SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Achieve excavation stability in the presence of geological discontinuities and brows 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
110187  Achieve excavation stability in the presence of geological discontinuities and brows 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful to people who are responsible for achieving stability in underground working places in the presence of geological discontinuities and brows.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate ability to identify geological discontinuities and brows;
  • Demonstrate knowledge of achieving stability in the presence of geological discontinuities and brows by using support;
  • Prepare for visual and physical examination to identify geological discontinuities and brows;
  • Conduct a visual examination to identify geological discontinuities and brows;
  • Achieve excavation stability in the presence of geological discontinuities and brows and ;
  • Evaluate, report and record the support of geological discontinuities and brows. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credit calculation is based on the assumption that learners are already competent in terms of the following outcomes or areas of learning when starting to learn towards this unit standard:
  • Communication skills (Language at ABET Level 3)
  • Knowledge of strata (identification of strata)
  • Use relevant tools and measuring instruments
  • National Introductory Certificate to Mining and Minerals ( Level 1)
  • Demonstrate the ability to inspect compliance to a set standard
  • Achieve and maintain mining excavation stability with support installation in the applicable geotechnical environment. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate ability to identify geological discontinuities and brows. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The various types of geological discontinuities are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Faults
  • Dykes
  • Sills
  • Slips
  • Joints
  • Dome structures
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Factors resulting in the creation of brows are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Indications of the presence of geological discontinuities and brows are described. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate knowledge of achieving stability in the presence of geological discontinuities. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Demonstrate knowledge of achieving stability in the presence of geological discontinuities and brows by using support. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The effects of geological discontinuities and brows on excavation stability are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Suitable support units required achieving excavation stability in the presence of geological discontinuities and brows are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Methods of achieving excavation stability in the presence of geological discontinuities and brows by correctly installing support units are described. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Prepare for visual and physical examination to identify geological discontinuities. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Prepare for visual and physical examination to identify geological discontinuities and brows. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The required personal protective equipment is selected, examined and used in a way that is consistent with its purpose, design and specified requirements. Equipment is used so that the safety of the operator, team and equipment is protected. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Hand protection
  • Safety boots
  • Safety hat
  • Safety chain
  • Eye protection
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. All tools, material and equipment required for the examination are selected, examined and ensured to be ready for use according to specified mine procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The methods of support observation are explained in line with mine specific procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The consequences of inadequate preparation are described in terms of the potential effect on safety, health, equipment and production. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Conduct a visual examination to identify geological discontinuities and brows. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The possible hazards relating to geological discontinuities and brows on excavation stability are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Break in continuity of hanging wall beam
  • Potential for falls of ground due to intersection of geological discontinuities
  • Potential for falls of ground due to collapse of loose edge of brow
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The excavation is examined for indications of the presence of geological discontinuities and brows. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Visible changes in stratigraphy/rock type
  • Unusual lineation appearing on rock walls
  • Changes in direction of bedding/layering
  • Damaged/ loose pieces of rock walls
  • Obvious falls of ground
  • Presence of water
  • Changes in rock wall profile
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The importance of conducting thorough examinations and consequences of inadequate examinations are described in terms of the potential effect on safety, health, equipment and production. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Achieve excavation stability in the presence of geological discontinuities and brows. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The positions for support needed to achieve stability are marked off in accordance with specified requirements or personal judgement. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The installation procedure for the support is conducted according to specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The consequences of inadequate excavation stability are described in terms of the potential effect on safety, health, equipment and production. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
    Evaluate, report and record the support of geological discontinuities and brows. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The effect of the presence of geological discontinuities and brows on excavation stability is evaluated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The criticality of achieving excavation stability by supporting geological discontinuities and brows is evaluated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The potentially unstable areas are immediately reported, recorded and monitored according to specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The decisions taken for physical action are appropriate for dealing with the identified hazards in accordance with mine specified requirements. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    1. Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.

    2. Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.

    3. Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Essential embedded knowledge will be assessed through assessment of the specific outcomes in terms of the stipulated assessment criteria. Candidates are unlikely to achieve all the specific outcomes, to the standards described in the assessment criteria, without knowledge of the listed embedded knowledge. This means that for the most part, the possession or lack of the knowledge can be directly inferred from the quality of the candidate`s performance. Where direct assessment of knowledge is required, assessment criteria have been included in the body of the unit standard.

    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:
  • Health and safety knowledge
  • Report writing
  • Legal and site-specific requirements 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.

    Note: The ability of the candidate to identify potential excavation instability due to the presence of geological discontinuities and brows. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.

    Note: The ability and willingness of the candidate to accept and interpret work instructions correctly and to request assistance with assessing the presence of geological discontinuities and brows in an appropriate manner as a team member. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.

    Note: The preparation for assessing the presence of geological discontinuities and brows, the candidate must indicate what personal protective equipment is required and communicate to fellow workers his/her intentions. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note: The ability of the candidate to reconcile the information from the visual examination and constantly evaluate the changing situation. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Notes: The appropriate communication with the relevant personnel with regard to the reporting of hazards and sub-standard conditions will indicate his/her proficiency in effective communication. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Note: The use of science and technology is not applicable to this unit standard. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Note: The ability of the candidate to identify hazardous conditions resulting from the presence of geological discontinuities and brows. The effect of non-compliance and deviation from mine procedures will indicate his her proficiency in understanding that a specific action or decision taken has more than one effect. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    Assessors should keep the following principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessment at title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes.
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The assessment criteria provide the specifications against which assessment judgements should be made. In most cases, knowledge can be inferred from the quality of the performances, but in other cases, knowledge and understanding will have to be tested through questioning techniques. Where this is required, there will be assessment criteria to specify the standard required.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence, of the prescribed type and quality, as specified in this unit standard, that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well documented principles of assessment: appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, direct, authentic, sufficient, systematic, open and consistent. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology

    Specified Requiements

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act, 1996 (Act 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act 50/1991)
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice
  • SABS and other relevant Standards
  • Chief Inspector of Mines` Directives

    Site Specific
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA)
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme
  • Managerial Instructions
  • Mine Standard Procedures
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks
  • Working Guides
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  60369   National Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. ANGLOGOLD ASHANTI LTD (V/R) 
    2. DIGGERS TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SERVICES 
    3. GEOSTRAT TRAINING 
    4. KHUTALA MINING SERVICES PL 
    5. PALABORA COPPER (PTY) LTD 
    6. SHAFT SINKERS MINING PTY LTD 
    7. SIBANYE GOLD ACADEMY PROPRIETARY LIMITED 
    8. WESTERN PLATINUM MINE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.