SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of advanced theory of structures and structural behaviour relative to steel structures 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
114199  Demonstrate an understanding of advanced theory of structures and structural behaviour relative to steel structures 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Civil Engineering Construction 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 12 - Physical Planning and Construction Civil Engineering Construction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  18 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard will be able to
  • Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments, shear forces and reactions for statically indeterminate beams with the use of influence lines and moment distribution techniques.
  • Analyse and design pin jointed frames and trusses using graphical methods to establish internal member forces.
  • Analyse and design pin jointed frames and trusses using "method of sections" techniques to establish internal member forces.
  • Prepare data for computer analysis of two dimensional steel portal frame structures.
  • Prepare data for computer analysis of simple three dimensional steel grids and space frames
  • Define, analyse and design simply supported composite beams using steel beams, permanent steel shuttering and concrete slabs for use in floor construction
    The contribution to The National Skills Development Strategy is the key developmental interface between learners and new competencies to be achieved.

    Learners who master the competence described in this unit standard will be able to apply their knowledge of structural behaviour, analysis and design techniques when interpreting design information for the production of detail drawings that lead to the fabrication of safe and economical structures. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The following knowledge, skills, attitude and/or equivalent:
  • Mathematical numeracy (geometry and trigonometry) at NQF Level 4 or equivalent.
  • Draughting skills (freehand and 3-dimensional).
  • Communication (written and verbal) at NQF Level 4 or equivalent.
  • Basic computer literacy.
  • Learners will have demonstrated a knowledge and understanding of strength of materials in relation to steel structures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments, shear forces and reactions 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments, shear forces and reactions for statically indeterminate beams using influence lines. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The use of influence line diagrams to analyse equal span continuous beams is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Influence line diagrams for equal span continuous beams are used to calculate bending moments at specified points for various loading conditions and the bending moment diagrams are drawn. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Influence line diagrams for equal span continuous beams are used to calculate reactions and shear forces at specified points for various loading conditions and the shear force diagrams are drawn. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The use of influence lines to calculate bending moment envelopes for moving loads is described and illustrated. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments, shear forces and reactions 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments, shear forces and reactions for statically indeterminate beams using moment distribution techniques. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The principles and methods of using moment distribution to analyse equal span continuous beams are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Moment Distribution theorems and Relative Stiffness of members for calculating bending moments for continuous beams are defined. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Bending moments, shear forces and reactions of continuous beams are calculated using Moment Distribution methods. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Simple framed structures are analysed using moment distribution methods. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Prepare data for computer input and analyse two dimensional steel portal frame structures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Global and member co-ordinate systems are described and illustrated, positive and negative direction of axis is emphasised. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Joint geometry, including various degrees of freedom for support conditions, is described and illustrated. Joint data is prepared on computer for portal frames. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Material properties for steel are described and illustrated. Material property data is prepared on computer for portal frames. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Member property geometry in relation to member co-ordinate system is described and illustrated. Member property data is prepared on computer for portal frames. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Member connectivity geometry, including various degrees of freedom is described and illustrated. Member connectivity data is prepared on computer for portal frames. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The application of various loads to both joints and members is defined and illustrated. Data is prepared on computer for various loading conditions for portal frames and portal frames are analysed . 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Computer results are printed for member forces, reactions, deflections and simple procedures for checking output are discussed. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Prepare data for computer input and analyse siple 3D grids and space frame structures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Global and member co-ordinate systems are described and illustrated, positive and negative direction of axis is emphasised. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Joint geometry, including various degrees of freedom for support conditions is described and illustrated. Joint data is prepared on computer for simple 3D grids and space frames. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Material properties for steel are described and illustrated. Material property data is prepared on computer for 3D grids and space frames. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Member property geometry in relation to member co-ordinate system is described and illustrated. Member property data is prepared on computer. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Member connectivity geometry, including various degrees of freedom is described and illustrated. Member connectivity data is prepared on computer for 3D grids and space frames. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The application of various loads to both joints and members is defined and illustrated. Data is prepared on computer for various loading conditions for 3D grids and space frames and structures are analysed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Computer results are printed for members forces, reactions, deflections and simple procedures for checking output are discussed. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Define and explain composite design using steel beams and concrete slabs and design 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Define and explain composite design using steel beams and concrete slabs and design a simply supported composite beam using permanent steel shuttering. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Steel deck and ribbed slab systems acting only as permanent shuttering for use in composite construction are described and illustrated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Composite construction using steel beams, permanent steel shuttering and concrete slabs with full shear connection using headed shear studs as outlined in SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clause 17 are described and illustrated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Resistances of headed stud shear connectors using permanent steel shuttering are described and calculated in accordance with SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clauses 17.7.2.2 and 17.7.2.3. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4 Section properties for simply supported un-propped composite beams using rolled steel sections, steel deck and concrete slab are described and calculated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The effects of the various components of deflections of composite beams as outlined in SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clause 17 are discussed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Simply supported beams using composite construction with permanent steel shuttering are analysed and designed for strength and serviceability in accordance with SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clause 17 for various load and span conditions. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the CETA - ETQA
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the CETA - ETQA
  • CETA - ETQA or other ETQA`s, who have a Memorandum of Understanding in place with CETA-ETQA, would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Use of influence lines to analyse continuous beams
  • Moment distribution theory and relative stiffnesses to calculate bending moments, shear forces and reactions of continuous beams
  • Use of moment distribution to analyse simple frames
  • Techniques for analysing 2-dimensional plane frame steel structures using computer applications
  • Techniques for analysing simple 3D grids and space frame structures using computer applications
  • Use of composite design with steel beams, permanent shuttering and concrete slabs for the construction of floors 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Outcome 1.
    Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments, shear forces and reactions for statically indeterminate beams using influence lines.

