rationale:
The Foundational Learning Competence (FLC) Part Qualification comprises two components, Mathematical Literacy and Communication, as these two areas have been identified as platform skills for occupational progress and skills development. The FLC Part Qualification defines itself in the context of the occupational qualifications framework. It was developed to address the following needs:
  • Many South Africans are denied qualifications in occupations and trades at NQF Levels 2, 3 and 4 because they are unable to achieve the compulsory fundamental requirements at all four levels in the FET band for mathematical literacy and language. Foundational Learning provides an alternative qualification model to enable progress in occupational qualifications pathways.
  • Many South Africans are unable to cope with the learning demands of qualifications at NQF Levels 2, 3 and 4 due to historical educational backlogs which resulted in a gap in their understanding of and ability to apply mathematics literacy and language. Foundational Learning supports learners in the skills development context.
  • Additional language or Mathematical Literacy requirements specific to sector and occupational domains are addressed in the design process of occupational qualifications in the FET band, building on the competence levels of the FLC Part Qualification.

    The FLC Part Qualification is linked to an assessment model that is designed to streamline the process of identifying those who need upskilling in the two foundational areas, while at the same time serving as Recognition for Prior Learning for those who already have the minimum competence in place. It therefore enables access and removes barriers to occupational progression.

    This part qualification must be read together with the Curriculum Framework for each learning area. These are registered with the Quality Council for Trades and Occupation (QCTO), and provide detailed specifications of knowledge, content, applied skills, range statements and assessment requirements. Programme development must be done in relation to these frameworks; compliance with the Curriculum Frameworks is an indicator in the provider accreditation process for this part qualification. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are competent in:
  • Communication at Adult Based Education and Training (ABET) Level 3 or equivalent.
  • Mathematical Literacy at ABET Level 3 or equivalent.

    Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL):
    This part qualification may be obtained through the Recognition of Prior Learning. For the purpose of recognising prior learning, learners will be required to undertake a formal assessment according to the designated Assessment Quality Partner's (AQP) assessment mechanisms. The notion of Recognition of Prior Learning is primary to the purpose and rationale of the FLC Part Qualification. The qualification model allows for candidates to present themselves for the National External Assessment without first going through a foundational learning programme, thus creating a model for Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) that has been lacking in the areas of language and mathematical literacy. However, candidates following this route should take cognisance of the Learning Assumed to be in Place as stipulated in the qualification.

    Minimum programme-based requirements are specified in each of the Foundational Learning subject area curriculum frameworks registered by the QCTO. Recognition of Prior Learning candidates successful in the National External Assessment for the FLC Part Qualification who do not undertake a learning programme are condoned for programme-based internal assessment requirements.

    Access to Qualification

    Open.
    However, it should be noted that individuals who do not have firmly established Mathematical Literacy skills or literacy skills in the language of the National External Assessment are unlikely to be successful. 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
    Learners must achieve 20 credits for the Foundational Communication component and 20 credits for the Foundational Mathematical Literacy component. Both components are compulsory. 

    EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    Foundational Communication:
    1. Read and understand a range of text types, extract and use information, and make critical judgments.
    2. Write a variety of texts to record information and ideas.
    3. Interact orally with others with a reasonable degree of confidence for a number of purposes.
    4. Read and produce visual texts.
    5. Use knowledge of grammar to understand and communicate effectively through reading, writing, speaking and listening.
    6. Use the language of learning and teaching effectively for occupational learning and training.

    Foundational Mathematical Literacy:
    1. Use numbers in a variety of forms to describe and make sense of situations, and to solve problems in a range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts.
    2. Manage personal finances using financial documents and related formulae.
    3. Collect, display and interpret data in various ways and solve related problems.
    4. Make measurements using appropriate measuring tools and techniques to solve problems in various measurement contexts.
    5. Describe and represent objects and the environment in terms of spatial properties and relationships.
    6. Interpret and solve problems involving mathematical patterns, relationships and functions.

    Critical Cross-Field Outcomes:

