SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate understanding of framing of structural steel buildings and structural behaviour 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
114211  Demonstrate understanding of framing of structural steel buildings and structural behaviour 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Civil Engineering Construction 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 12 - Physical Planning and Construction Civil Engineering Construction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Identify and discuss the principle factors that influence choice of roof shape, demonstrate an understanding of roof and vertical side-wall bracing systems and miscellaneous stability bracing requirements for light and heavy industrial buildings.
The contribution to The National Skills Development Strategy is the key developmental interface between learners and new competencies to be achieved.

Learners who master the competence described in this unit standard will be able to apply their knowledge of framing, bracing systems and structural behaviour of steel buildings to the production of detail drawings that lead to the fabrication of safe and economical structures. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
The following knowledge, skills attitude and / or equivalent:
  • Mathematical numeracy (geometry and trigonometry) at NQF Level 4 or equivalent
  • Draughting skills (freehand and 3-dimensional)
  • Communication (written and verbal) at NQF Level 4 or equivalent
  • Basic computer literacy
  • Learners will have demonstrated knowledge and understanding of advanced theory of structures and structural behaviour relative to steel structures 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
  • Range of load bearing elements to suite various layouts of roofs include but are not limited to: Truss frames including tied rafters, Trussed Portal Frames, Solid-web Portal Frames, Saw-tooth structures, Space Trusses and Space Frames
  • Range of main building elements and intermediate supports include but are not limited to: Columns and portal structures, side posts, gable posts, wind girders,
  • Range of vertical bracing systems include but is not limited to: cross bracing, chevron or K bracing, single diagonal tubular bracing, solid or latticed portal bracing 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Identify and discuss the principle factors that influence choice of roof shape. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Natural lighting in terms of direct and indirect lighting is discussed and the various methods of introducing natural lighting into a building are identified. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Rainwater drainage from roofs in terms of roof slopes and the capacity of various cladding profiles to discharge water are discussed. Drainage requirements and various drainage systems are identified. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Ventilation requirements and ventilations systems are identified and discussed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Location and centres of column supports and their fundamental influence on choice of roof shape are discussed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Basic roof shapes for single and multi-bay structures and their characteristics are discussed. Arrangement of main load bearing elements to suit various layouts of roofs are illustrated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Layout of main building elements and intermediate supports relative to proportions of the structure are discussed and illustrated. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Understand roof bracing systems for light and heavy industrial buildings. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Transfer of loads through a structure from points of external application to foundations is discussed. Methods of accommodating eccentricities are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Different roof bracing systems are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated. The manner in which roof loads are transferred through roof bracing systems and lighting monitors to eaves level is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The transfer of loads from roof bracing systems into eaves ties/struts is described and illustrated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The application of knee braces to both solid web and latticed rafters is described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The application of bottom chord bracing on deep roof trusses is described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Longitudinal eaves bracing to carry intermediate roof structure loading to main column lines is described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Anti-sag systems for stabilising purlins are discussed and illustrated. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Understand vertical bracing systems for light and heavy industrial buildings. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Different vertical bracing systems are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Location of vertical bracing and its position relative to roof bracing systems or to suit steel erection requirements is described and illustrated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Temperature effects and the need for expansion joints and multi bracing systems in long buildings are discussed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Double bracing systems (battened and laced), particularly on latticed columns, are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Anti-sag systems for stabilising girts and knee-braces to columns/side posts are discussed and illustrated. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate understanding of miscellaneous bracing requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Horizontal wind girders for carrying sidewall wind loads to columns/posts are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Horizontal bracing systems to operating floors and the transfer of chord forces (through loads) through beam end connections are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Horizontal girders for carrying crane surge are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Stability bracing to loads elevated above support points are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the CETA - ETQA
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the CETA - ETQA
  • CETA - ETQA or other ETQA`s, who have a Memorandum of Understanding in place with CETA-ETQA, would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Natural roof lighting requirements for buildings
  • Roof drainage and roof drainage systems
  • Roof ventilation and ventilation systems
  • Different roof shapes and support systems
  • Horizontal and Vertical bracing systems in a building for the transfer of loads to foundations
  • Stability bracing requirements for various building elements
  • Expansion joint requirements to cater for temperature effects 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems

    Specific Outcome:
    1. Understand roof bracing systems for light and heavy industrial buildings

