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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of strength of materials in relation to steel structures 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
114198  Demonstrate an understanding of strength of materials in relation to steel structures 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Civil Engineering Construction 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 12 - Physical Planning and Construction Civil Engineering Construction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  20 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Define and calculate direct stress and strain for structural steelwork applications, define, calculate and illustrate material and mechanical properties for steel and steel sections, bending moments and shear forces for statically determinate beams and cantilevers, define and calculate stresses in statically determinate beams and cantilevers and define, calculate and illustrate the Euler theory for compression members.
  • The contribution to The National Skills Development Strategy is the key developmental interface between learners and new competencies to be achieved.
  • Learners who master the competence described in this unit standard will be able to apply their knowledge of the strength of materials to the interpretation of design and the accurate detailing of load bearing elements and associated connections for steel structures. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The following knowledge, skills, attitude and/or equivalent:
  • Mathematical numeracy (geometry and trigonometry) at NQF Level 4 or equivalent.
  • Draughting skills (freehand and 3-dimensional).
  • Communication (written and verbal) at NQF Level 4 or equivalent.
  • Basic computer literacy.
  • Learners will have demonstrated knowledge and understanding of regulations, codes and drawing office practices for structural steel detailing. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Direction and intensity of forces include but are not limited to:
  • Compressive, tensile and shear forces.

    Range of properties calculated for cross-sections include but are not limited to:
    Area, centroidal axis, second moments of area (moment of inertia), radii of gyration, section moduli.

    Range of properties calculated for cross-sections include but are not limited to:
  • Area, centroidal axis, second moments of area (moment of inertia), radii of gyration, section moduli.

    Range of various load conditions includes but are not limited to:
  • Uniformly distributed loads, point loads and applied moments.

    Range of transverse load conditions (applied to one or both principle planes) include but are not limited to:
  • Point loads, uniformly distributed loads (full and partial), non-uniformly distributed loads and applied moment.

    Range of transverse load conditions (applied to one or both principle planes) include but are not limited to:
  • Point loads, uniformly distributed loads (full and partial), non-uniformly distributed loads and applied moment conditions.

    Range of combined bending and axial load conditions include but are not limited to:
  • Uniformly distributed loads (full and partial), non-uniformly distributed loads, point loads and applied moment conditions combined with axial tension or compression.

    Deflection calculations are limited to:
  • Simply supported beams and cantilevers and combined single span simply supported beams and cantilevers based on the equations specified in South African Steel Construction Handbook (Limit States Design). 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Define and calculate direct stresss and strain for structural steelwork applications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Unit of force is defined and components of forces applied at various angles of application are calculated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Direction and intensity of forces in structural members are defined. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Modulus of Elasticity (Hookes Law) is defined and its importance to structural behaviour discussed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Simple stresses and strains for given direct forces and shear forces acting on a member are calculated for measured uniform cross-section. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Components of oblique stresses are resolved and calculated for measured uniform cross-section. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Complementary shear stresses are defined and calculated for measured uniform cross-section. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Young`s Modulus (direct), Modulus of Rigidity (shear) and Bulk Modulus (volume) are defined and calculated for measured uniform cross-section and the relevance of Poissons Ratio is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. Principal stresses and principal planes are explained and calculated for two perpendicular normal stresses. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. Mohr`s Circle (stress circle) is applied to determine principle stresses and principle planes for two perpendicular normal stresses. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Define, calculate and illustrate material and mechanical properties for steel and steel sections. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Properties of metals (elasticity, ductility, brittleness and plasticity) are defined as specified in SABS 1431 as applicable to structural steels (e.g. Grade 300W). 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Simple mechanical properties (stress/strain diagram, elastic limit, ultimate strength) are defined and illustrated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The effects of suddenly applied loads and shock loads are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Section properties for various cross-sections are calculated. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments and shear forces for statically determinate beams. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments and shear forces for statically determinate beams and cantilevers. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Moment of a force about a point is defined and static equilibrium for various loads and load components calculated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Simple shear forces and reactions are defined for statically determinate beams and cantilevers subject to transverse loading about one plane. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Simple shear forces and reactions for various load conditions are calculated and shear force diagrams are drawn for statically determinate beams and cantilevers subject to transverse loading about one plane. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Simple bending moments are defined for statically determinate beams and cantilevers subject to transverse loading about one plane. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Simple bending moments for various load conditions are calculated and bending moment diagrams are drawn for statically determinate beams and cantilevers subject to transverse loading about one plane. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Define and calculate stresses in statically determinate beams and cantilevers. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Stresses from axial tension and compression loads are calculated for given section sizes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Shear stresses for various transverse load conditions are calculated for given section sizes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Bending stresses for various transverse load conditions are calculated for given section sizes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Combined stresses for various bending and axial load conditions are calculated for given section sizes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Deflections based on standard equations are defined and calculated. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Define, calculate and illustrate the euler theory for compression members. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Slenderness ratios in relation to length and member properties are defined. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Euler Theory in relation to length and compression capacity of members is defined. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The influence of end conditions in relation to slenderness ratio is defined and illustrated in accordance with South African Steel Construction Handbook (Limit States Design) Table 4.3. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The buckling strength of a compression member is calculated using the factored unit compressive resistance in accordance with South African Steel Construction Handbook (Limit States Design) Table 4.4 and discussed relative to Euler`s Theory. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the CETA - ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the CETA - ETQA.
  • CETA - ETQA or other ETQA`s, who have a Memorandum of Understanding in place with CETA-ETQA, would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Unit and direction of a force applicable to structural analysis
  • Modulus of Elasticity (Hookes Law)
  • Definition of stresses and strains
  • Resolution of oblique stresses
  • Complementary stresses
  • Young`s modulus, Modulus of Rigidity and Bulk Modulus, Poissons Ratio
  • Principal stresses and principal planes
  • Use of Mohrs Circle
  • Mechanical properties for steel and steel sections
  • Stress/strain diagram for steel
  • Section properties for various cross-sections
  • Definition of moment of force
  • Definition of shear forces, reactions, bending moments
  • Shear force diagrams and bending moment diagrams
  • Axial stresses, shear stresses and bending stresses for structural steel sections
  • Combined stresses for bending and axial load conditions for structural steel sections
  • Deflections for structural steel beams and cantilevers
  • Slenderness ratios for effective lengths of compression members
  • Euler Theory and buckling strength for compression members 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems.