    This part qualification addresses the following Critical Cross-Field Outcomes:
  • Identifying and solving problems in which responses indicate that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made:
    > Foundational Communication supports the formulation of problems and the exploration of solutions through effective communication.
    > Foundational Mathematical Literacy relates primarily to solving problems in real-life contexts using mathematical knowledge and skills.
  • Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community:
    > Foundational Communication is essential in promoting successful interaction between members of groups and communities.
    > Foundational Mathematical Literacy involves a high degree of working with others to find, discuss and debate solutions to mathematical problems.
  • Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively.
    > Foundational Communication explicitly emphasises using language to organise and manage oneself in lifelong learning and the workplace.
    > Foundational Mathematical Literacy requires learners to maintain a consistently high degree of self-organisation and management in order to cope with the wide range of concepts and contexts addressed.
  • Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information:
    > Foundational Communication improves language skills as required for this critical outcome, and involves the processing and presentation of information in different formats.
    > Foundational Mathematical Literacy involves the collection, analysis, organisation and presentation of data using tables, graphs and charts.
  • Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral/written persuasion:
    > Foundational Communication requires learners to communicate effectively through written, visual and verbal modes.
    > Foundational Mathematical Literacy requires learners to communicate verbally, in writing and symbolically about methods used and reasons for various solutions.
  • Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others:
    > Foundational Communication makes it possible for people to access and use scientific and technological information and applications.
    > Foundational Mathematical Literacy involves the use of simple technology related to measurement, calculations, record keeping and graphs.
  • Demonstrating and understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation:
    > Foundational Communication enables learners to explore language as a structuring mechanism for understanding the world. Language enables discovery and articulation of linkages and relationships in a range of contexts.
    > Foundational Mathematical Literacy requires learners to contextualise solutions within a broader environment, identifying linkages, similarities and differences between the various contexts. 

  • ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    Associated Assessment Criteria for Foundational Communication:

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 1:
    1.1 Reading strategies used match the text types and task purposes.
    1.2 Information is accessed from a range of different text types.
    1.3 Responses to given texts show understanding of literal and implied information.
    1.4 Responses to texts take context into account.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 2:
    2.1 Texts appropriate to requirements are produced.
    2.2 Texts are sufficiently clear in terms of spelling, punctuation and language structure to be understood, even if usage is not entirely correct or consistent.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 3:
    3.1 Oral communication is successful and achieves its intended purpose.
    3.2 Questions are clearly expressed and elicit the required information.
    3.3 Meaning is sufficiently clear, although complete fluency and accuracy is not expected.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 4:
    4.1 Relevant content from visual text is interpreted and explained.
    4.2 Purpose and effectiveness of specific visual texts are accurately described.
    4.3 Appropriate visual texts are produced in response to instructions.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 5:
    5.1 Grammatical structures and conventions of the Language Of Learning and Teaching (LOLT) are used effectively in the context of specific communication tasks and outputs.
    5.2 Texts produced show correct application of a range of language structures.
    5.3 Responses to received texts show understanding of correct and incorrect usage of a range of language structures.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 6:
    6.1 Study skills are not assessed in isolation. They are manifested through performance in occupational training and related external assessments, as well as Foundational Learning Part Qualification programme outcomes and the National External Assessment.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Foundational Mathematical Literacy:

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 1:
    1.1 Calculations are performed accurately and according to the conventions governing the order of operations.
    1.2 Methods are presented in a clear, logical and structured manner, using mathematical symbols and notation consistent with mathematical conventions.
    1.3 Methods used are efficient, logical, and internally consistent and justified by the context.
    1.4 The degree of accuracy of solutions is justified by the context.
    1.5 Problem-solving strategies are based on a correct interpretation of the context.
    1.6 Solutions are evaluated and validated in terms of the context, and numbers are rounded appropriately to the problem situation.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 2:
    2.1 Interpretations of personal financial documents are consistent with recorded facts.
    2.2 Financial information is recorded and organised clearly, accurately and according to general finance-recording techniques and principles.
    2.3 Personal budgets reflect the financial situation in sufficient detail for planning and monitoring personal finances.
    2.4 Costs of products and services are evaluated using a variety of issues.
  • Range: Affordability, personal needs and accuracy of advertising claims.
    2.5 Personal finances are monitored in terms of various influences.
  • Range: Income, expenditure, investments, loans, taxation and inflation.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 3:
    3.1 Data collection techniques are appropriate to the context, type of data and purpose.
    3.2 Data are classified, organised and summarised appropriately so that they promote meaningful analysis.
    3.3 Data are displayed using techniques appropriate to the type of information and context and promote ease of interpretation and minimise bias.
    3.4 Interpretations and predictions are verified by the data and observed trends.
    3.5 Simple probabilities are determined accurately and statements of chance are correctly interpreted in context.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 4:
    4.1 Measuring instruments used meet the accuracy requirements of the context.
    4.2 Readings are recorded within appropriate margins of error and using appropriate units.
    4.3 Calculations are performed accurately, keeping units consistent and conversions between units accurate.
    4.4 Solutions to problems are validated according to the context, including appropriate rounding and use of units.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 5:
    5.1 Two- and three-dimensional shapes are described and compared in terms of their main properties.
    5.2 Drawings and representations of shapes and solids are consistent with the actual shapes and solids.
    5.3 The language of shape and space is used in context.
    5.4 The dimensions and proportions of drawings are consistent with the actual object and given scale.
    5.5 Drawings of objects from different viewpoints are consistent with the actual viewpoints of the objects.
    5.6 Maps are used effectively to give and make sense of real locations, distances and relative positions.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 6:
    6.1 Patterns are identified and described based on the relationships between the elements of the pattern.
    6.2 Patterns are expressed in general terms where possible.
    6.3 Patterns are completed and/or extended in keeping with the general patterns.
    6.4 Relationships between independent and dependent variables are represented through tables and graphs to facilitate analysis and problem solving.
    6.5 Solutions to problems involving patterns and relationships are validated in context.