    Assessment criteria 1.1
    Influence line diagrams for equal span continuous beams are used to calculate bending moments at specified points for various loading conditions and the bending moment diagrams are drawn.

    Assessment criteria 1.2
    Influence line diagrams for equal span continuous beams are used to calculate reactions and shear forces at specified points for various loading conditions and the shear force diagrams are drawn.

    Outcome 2.
    Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments, shear forces and reactions for statically indeterminate beams using moment distribution techniques

    Assessment criteria 2.1
    Bending moments, shear forces and reactions of continuous beams are calculated using Moment Distribution methods.

    Assessment criteria 2.2
    Simple framed structures are analysed using moment distribution methods.

    Outcome 3.
    Prepare data for computer input and analyse two dimensional steel portal frame structures

    Assessment criteria.3.1
    The application of various loads to both joints and members is defined and illustrated. Data is prepared on computer for various loading conditions for portal frames and portal frames are analysed.

    Outcome 4.
    Define and explain composite design using steel beams and concrete slabs and design a simply supported composite beam using permanent steel shuttering.

    Assessment criteria 4.1
    Resistances of headed stud shear connectors using permanent steel shuttering are described and calculated in accordance with SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clauses 17.7.2.2 and 17.7.2.3.

    Assessment criteria 4.2
    Simply supported beams using composite construction with permanent steel shuttering are analysed and designed for strength and serviceability in accordance with SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clause 17 for various load and span conditions. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Outcome 1.
    Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments, shear forces and reactions for statically indeterminate beams using influence lines.

    Assessment criteria 1.1
    The use of influence line diagrams to analyse equal span continuous beams is explained.

    Assessment criteria 1.2
    The use of influence lines to calculate bending moment envelopes for moving loads is described and illustrated.

    Outcome 2.
    Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments, shear forces and reactions for statically indeterminate beams using moment distribution techniques.

    Assessment criteria 2.1
    The principles and methods of using moment distribution to analyse equal span continuous beams are explained.