    Assessment Criteria:
  • Different roof bracing systems are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated.
  • The application of knee braces to both solid web and latticed rafters is described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • The application of bottom chord bracing on deep roof trusses is described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • Longitudinal eaves bracing to carry intermediate roof structure loading to main column lines is described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated

    Specific Outcome:
    2. Understand vertical bracing systems for light and heavy industrial buildings

    Assessment Criteria:
  • Different vertical bracing systems are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • Double bracing systems (battened and laced), particularly on latticed columns, are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated

    Specific Outcome:
    3. Demonstrate understanding of miscellaneous bracing requirements

    Assessment Criteria:
  • Horizontal wind girders for carrying sidewall wind loads to columns/posts are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • Horizontal bracing systems to operating floors and the transfer of chord forces (through loads) through beam end connections are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • Horizontal girders for carrying crane surge are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • Stability bracing to loads elevated above support points are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Employ self management 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Manage information 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Demonstrate scientific and technological competence

    Specific Outcome:
    1. Identify and discuss the principle factors that influence choice of roof shape

    Assessment Criteria:
  • Basic roof shapes for single and multi-bay structures and their characteristics are discussed. Arrangement of main load bearing elements to suit various layouts of roofs are illustrated
  • Layout of main building elements and intermediate supports relative to proportions of the structure are discussed and illustrated

    Specific Outcome:
    2. Understand roof bracing systems for light and heavy industrial buildings

    Assessment Criteria:
  • Different roof bracing systems are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated. The manner in which roof loads are transferred through roof bracing systems and lighting monitors to eaves level is explained
  • The transfer of loads from roof bracing systems into eaves ties/struts is described and illustrated
  • The application of knee braces to both solid web and latticed rafters is described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • The application of bottom chord bracing on deep roof trusses is described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • Longitudinal eaves bracing to carry intermediate roof structure loading to main column lines is described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • Anti-sag systems for stabilising purlins are discussed and illustrated

    Specific Outcome:
    3. Understand vertical bracing systems for light and heavy industrial buildings

    Assessment Criteria:
  • Different vertical bracing systems are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • Location of vertical bracing and its position relative to roof bracing systems or to suit steel erection requirements is described and illustrated
  • Double bracing systems (battened and laced), particularly on latticed columns, are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • Anti-sag systems for stabilising girts and knee-braces to columns/side posts are discussed and illustrated

    Specific Outcome:
    4. Demonstrate an understanding of miscellaneous bracing requirements

    Assessment Criteria:
  • Horizontal wind girders for carrying sidewall wind loads to columns/posts are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • Horizontal bracing systems to operating floors and the transfer of chord forces (through loads) through beam end connections are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • Horizontal girders for carrying crane surge are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated
  • Stability bracing to loads elevated above support points are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Understand contextual world-systems

    Specific Outcome:
    1. Identify and discuss the principle factors that influence choice of roof shape

    Assessment Criteria:
  • Natural lighting in terms of direct and indirect lighting is discussed and the various methods of introducing natural lighting into a building are identified
  • Rainwater drainage from roofs in terms of roof slopes and the capacity of various cladding profiles to discharge water are discussed. Drainage requirements and various drainage systems are identified.
  • Ventilation requirements and ventilations systems are identified and discussed
  • Location and centres of column supports and their fundamental influence on choice of roof shape are discussed
  • Basic roof shapes for single and multi-bay structures and their characteristics are discussed. Arrangement of main load bearing elements to suit various layouts of roofs are illustrated
  • Layout of main building elements and intermediate supports relative to proportions of the structure are discussed and illustrated

    Specific Outcome:
    2. Understand roof bracing systems for light and heavy industrial buildings

    Assessment Criteria:
  • Transfer of loads through a structure from points of external application to foundations is discussed. Methods of accommodating eccentricities are described
  • Different roof bracing systems are described, illustrated and the effect of forces calculated. The manner in which roof loads are transferred through roof bracing systems and lighting monitors to eaves level is explained

    Specific Outcome:
    3. Understand vertical bracing systems for light and heavy industrial buildings

    Assessment Criteria:
  • Temperature effects and the need for expansion joints and multi bracing systems in long buildings are discussed 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  48636   National Diploma: Structural Steelwork Detailing  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2023-06-30  CETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Academic Institute of Excellence 
    2. AFRICAN ACAD.FOR COM.ASSIS.ENGINEERING 
    3. African Academey for the Built Environment NPC 
    4. centurion akademie 
    5. SAISC/DSE School of Draughting 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.