    Integrated Assessment:

    External Assessment:
    The Foundational National External Assessment is a national assessment offered in the two learning areas of Foundational Communication and Foundational Mathematical Literacy. Its purpose is to a provide quick and efficient assessment instruments to benchmark the broad competence level of an individual in the two Foundational Learning areas, in support of successful occupational training.

    This national assessment has the following features:
  • It is a machine scored item-based, multiple choice format assessment.
  • It is available at regular intervals, with quick delivery of results.
  • It is administered by an external AQP appointed by the QCTO.
  • Successful candidates are awarded a statement of results by the QCTO for each learning area, and the FLC Part Qualification once both components have been achieved.

    Success in the Foundational Learning assessment in both learning areas is compulsory for final award of any occupational qualifications at NQF Levels 3-4. Candidates can enter the assessments before or during their occupational training. If successful in a learning area, they do not need to undertake a Foundational Learning programme in that area. If unsuccessful, they undertake the relevant learning programme and then re-take the relevant Foundational Learning assessment. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    This part qualification has been compared to qualifications in Australia, the United Kingdom (UK) and Finland for communication and the United States of America (USA) for Mathematical Literacy, as they offer best practice models of adult learning programmes which are relevant to the adult learner and have been designed to meet specific needs. In addition, these countries also have a high rate of immigrants and offer basic adult education to enable such learners to upgrade and further their learning.

    Foundational Communication:

    Australia has variations of courses for General Education for Adults (equivalent to SA NQF level 1), where the following standards can be selected to make up the "core" language component of qualifications that are indeed more generic than occupationally directed. Starting with the initial certificate for General Education and Training for Adults:
  • VBQU207: Engage with short simple texts for learning purposes.
  • VBQU208: Engage with short simple texts for employment purposes.
  • VBQU222: Create short simple texts for learning purposes.
  • VBQU222: Create short simple texts for employment purposes.

    The progression from the above through Certificates I, II and III sees the same options available, i.e. reading and writing texts for learning purposes and employment purposes, but with the complexity of texts increasing.

    These are:
  • VBQU220: Engage with simple texts for learning purposes.
  • VBQU222: Engage with simple texts for employment purposes.
  • VBQU224: Create simple texts for learning purposes.
  • VBQU225: Create simple texts for employment purposes.
  • VBQU233: Engage with texts of limited complexity for learning purposes.
  • VBQU234: Engage with texts of limited complexity for employment purposes.
  • VBQU237: Create texts of limited complexity for learning purposes.
  • TDTE497B: Prepare workplace documents.
  • VBQU245: Engage with texts of some complexity for learning purposes.
  • VBQU246: Engage with texts of some complexity for employment purposes.
  • VBQU249: Create texts of some complexity for learning purposes.
  • VBQU250: Create texts of some complexity for employment purposes.
  • VBQU257: Engage with a range of complex texts for learning purposes.
  • VBQU258: Engage with a range of complex texts for employment purposes.
  • VBQU262: Create a range of complex texts for learning purposes.
  • PSPGOV323A: Compose workplace documents.

    Given that the FLC Part Qualification Communications has been constructed by developing outcomes that cross over the clear boundaries of NQF Levels 1 and 2, one would find different outcomes comparable to outcomes that spread across the Australian standards listed above.

    In the UK the Qualification Council Authority (QCA) works with the sector skills councils to ensure that entry level vocational qualifications provide a useful introduction to relevant working practices. Entry level certificates include curriculum subjects such as English and Mathematics and at a basic level adult literacy and numeracy. The Certificates are made up of units and learners can achieve these separately, until the full certificate is achieved. What is of relevance to the FLC Part Qualification is that in the UK the purpose for achieving these certificates is more vocationally focused than Australia and South Africa. Thus the link between English and mathematics curriculum subjects and vocational programmes is stronger.

    In Finland the Initial VET (Vocational Certificate) is equivalent to upper secondary and links strongly with their Adult Education system. There is a noticeable emphasis on vocational training and preparing people for the workplace. Notably the vocational qualification includes general studies supplementing vocational competence (mother tongue, second national language, a foreign language, mathematics).