    Assessment criteria 2.2
    Moment Distribution theorems and Relative Stiffness of members for calculating bending moments for continuous beams are defined.

    Outcome 3.
    Prepare data for computer input and analyse simple 3d grids and space frame structures.

    Assessment criteria 3.1
    Global and member co-ordinate systems are described and illustrated, positive and negative direction of axis is emphasised.

    Assessment criteria 3.2
    Joint geometry, including various degrees of freedom for support conditions is described and illustrated. Joint data is prepared on computer for simple 3D grids and space frames.

    Assessment criteria 3.3
    Material properties for steel are described and illustrated. Material property data is prepared on computer for 3D grids and space frames.

    Assessment criteria 3.4
    Member property geometry in relation to member co-ordinate system is described and illustrated. Member property data is prepared on computer.

    Assessment criteria 3.5
    Member connectivity geometry, including various degrees of freedom is described and illustrated. Member connectivity data is prepared on computer for 3D grids and space frames.

    Assessment criteria 3.6
    The application of various loads to both joints and members is defined and illustrated. Data is prepared on computer for various loading conditions for 3D grids and space frames and structures are analysed.

    Assessment criteria 3.7
    Computer results are printed for members forces, reactions, deflections and simple procedures for checking output are discussed.

    Outcome 4.
    Define and explain composite design using steel beams and concrete slabs and design a simply supported composite beam using permanent steel shuttering.

    Assessment criteria 4.1
    Steel deck and ribbed slab systems acting only as permanent shuttering for use in composite construction are described and illustrated.

    Assessment criteria 4.2
    Composite construction using steel beams, permanent steel shuttering and concrete slabs with full shear connection using headed shear studs as outlined in SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clause 17 are described and illustrated.

    Assessment criteria 4.3
    Resistances of headed stud shear connectors using permanent steel shuttering are described and calculated in accordance with SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clauses 17.7.2.2 and 17.7.2.3.

    Assessment criteria 4.4
    Section properties for simply supported un-propped composite beams using rolled steel sections, steel deck and concrete slab are described and calculated.

    Assessment criteria 4.5
    The effects of the various components of deflections of composite beams as outlined in SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clause 17 are discussed. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Outcome 1.
    Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments, shear forces and reactions for statically indeterminate beams using influence lines.

    Assessment criteria 1.1
    The use of influence line diagrams to analyse equal span continuous beams is explained.

    Assessment criteria 1.2
    Influence line diagrams for equal span continuous beams are used to calculate bending moments at specified points for various loading conditions and the bending moment diagrams are drawn.

    Assessment criteria 1.3
    Influence line diagrams for equal span continuous beams are used to calculate reactions and shear forces at specified points for various loading conditions and the shear force diagrams are drawn.

    Assessment criteria 1.4
    The use of influence lines to calculate bending moment envelopes for moving loads is described and illustrated.

    Outcome 2.
    Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments, shear forces and reactions for statically indeterminate beams using moment distribution techniques.

    Assessment criteria 2.1
    The principles and methods of using moment distribution to analyse equal span continuous beams are explained.

    Assessment criteria 2.2
    Moment Distribution theorems and Relative Stiffness of members for calculating bending moments for continuous beams are defined.

    Assessment criteria 2.3
    Bending moments, shear forces and reactions of continuous beams are calculated using Moment Distribution methods.

    Assessment criteria 2.4
    Simple framed structures are analysed using moment distribution methods.

    Outcome 3.
    Prepare data for computer input and analyse two dimensional steel portal frame structures.

    Assessment criteria 3.1
    Global and member co-ordinate systems are described and illustrated, positive and negative direction of axis is emphasised.

    Assessment criteria 3.2
    Joint geometry, including various degrees of freedom for support conditions, is described and illustrated. Joint data is prepared on computer for portal frames.

    Assessment criteria 3.3
    Material properties for steel are described and illustrated. Material property data is prepared on computer for portal frames.