    Evident in the following specific outcome:

    1. Define and calculate direct stress and strain for structural steelwork applications.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Unit of force is defined and components of forces applied at various angels ao application are calculated.
  • Simple stresses and strains for given direct forces and shear forces acting on a member are calculated for measured uniform cross-section.
  • Components of oblique stresses are resolved and calculated for measured uniform cross-section.
  • Complementary shear stresses are defined and calculated for measured uniform cross-section.
  • Principal stresses and principal planes are explained and calculated for two perpendicular normal stresses.

    2. Define, calculate and illustrate material and mechanical properties for steel and steel sections.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Section properties for various cross-sections are calculated.

    3. Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments and shear forces for statically determinate beams and cantilevers.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Moment of a force about a point is defined and static equilibrium for various loads and load components calculated.
  • Simple shear forces and reactions for various load conditions are calculated and shear force diagrams are drawn for statically determinate beams and cantilevers subject to transverse loading about one plane.
  • Simple bending moments for various load conditions are calculated and bending moment diagrams are drawn for statically determinate beams and cantilevers subject to transverse loading about one plane.

    4. Define and calculate stresses in statically determinate beams and cantilevers.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Stresses from axial tension and compression loads are calculated for given section sizes.
  • Shear stresses for various transverse load conditions are calculated for given section sizes.
  • Bending stresses for various transverse load conditions are calculated for given section sizes.
  • Combined stresses for various bending and axial load conditions are calculated for given section sizes.
  • Deflections based on standard equations are defined and calculated.

    5. Define, calculate and illustrate the Euler theory for compression members.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Slenderness ratios in relation to length and member properties are defined.
  • Euler Theory in relation to length and compression capacity of members is defined.
  • The influence of end conditions in relation to slenderness ratio is defined and illustrated in accordance with South African Steel Construction Handbook (Limit States Design) Table 4.3.
  • The buckling strength of a compression member is calculated using the factored unit compressive resistance in accordance with South African Steel Construction Handbook (Limit States Design) Table 4.4 and discussed relative to Euler`s Theory. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Employ self management. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Manage information

    Evident in the following specific outcome:

    1. Define and calculate direct stress and strain for structural steelwork applications.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Direction and intensity of forces in structural members are defined.
  • Modulus of Elasticity (Hookes Law) is defined and its importance to structural behaviour discussed.
  • Young`s Modulus (direct), Modulus of Rigidity (shear) and Bulk Modulus (volume) are defined and calculated for measured uniform cross-section and the relevance of Poissons Ratio is explained.

    2. Define, calculate and illustrate material and mechanical properties for steel and steel sections.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Properties of metals (elasticity, ductility, brittleness and plasticity) are defined as specified in SABS 1431 as applicable to structural steels (e.g. Grade 300W).
  • Simple mechanical properties (stress/strain diagram, elastic limit, ultimate strength) are defined and illustrated.
  • The effects of suddenly applied loads and shock loads are explained.