    When looking at International Comparability in this case it is not only finding comparability in terms of standards and qualifications that is important, but also comparability and support for the notion of an FLC as part qualification of occupation and trade qualifications.

    Foundational Mathematical Literacy:

    The USA Department of Labor: Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) :

    Foundational Mathematical Literacy was informed in part by the table produced by SCANS of the "empirical mathematics" that individuals can be expected to perform in each of the different roles. The table is organised according to the problem domains: planning; systems and processes; interpersonal; information; and technology. The table is further organised according to the needs of a worker, consumer, citizen and personal needs.

    USA - Steen: Reaching for Qualitative Literacy:

    Foundational Mathematical Literacy was further informed by Steen's findings on the need for quantitative literacy, in which he outlines that the dilemma we face today is to reconcile society's demands for quantitative literacy (or numeracy) with mathematicians' desires for enhanced mathematics education. Although numeracy and mathematics are clearly related, they are also quite different. The contrast is especially striking when one compares mathematics found in school to mathematics found in the world of work (Forman & Steen, 1999):
  • Mathematics in the workplace makes sophisticated use of elementary mathematics (not elementary use of sophisticated mathematics).
  • Numbers in the workplace are embedded in context, used with appropriate units of measurement, and supported by computer graphics.
  • Work-related mathematics is rich in data, interspersed with conjecture, dependent on technology, and tied to useful applications.
  • Work contexts often require multi-step solutions to open-ended problems, require a high degree of accuracy, and proper regard for required tolerances.
  • Numbers are used not just to represent quantities, but also to calculate tolerances and limit errors.
  • Algebra is used not so much to solve equations as to represent complex relationships in symbolic form.
  • Geometry is used not so much to prove results as for modelling and measuring, primarily in three dimensions.

    Steen provides examples of some professions and careers that have not heretofore been viewed as heavy users of mathematical tools but which are becoming increasingly dependent on quantitative literacy:
  • Lawyers rely on careful logic to build their cases and on subtle arguments about probability to establish or refute "reasonable doubt".
  • Doctors need both understanding of statistical evidence and the ability to explain risks with sufficient clarity to develop "informed consent".
  • Farmers now use earth mapping data from satellites and information from ground probes to construct computer models to optimise timing of crops and use of fertiliser and herbicides.
  • Journalists need a sophisticated understanding of quantitative issues (especially of risks, rates, samples, surveys, and statistical evidence) in order to develop an informed and sceptical understanding of the news that they report.
  • Architects use geometry and computer graphics for design, statistics and probability to model usage, and calculus to understand engineering principles.
  • Machinists use Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) tools to shape precision parts for everything from sewing machines to aircraft.

    Steen shows that these examples of quantitatively demanding jobs can be found in every sector of the economy, from chefs to secretaries, from office managers to telephone repair personnel. Increasingly, a person's quantitative skills make the difference between being hired or not, and between success or failure on the job. In today's job market, demand for numeracy far exceeds supply.

    In addition to their use at work, quantitative habits of mind are equally helpful in daily life, especially in managing household budgets. These days, such work requires far more than elementary school arithmetic:
  • Comparing credit card offers with different interest rates for different periods of time.
  • Understanding the investment benefits of diversification and income averaging.
  • Calculating income tax and understanding tax implications of financial decisions.
  • Estimating long-term costs of making lower monthly credit card payments.
  • Interpreting medical statistics and formulating relevant questions about different options for treatment in relation to known risks and the specifics of one's own condition.

    Steen shows that mathematics is embedded at work, almost unnoticed, virtually everywhere one looks:
  • Looking for patterns in data to identify trends in costs, sales, and demand.
  • Determining the break-even point for manufacturing and sale of a new product.
  • Reviewing the budget of a small non-profit corporation and understanding relevant trends.
  • Producing a schedule or tree diagram for a complicated project.
  • Looking up, interpreting, and using work-related formulas.
  • Using spreadsheets to model different sales options and preparing graphs that illustrate these options.
  • Maintaining and using quality control charts.
  • Optimising networks to discover efficient ways to plan work processes.
  • Understanding the value of statistical quality control and statistical process control.

    Then Steen shows the benefits to citizens (and through them, to society) of quantitative literacy:
  • Understanding that unusual events (such as cancer clusters) can easily occur by chance alone.
  • Understanding quantitative arguments made in newspapers or voter information pamphlets (e.g., about school budgets or tax proposals).
  • Understanding the difference between rates and changes in rates, for example, a decline in prices as compared to a decline in the rate of growth of prices.
  • Understanding how small samples can accurately predict public opinion, how sampling errors can limit reliability, and how sampling bias can influence results.
  • Understanding how apparent bias in hiring or promotion may be an artefact of how data are aggregated.
  • Understanding that mathematics is a deductive discipline in which conclusions are true only if assumptions are satisfied.
  • Understanding the role mathematics played in the scientific revolution and the roles it continues to play today.
  • Understanding the difference between deductive, scientific, and statistical inference.
  • Understanding how the history of mathematics relates to the development of culture and society.