    Assessment criteria 3.4
    Member property geometry in relation to member co-ordinate system is described and illustrated. Member property data is prepared on computer for portal frames.

    Assessment criteria 3.5
    Member connectivity geometry, including various degrees of freedom is described and illustrated. Member connectivity data is prepared on computer for portal frames.

    Assessment criteria 3.6
    The application of various loads to both joints and members is defined and illustrated. Data is prepared on computer for various loading conditions for portal frames and portal frames are analysed.

    Assessment criteria 3.7
    Computer results are printed for member forces, reactions, deflections and simple procedures for checking output are discussed.

    Outcome 4.
    Prepare data for computer input and analyse simple 3d grids and space frame structures.

    Assessment criteria 4.1
    Global and member co-ordinate systems are described and illustrated, positive and negative direction of axis is emphasised.

    Assessment criteria 4.2
    Joint geometry, including various degrees of freedom for support conditions is described and illustrated. Joint data is prepared on computer for simple 3D grids and space frames.

    Assessment criteria 4.3
    Material properties for steel are described and illustrated. Material property data is prepared on computer for 3D grids and space frames.

    Assessment criteria 4.4
    Member property geometry in relation to member co-ordinate system is described and illustrated. Member property data is prepared on computer.

    Assessment criteria 4.5
    Member connectivity geometry, including various degrees of freedom is described and illustrated. Member connectivity data is prepared on computer for 3D grids and space frames.

    Assessment criteria 4.6
    The application of various loads to both joints and members is defined and illustrated. Data is prepared on computer for various loading conditions for 3D grids and space frames and structures are analysed.

    Assessment criteria 4.7
    Computer results are printed for members forces, reactions, deflections and simple procedures for checking output are discussed.

    Outcome 5.
    Define and explain composite design using steel beams and concrete slabs and design a simply supported composite beam using permanent steel shuttering.

    Assessment criteria 5.1
    Steel deck and ribbed slab systems acting only as permanent shuttering for use in composite construction are described and illustrated.

    Assessment criteria 5.2
    Composite construction using steel beams, permanent steel shuttering and concrete slabs with full shear connection using headed shear studs as outlined in SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clause 17 are described and illustrated.

    Assessment criteria 5.3
    Resistances of headed stud shear connectors using permanent steel shuttering are described and calculated in accordance with SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clauses 17.7.2.2 and 17.7.2.3.

    Assessment criteria 5.4
    Section properties for simply supported un-propped composite beams using rolled steel sections, steel deck and concrete slab described and calculated.

    Assessment criteria 5.5
    The effects of the various components of deflections of composite beams as outlined SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clause 17 are discussed.

    Assessment criteria 5.6
    Simply supported beams using composite construction with permanent steel shuttering are analysed and designed for strength and serviceability in accordance with SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clause 17 for various load and span conditions. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Outcome 1.
    Define, calculate and illustrate bending moments, shear forces and reactions for statically indeterminate beams using moment distribution techniques.

    Assessment criteria
    Moment Distribution theorems and Relative Stiffness of members for calculating bending moments for continuous beams are defined.

    Outcome 2.
    Define and explain composite design using steel beams and concrete slabs and design a simply supported composite beam using permanent steel shuttering.

    Assessment criteria.
    The effects of the various components of deflections of composite beams as outlined in SABS 0162 - 1: 1993 clause 17 are discussed. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Credits

    Total hours required by the learner to achieve the required outcomes:

    Activity Hours

    Classroom learning 140
    On-the-job learning 30
    Self directed learning
    Coaching required 10
    Other
    Total 180 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  48636   National Diploma: Structural Steelwork Detailing  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2023-06-30  CETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Academic Institute of Excellence 
    2. AFRICAN ACAD.FOR COM.ASSIS.ENGINEERING 
    3. African Academey for the Built Environment NPC 
    4. centurion akademie 
    5. SAISC/DSE School of Draughting 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.