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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Understand the operating principles, processes and variables associated with chemical pulping 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
114263  Understand the operating principles, processes and variables associated with chemical pulping 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Pulp and Paper 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  12 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Qualifying learners will be able to understand the operating principles, processes and variables associated with chemical pulping. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
Learners attempting this unit standard are required to understand process descriptions, physical phenomena, process equipment, interacting variables and product properties; it is therefore required that the person is competent in basic scientific theory and is familiar with the operation of chemical pulping equipment. 

UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
This Unit Standard covers the process from fibre supply to storage after pulp washing. 

Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
Learners can discuss and explain the basic equipment and processes of chemical pulping. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Generic and alternative chemical pulping processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Kraft, Sulphite, NSSC, Soda.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Equipment used for chemical pulping operations is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Batch and continuous digesters, washing equipment and auxiliary equipment.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The equipment arrangement for chemical pulping operations is discussed and explained. 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain the inputs to the chemical pulping processes. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The properties of the fibrous materials required for the chemical pulping processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Moisture content, size distribution, species, freshness of chips, wood properties, softwood and hardwood chips, bagasse.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Utilities required for the chemical pulping processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Power, steam, compressed air, process water.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The manufacture and supply of chemicals for all chemical pulping processes is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Kraft, soda, sulphite liquors, catalysts, black liquor.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
The learner will have learned to explain the process variables and their interrelationships. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
The learner will have learned to explain the process variables and their interrelationships and effect on product properties for the different chemical pulping processes. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The process variables and their effect on product quality for chemical pulping processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Temperature, pH, liquor strength, liquor charge, time, liquor composition, pressure.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. The interrelationships of the process variables for the different chemical pulping processes are discussed and explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Properties of the pulp leaving the chemical pulping processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Lignin content, pulp viscosity, solid consistency, dirt content
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain typical chemical pulping process. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain typical chemical pulping process problems and to offer typical solutions to the problems. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Typical product deviations leaving the process are discussed and explained and solutions offered. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Cooking liquor quality, kappa no., strength properties, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Typical equipment problems within the process are discussed and explained and solutions offered. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Boiler failures, pulping equipment problems, bleach equipment problems, recovery plant problems.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Typical raw material problems within the process are discussed and explained and solutions offered. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Wood properties, water.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. Environmental impacts are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Gaseous emissions, liquid emissions.
 


UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Things the learner knows and can explain:

    Names, Functions and Locations of:
  • The equipment pertaining pulping [digesters], heating, heat exchange, receiving vessels, pulp washing, cleaning screening, pumping, gas liquid separation, condensing, refining.

    Description, properties and characteristics of:
  • Raw Materials (wood chips, chemicals).
  • Product/s [wood pulp].
  • Process Equipment (pulping [digesters], heating, heat exchange, receiving vessels, pulp washing, cleaning screening, pumping, gas liquid separation, condensing, refining).
  • A Typical layout of a chemical pulping plant for different pulp making configurations.

    The Purpose of the:
  • Process in terms of product/s, efficiencies and quality.

    Causes, effects and implications of:
  • The process variables/conditions associated pulping [digesters], heating, heat exchange, receiving vessels, pulp washing, cleaning screening, pumping, gas liquid separation, condensing, refining equipment.
  • Raw Material (wood chips and chemicals).
  • Product Variables (type, strength, colour, cleanliness, lignin content).
  • Hazards.

    Interrelationships:
  • Between the variables of chemical pulping, the process equipment and process conditions.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements and policies related to:
  • Environmental impact of gaseous and liquid emissions.

    Theory: rules, principles, laws:
  • Length
  • Temperature
  • Chemical kinetics
  • Heat exchange
  • Mass balances
  • Energy balances
  • Diffusion
  • Mixing
  • Solid/liquid separations 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems:
  • Describe typical chemical pulping process problems and solutions to these problems.
  • Describe the basic scientific theory behind typical processes and problems and generate alternative solutions based on theory. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage self and activities:
  • Participate in life long learning.
  • Develop analytic skills in managing process operations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organize and critically evaluate information:
  • Use various sources of information pertaining to chemical pulping including basic scientific and engineering theory. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively:
  • Give written or oral descriptions pertaining to chemical pulping.
  • Respond to questions.
  • Identify and solve problems. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  48643   Further Education and Training Certificate: Chemical Pulp Manufacturing  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-02-11  Was FPMSETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  61949   Further Education and Training Certificate: Pulp and Paper Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  FPMSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. MPACT 
    2. Mpact Operations Paper Springs 
    3. SAPPI LTD 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.