    Foundational Mathematical Literacy was informed by and compares favourably with the guideline offered by Steen on the following areas of need:

    About numbers and measurement:
  • Measurement: Direct and indirect measurement. Use of appropriate instruments (rulers, tapes, micrometers, pacing, electronic gauges and plumb lines). Squaring corners and constructions. Estimating tolerances; detecting and correcting misalignments.
  • Calculation: Strategies for checking reasonableness and accuracy. Significant digits; interval arithmetic; errors and tolerances. Spreadsheet methods for handling problems with lots of data.
  • Mental Estimation: Estimating orders of magnitude. Quick approximations of total costs, distances, times. Proportional reasoning. Mental checking of calculator and computer results.
  • Numbers: Scientific notation; units and conversions. Intuitive comprehension of extreme numbers (lottery chances, astronomical distance). Decimal, binary, octal, and hex coding; ASCII code; check digits.
  • Index Numbers: Creation of stock market averages; consumer price index; gross national product; unemployment rates. Definitions and deficiencies; uses and abuses.

    About space and geometry:
  • Dimensions: Geometric dimension (linear, square, and cubic) vs. coordinate dimensions in multivariable phenomena. Proper vs. improper analogies. Discrete vs. continuous dimensions.
  • Dimensional Scaling: Relation of linear, area, and volume measures under proportional scaling; fractal dimensions.
  • Spatial Geometry: Shapes in space; interpreting construction diagrams. Calculating angles in three-dimensions (e.g., meeting of roof trusses); building three-dimensional objects and drawing two-dimensional diagrams.
  • Global Positioning: Map projections, latitude and longitude, global positioning systems (GPS); local, regional, and global coordinate systems.

    About data and risk:
  • Financial Mathematics: Loans, annuities, insurance. Personal finance; nonlinear impact of changes in interest rates. Investment instruments (stocks, mortgages, bonds).
  • Data Analysis: Visual displays of data (pie charts, scatter plots, bar graphs, box and whisker charts). Quality control charts. Recognising and dealing with outliers.
  • Risk Analysis: Estimates of common risks (e.g., accidents, diseases, causes of death, lotteries). Confounding factors. Communicating and interpreting risk.
  • Probability: Chance and randomness; hot streaks; bias paradoxes.
    About planning and modelling:
  • Planning: Allocating resources; preparing budgets; determining fair division; negotiating differences; scheduling processes, decision trees; systems thinking.
  • Growth and Variation: Linear, exponential, quadratic, harmonic, and normal curve patterns. Examples of situations that fit these patterns (bacterial growth, length of day) and of those that do not (e.g., height vs. weight; income distribution).
  • Mathematical Modelling: Abstracting from real-world situations; reasoning within mathematical models; testing results for suitability and accuracy; revision and repetition of modelling cycle.
  • Information Systems: Collecting and organising data; Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Management Information Systems (MIS); visual representation of data.
  • Scientific Modelling: Common mathematical models such as acceleration, astronomical geometry, electrical current, genetic coding, harmonic motion, heredity, stoichiometry.
  • Technological Tools: Facility with scientific and graphing calculators, spreadsheets, statistical packages, presentation software, and Internet resources. Experience converting data from one form and system to another.

    About reasoning and inference:
  • Statistical Inference: Rationale for random samples; double blind experiments; surveys and polls; confidence intervals. Causality vs. correlation.
  • Scientific Inference: Gathering data; detecting patterns, making conjectures; testing conjectures; drawing inferences. Verifying vs. falsifying theories.
  • Verification: Levels of convincing argument. Legal reasoning ("beyond reasonable doubt" vs. "preponderance of evidence"). Informal inference (suspicion, experience, likelihood). Logical deduction.
  • Mathematical Inference: Assumptions, conclusions, and counterexamples. Axiomatic systems; logical deduction; theorems and proofs. Mathematical "induction."

    Foundational Mathematical Literacy was also informed by a variety of other international theorists as follows:

    Forman and Steen:
    Industry Needs:
    Employees in business and industry need employees to:
  • Recognise and use core concepts of elementary school mathematics such as ratio, proportion, and percentage.
  • Understand certain advanced topics such as statistical inference, data analysis, and process control.
    What Mathematics is Essential?
    The fundamental need is the ability to:
  • Understand the value of quantitative information.
  • Conceptualise problems.
  • Organise and interpret data in useful ways i.e. data analysis, advanced arithmetic, risk analysis (probability and statistics), and financial mathematics.