    3. Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments and shear forces for statically determinate beams and cantilevers.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Simple shear forces and reactions are defined for statically determinate beams and cantilevers subject to transverse loading about one plane.
  • Simple bending moments are defined for statically determinate beams and cantilevers subject to transverse loading about one plane.

    4. Define, calculate and illustrate the Euler theory for compression members.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Slenderness ratios in relation to length and member properties are defined.
  • Euler Theory in relation to length and compression capacity of members is defined.
  • The influence of end conditions in relation to slenderness ratio is defined and illustrated in accordance with South African Steel Construction Handbook (Limit States Design) Table 4.3
  • The buckling strength of a compression member is calculated using the factored unit compressive resistance in accordance with South African Steel Construction Handbook (Limit States Design) Table 4.4 and discussed relative to Euler`s Theory. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectivly. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Demonstrate scientific and technological competence.

    Evident in the following specific outcome:

    1. Define and calculate direct stress and strain for structural steelwork applications.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Unit of force is defined and components of forces applied at various angles of application are calculated.
  • Direction and intensity of forces in structural members are defined.
  • Modulus of Elasticity (Hookes Law) is defined and its importance to structural behaviour discussed.
  • Simple stresses and strains for given direct forces and shear forces acting on a member are calculated for measured uniform cross-section.
  • Components of oblique stresses are resolved and calculated for measured uniform cross-section.
  • Complementary shear stresses are defined and calculated for measured uniform cross-section.
  • Young`s Modulus (direct), Modulus of Rigidity (shear) and Bulk Modulus (volume) are defined and calculated for measured uniform cross-section and the relevance of Poissons Ratio is explained.
  • Principal stresses and principal planes are explained and calculated for two perpendicular normal stresses.
  • Mohr`s Circle (stress circle) is applied to determine principle stresses and principle planes for two perpendicular normal stresses.

    2 .Define, calculate and illustrate material and mechanical properties for steel and steel sections.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Simple mechanical properties (stress/strain diagram, elastic limit, ultimate strength) are defined and illustrated.
  • Section properties for various cross-sections are calculated.

    3. Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments and shear forces for statically determinate beams and cantilevers.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Moment of a force about a point is defined and static equilibrium for various loads and load components calculated.
  • Simple shear forces and reactions for various load conditions are calculated and shear force diagrams are drawn for statically determinate beams and cantilevers subject to transverse loading about one plane.
  • Simple bending moments for various load conditions are calculated and bending moment diagrams are drawn for statically determinate beams and cantilevers subject to transverse loading about one plane.

    4. Define and calculate stresses in statically determinate beams and cantilevers.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Stresses from axial tension and compression loads are calculated for given section sizes.
  • Shear stresses for various transverse load conditions are calculated for given section sizes.
  • Bending stresses for various transverse load conditions are calculated for given section sizes.
  • Combined stresses for various bending and axial load conditions are calculated for given section sizes.
  • Deflections based on standard equations are defined and calculated.

    5. Define, calculate and illustrate the Euler theory for compression members.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Slenderness ratios in relation to length and member properties are defined.
  • Euler Theory in relation to length and compression capacity of members is defined.
  • The influence of end conditions in relation to slenderness ratio is defined and illustrated in accordance with South African Steel Construction Handbook (Limit States Design) Table 4.3.
  • The buckling strength of a compression member is calculated using the factored unit compressive resistance in accordance with South African Steel Construction Handbook (Limit States Design) Table 4.4 and discussed relative to Euler`s Theory. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Understand contextual world-systems.

    Evident in the following specific outcomes:

    1. Define and calculate direct stress and strain for structural steelwork applications.

    Assessment criteria:
  • Modulus of Elasticity (Hookes Law) is defined and its importance to structural behaviour discussed.

    2. Define, calculate and illustrate material and mechanical properties for steel and steel sections.

    Assessment criteria:
  • The effects of suddenly applied loads and shock loads are explained.

    3. Define, calculate and illustrate the Euler Theory for compression members.

    Assessment criteria:
    Euler Theory in relation to length and compression capacity of members is defined. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  48636   National Diploma: Structural Steelwork Detailing  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2023-06-30  CETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Academic Institute of Excellence 
    2. AFRICAN ACAD.FOR COM.ASSIS.ENGINEERING 
    3. African Academey for the Built Environment NPC 
    4. centurion akademie 
    5. SAISC/DSE School of Draughting 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.