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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Understand the properties of fibrous materials used in pulp and paper manufacturing 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
114246  Understand the properties of fibrous materials used in pulp and paper manufacturing 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Pulp and Paper 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Qualifying learners will be able to understand the properties of fibrous raw materials used in the pulp and paper industry and the affects these properties have on final product properties. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
Learners attempting this unit standard are required to understand process descriptions, physical phenomena, biological processes, process equipment, interacting variables and product properties. It is therefore required that the learner is competent in basic scientific theory and is familiar with the operation of chemical pulping equipment. 

UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
This unit standard covers the science and technology of fibres used in the manufacture of pulp and paper and the plants that are grown to produce these fibres, in South Africa. 

Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the general biology. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the general biology of growing plants whose fibres are used in the paper industry in South Africa. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. General biology of a growing plant is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Nutrient sources and their utilisation, energy sources, chemistry of plant growth; cell growth and multiplication.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Growing fibre species are identified by group. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Hardwoods, softwoods, sugar cane.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The nature of the plants are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Plant description, seed type, growing conditions; plant part functions.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. The development of cellulosic and lignin material within the plant body is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
The chemistry of major plant body chemicals, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose; layout of the chemicals in the cell wall and within the plant.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
Learners are able to discuss and explain the physical and chemical nature of pulp fibres. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The properties and paper making attributes of fibrous materials are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Properties:
Strength, surface, colour.

Fibrous materials:
Unbleached chemical pulp; bleached chemical pulp; mechanical pulp; non plant materials.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. The contribution of the surface and internal chemistry of plant fibres to paper web strength is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Mechanical bonding, chemical bonding including hydrogen bonding.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The contribution of the physical dimensions of plant fibres to paper web strength and web surface properties are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Fibre length, fibre coarseness; fibre development.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
The learner is able to discuss and explain the end user requirements for paper products. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The end user requirements for different paper products is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Paper products:
Newsprint [properties: runnability, printability, opacity], liner board[properties: strength, crush resistance; scuff resistance, water resistance], corrugating medium [properties: crush resistance, water resistance], folding boxboard [properties: scorability, print surface, strength], other packaging papers [properties: as per end user requirements], SC papers [properties runnability, surface smoothness, opacity], LWC papers [properties: surface smoothness, gloss, runnability, opacity, cost], office papers [properties: dimensional stability, water resistance, smoothness, whiteness, opacity], market pulps [properties: strength properties, potential development properties, brightness, colour, coarseness], tissue papers [properties: strength, crepe ratio, absorbency, colour], coated papers [properties: smoothness, gloss, runnability, blister resistance, colour].
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. The contribution of fibrous raw materials to the properties stated in 3.1 is described. 


UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
1. Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.

2. Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.

3. Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
Things the learner knows and can explain:

Names, Functions and Locations of
  • Trees [softwood and hardwood], bagasse growing areas, effect of market, rainfall, ground use
  • Usage areas of fibre products
  • Application of different fibres for various paper products.

    Description, properties and characteristics of
  • Plant fibres, softwoods, hardwoods, bagasse and other alternatives
  • Nature of fibre makeup in plants, tree growth including abnormalities

    The Purpose of the
  • Plant fibres in paper processing

    Causes, effects and implications of
  • Poor plant growth conditions on fibre properties
  • Fibre processing on fibre properties
  • Different fibre used in different grades of paper products.

    Procedures and techniques of
  • Evaluating fibre properties
  • Evaluating the effects of different fibres on paper properties

    Theory, principles, rules and laws
  • pH
  • Growth kinetics
  • Plant biology/botany
  • Basic organic chemistry
  • Hydrogen bonding
  • Crystalline chemistry 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems:
  • Describe paper and pulp making process problems, which are associated with the fibres used and propose solutions to these problems.
  • Describe the basic scientific theory behind the solutions to the problems mentioned above. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage self and activities:
  • Participate in life-long learning.
  • Develop analytic skills in managing process operations 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information:
  • Use various sources of information pertaining to plant growth, fibre development, fibre morphology including basic scientific and engineering theory.
  • Correlate fibre shape/morphology with paper strength and surface properties. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively:
  • Give written or oral descriptions pertaining to plant material, fibres and paper properties.
  • Respond to questions on fibres and their associated sources and uses.
  • Identify and solve problems with respect to the subject matter of the unit standard. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others:
  • Describe the environmental impacts of use of fibres in SA.
  • Show how science and technology can be used to enhance the fibre supply industry in SA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Definition:
    Workplace procedures refer to instructions on policies and procedures which are formally documented and are available for reference. Examples include: standard operating procedures, specifications, manuals and manufacturers` information. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  61949   Further Education and Training Certificate: Pulp and Paper Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  FPMSETA 
    Elective  48643   Further Education and Training Certificate: Chemical Pulp Manufacturing  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-02-11  Was FPMSETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  48644   Further Education and Training Certificate: Paper, Board or Tissue Manufacturing  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-02-11  Was FPMSETA until Last Date for Achievement 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. MPACT 
    2. Mpact Operations Paper Springs 
    3. Nteko Investments 
    4. SAPPI LTD 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.