    At work:
  • Numbers are used for measurement and are always accompanied by both uncertainties and units.
  • Many tasks involve considerable complexity but very little advanced mathematics.
  • Tasks involve many complex facets simultaneously.
  • Envisions statistics are envisioned in terms of quality control and management decisions.

    Ewell:
    Critical aspects of functional citizenship require facility in:
  • Interpreting graphic representations of data.
  • Understanding basic notions of statistical confidence.
  • Being able quickly to recognise inappropriate uses of data to support a public policy position constitute.

    Shroll:
    Business wants new employees who can do mathematics accurately, within benchmark time periods, and frequently with the use of a calculator.

    In the world of work problem solving means dealing with real, unpredictable, and unorganised situations where the first task is to organise the information and only then calculate to find an answer.

    In the world of work, organising the information is the most important aspect. The mechanical calculations are now often done with computers or calculators or electronic cash registers.

    The use of charts, graphs, maps, etc. are absolutely essential in the world of work and therefore should be essential in the world of education. Charts, graphs, diagrams, etc., are the evolving language of business, made necessary because of the significant problems associated with communication based only on words, written or oral. The ideal situation is when someone has the ability to communicate in many different ways including charts, graphs, words, symbols, and more.

    Stage:
    As a consumer, the core would include number sense, estimation ability (to recognise when a scanner is broken, or that something was entered twice, or with a misplaced decimal), and the ability to figure out personal finances such as whether it's worth taking out a loan to pay off your credit cards. To stay healthy, consumers also need to be able to read and interpret nutritional labels, and to figure out what information is relevant for one's own diet and health choices.

    As an employee, apart from job-specific skills, there's an increasing need to be able to develop spreadsheet models and "what if" manipulations, as well as an ability to decipher quantitative information, interpret it, and communicate it to others in forms (e.g., graphs, charts, tables, formulas) that make sense in context.

    The core includes mainly arithmetic and middle school concepts, emphasising a facility with estimation, manipulation using technology, or mental arithmetic, all of it in context, all of it sense-making.

    Conclusion:
    The Foundational Learning Certificate compares well, as demonstrated, with a diversity of strategies internationally for addressing possible learner deficits for the purposes of progression within learning pathways or enhancing the quality of engagement with people's environment. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    This part qualification, by definition, articulates directly with all occupational and trade qualifications at NQF Levels 3 and 4, as well as with those occupational and trade qualifications at NQF Level 2 that specify Foundational Learning as a requirement. Any stipulations regarding the LOLT and the language of occupational assessment (e.g. trade tests) for the Foundational Communication component of the Part Qualification must be made in the relevant occupational qualification.

    The development process for occupational qualifications at NQF Levels 2, 3 and 4 needs to be closely linked to an understanding of the FLC Part Qualification as the platform of generic competence in language and mathematical literacy. Occupational qualifications can then specify any further requirements for their sector or needs (e.g., additional mathematics in engineering qualifications; or specialised vocabulary in financial services sectors or legal environments). 

    MODERATION OPTIONS 
    N/A 

    CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
    The assessment model for Foundational Learning is in accordance with the QCTO model of assessment quality partners. An AQP will be registered by the QCTO on the basis that the AQP meets the QCTO's general requirements for registration as an AQP, as well as the ability to meet the particular requirements of assessing Foundational Learning as outlined in the external assessment requirements above. 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2015. 

    NOTES 
    Notes Exit Level Outcomes: Foundational Communication:

    Note on Range:
    Range statements refer to the scope and level of content (e.g. types and lengths of texts) and the different contexts (e.g. formal or informal listening and speaking situations) in which learning outcomes are demonstrated. However, language skills at this level are expected to be applied across a wide and varied range of topics, through various forms of communication, and across workplace, training and life skills contexts. The complexity levels of printed, visual and oral material also vary, depending on how and why these are used. It would not be feasible to list all possible ranges in this document.

    This part qualification document therefore gives a broad range statement for each exit level outcome, followed by a summarised list of the knowledge and practical skills range for the outcome. These must be read in conjunction with the registered Curriculum Framework for a particular language. The framework gives illustrative examples of scope and contexts for each element. Levels are illustrated through the use of Task Exemplars.
    For the purposes of the external formal written assessment, guidelines on range are given in the section Integrated Assessment.

    Exit Level Outcome 1 will apply across the following range of knowledge and practical skills:
  • Use a range of reading strategies.
  • Identify main and supporting ideas.
  • Identify conventions and formats of different text types.
  • Identify the organisation and structure of a text.
  • Interpret and respond critically to a text.

    Associated assessment criteria for Exit Level Outcome 1:
    1.1 Reading strategies used match the text types and task purposes.
    1.2 Information is accessed from a range of different text types.
    1.3 Responses to given texts show understanding of literal and implied information.
    1.4 Responses to texts take context into account.

    Exit Level Outcome 2 will apply across the following range of knowledge and practical skills:
  • Use a range of writing strategies.
  • Produce appropriate text type for purpose and audience.
  • Select and convey relevant content.
  • Use grammatical and other language conventions so that the main message is clear.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 2:
    2.1 Texts appropriate to requirements are produced
    2.2 Texts are sufficiently clear in terms of spelling, punctuation and language structures so that it can be understood, even if usage is not entirely correct or consistent.

    Exit Level Outcome 3 will apply across the following range of knowledge and practical skills:
  • Use strategies to understand spoken language
  • Formulate questions.
  • Identify the purpose and audience of acts of communication in order to interact.
  • Know and use grammatical and structuring conventions for oral communication.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 3:
    3.1 Oral communication is successful and achieves its intended purpose.
    3.2 Questions are clearly expressed and elicit the required information.
    3.3 Meaning is sufficiently clear, although complete fluency and accuracy is not expected.

    Exit Level Outcome 4 will apply across the following range of knowledge and practical skills:
  • Understand when and why visual representations should be used.
  • Extract meaning and information from a range of visual texts.
  • Analyse main features and conventions of visual texts, and explain their functions.
  • Present information in visual ways.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 4:
    4.1 Relevant content from visual text is interpreted and explained.
    4.2 Purpose and effectiveness of specific visual texts are accurately described.
    4.3 Appropriate visual texts are produced in response to instructions.

    Exit Level Outcome 5 will apply across the following range of knowledge and practical skills:
  • Identify the function and purpose of grammatical structures and conventions in relation to meaning
  • Apply grammatical knowledge to understand spoken and written texts.
  • Apply grammatical knowledge to produce meaningful communication.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 5:
    5.1 Grammatical structures and conventions of the LOLT are used effectively in the context of specific communication tasks and outputs.
    5.2 Texts produced show correct application of a range of language structures.
    5.3 Responses to received texts show understanding of correct and incorrect usage of a range of language structures.

    Exit Level Outcome 6 will apply across the following range of knowledge and practical skills:
  • Understand and use common study and training terminology in the LOLT.
  • Understand and use different learning strategies.
  • Manage own learning.
  • Manage own training and work resources.
    Associated assessment criteria.
    Study skills are not assessed in isolation. They are manifested through performance in occupational training and related external assessments, as well as Foundational Learning Part Qualification programme outcomes and the National External Assessment.

    Foundational Mathematical Literacy:

    Exit Level Outcome 1 will apply across the following range of knowledge and practical skills:
  • Use numbers to describe and make sense of real-life situations.
  • Read, interpret and use different numbering conventions in different contexts and identify the ways in which different conventions work.
  • Interpret and use numbers written in exponential form including squares and cubes of natural numbers and the square and cube roots of perfect squares and cubes.
  • Do calculations in various situations using a variety of techniques.
  • Solve problems involving ratio and proportion.
  • Solve problems involving fractions, decimals and percentages.

    Exit Level Outcome 2 will apply across the following range of knowledge and practical skills:
  • Read and interpret financial information presented in a range of documents in personal and familiar contexts.
  • Identify, classify and record sources of income and expenditure.
  • Plan and monitor personal finances.
  • Evaluate options when purchasing products and services.
  • Determine the impact of interest, depreciation, inflation, deflation and taxation on personal finances.

    Exit Level Outcome 3 will apply across the following range of knowledge and practical skills:
  • Collect data from various sources and in various ways.
  • Classify, organise and summarise data.
  • Display data using tables, graphs and charts.
  • Analyse and interpret data to draw conclusions and make predictions.
  • Determine and interpret simple chance in everyday contexts.

    Exit Level Outcome 4 will apply across the following range of knowledge and practical skills:
  • Estimate and measure quantities using measuring instruments in various contexts, paying attention to significant figures and margins of error.
  • Calculate quantities in measurement contexts paying attention to significant figures and margins of error.
  • Solve measurement problems in various practical and non-practical contexts.

    Exit Level Outcome 5 will apply across the following range of knowledge and practical skills:
  • Identify and work with geometric figures and solids, including cultural forms and products.
  • Analyse the properties of geometric figures and solids.
  • Draw geometric shapes and construct models of solids.
  • Use the Theorem of Pythagoras to solve problems involving missing lengths in geometric figures and solids.
  • Draw different views of simple, regular objects.
  • Read, interpret and use plans and road maps to show and make sense of real locations, distances and relative positions.

    Exit Level Outcome 6 will apply across the following range of knowledge and practical skills:
  • Investigate, complete, extend and generate simple number and geometric patterns.
  • Work with and interpret a range of representations of relationships including words, equations, tables of values and graphs.
  • Represent relationships to solve problems and communicate or illustrate results.

    Notes on Range for External Assessment of Foundational Communication:

    The assessment focuses on two key areas:
  • The application of reading and interpretive skills, in terms of accessing, processing and using information presented in different ways.
  • The recognition of writing and grammatical strategies and conventions.

    The sampled outcomes, derived from the FC framework, include assessment of the learner's ability to:
  • Identify main points.
  • Recognise supporting ideas and detail.
  • Make inferences.
  • Track connections between ideas.
  • Understand structure and organisation of texts.
  • Understand information presented in a variety of visual forms.
  • Recognise different purposes and text types.
  • Understand language conventions and forms.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of writing conventions.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of grammar and syntax.

    The assessment instrument is made up of a number of question items for each section, covering different outcomes for each one of the following content areas.

    Section; Content:
  • A; Extended reading text, maximum 600 words.
  • B; Short texts, paragraphs or single sentences.
  • C; Visual literacy tasks (e.g. flow charts, graphs, diagrams, advertisements, table lists).

    Providers should advise learners who are below ABET Level 3 competence in the language of the assessment that they are unlikely to be able to deal with the literacy demands of the test.

    Notes on Range for External Assessment of Foundational Mathematical Literacy:
    The range of knowledge and practical skills are specified above for each Exit Level Outcome, together with the Associated Assessment criteria which define the standard of performance required by learners. However, assessors must consult the Foundational Mathematical Literacy Curriculum Framework for the description of scope and contexts that learners should be assessed against.

    Accreditation Requirements:
    Providers will need to meet the QCTO's requirements for institutional accreditation as a provider, with particular emphasis on the need to demonstrate the expertise of facilitators as revealed by the achievement of the Foundational Learning Facilitator Certificate or equivalent.
    Providers of Foundational Learning programmes will need to meet a number of challenges. They will need to identify gaps in the knowledge and skills of individual learners so that they can help them

    Providers who wish to be accredited to deliver Foundational Learning must meet the following criteria:
  • All requirements for institutional accreditation as set out by the QCTO.
  • Human resources: Suitably qualified educators must be available to deliver Foundational Learning for either or both components, depending on the provider's accreditation status.

    This means that all three of the following criteria must be met:
  • Subject matter expertise in the relevant component of the Part Qualification:
    >Competence in either First Language or First Additional Language (in the LOLT for which the provider is accredited) at NQF Level 4 (or equivalent).
    > Competence in either Mathematical Literacy or Mathematics at NQF Level 4 (or equivalent).
  • Experience in facilitating the relevant subject component of the Part Qualification:
    > Minimum of one year's experience in facilitating in the relevant learning area at ABET Level 3/Grade 7 or equivalent or above.
  • Teaching/Facilitation/Training qualification or certification:
    > A minimum of six month's formal training above NQF Level 4 in facilitation skills, in a teacher training or workplace training context. This includes ABET practitioner training.

    Evidence requirements for proof of competence (or opportunities for top up or for demonstration of competence) in any of these areas is specified by the QCTO.

    The broad competencies required from facilitators are as follows:
  • Full understanding of all the subject matter components addressed in the FL curriculum frameworks.
  • The ability to interpret the curriculum framework for the purposes of designing delivery plans and specific learning sessions and learning activities.
  • The ability to source, adapt and use learning resources and learning activities that are appropriate to the learners and at a level that matches the learners' needs and the level of the curriculum framework.
  • Understanding of and the ability to apply a range of activity-based, facilitative methodologies appropriate to an adult learning environment and the learning area, including problem-solving, inquiry, discovery, collaboration, interaction and self-discovery.
  • Understanding of and the ability to apply adult learning principles in general and appropriate theories of learning related to communication and/or mathematical literacy.
  • The ability to apply and adapt formative assessment instruments to monitor the progress of learners, followed by appropriate actions to address the results of formative assessments.
  • The ability to manage the learning environment, learning resources, learners and learning administration.
  • The ability to participate in and apply summative assessment instruments and processes.
  • An understanding of the context of occupationally-based education and training, and the role of Foundational Learning within the context of occupational awards that fall under the QCTO.

    Learning resources: Learning programmes and materials that meet the demands of the Foundational Learning Competence Curriculum Frameworks.
    External assessment agreements: agreement with an assessment centre recognised by the Assessment Quality Partner for Foundational Learning to provide external assessment opportunities (or recognition as such a centre in own right). 

  • LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
     
    NONE 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



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