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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Understand the operating principles, processes and variables associated with pulp bleaching 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
114270  Understand the operating principles, processes and variables associated with pulp bleaching 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Pulp and Paper 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Qualifying learners will be able to understand the operating principles, processes and variables associated with pulp bleaching. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
Learners attempting this unit standard are required to understand process descriptions, physical phenomena, process equipment, interacting variables and product properties.

It is therefore required that they are competent in basic scientific theory and are familiar with the operations of bleaching chemical pulp or whitening mechanical pulp. 

UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
This unit standard covers the understanding of the bleaching process from unbleached pulp supply to the fully bleached high-density chest. 

Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain the inputs to bleach processes. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The raw materials supplied to a bleach plant are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Water from various sources, chemical pulp, mechanical pulp, steam.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. The manufacture and supply of bleach chemicals is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Chlorine, chlorine dioxide, oxygen, hypochlorite, ozone, caustic soda, peroxide, hydrosulphite, acids, enzymes, peracetic acid.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain the basic equipment. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain the basic equipment, processes and end products of the bleaching process. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Equipment used for bleaching pulp is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Towers, pumps, heaters, washers, mixers.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Generic and alternative bleaching sequences are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
CEDED, ODED, AODED, OZEP, OZED, amongst others.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Properties of bleached pulp are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Colour properties, strength properties.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
The learner will have learned to discuss and explain the different bleaching reactions and reaction. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The different bleaching conditions are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Temp, pH, time, chemical concentration.
  • Chlorine, chlorine dioxide, oxygen, hypochlorite, ozone, caustic soda, peroxide, hydrosulphite, acids, enzymes, peracetic acid.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The bleaching reactions of different processes are discussed and explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Chlorine, chlorine dioxide, oxygen, hypochlorite, ozone, caustic soda, peroxide, hydrosulphite, acids, enzymes, peracetic acid.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    The learner will have learned to discuss and explain the effect of different bleaching reaction. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    The learner will have learned to discuss and explain the effect of different bleaching reaction conditions on other reaction variables. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The effect of temperature on other variables is discussed and explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The effect of concentration of reactant on other variables is discussed and explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The effect of consistency on other variables is discussed and explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The effect of pH on other variables is discussed and explained. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    The learner will have learned to discuss and explain typical bleaching process problems. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    The learner will have learned to discuss and explain typical bleaching process problems and to offer typical solutions to the problems. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Typical property deviations in the product leaving the process are discussed and explained and solutions offered. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Brightness (high/low), colour reversion, pH, dirt count (high), viscosity (low).
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Typical equipment problems within the process are discussed and explained and solutions offered. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Poor washing, poor heating, poor mixing.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Typical raw material problems within the process are discussed and explained and solutions offered. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Pulp lignin content, pulp cleanliness.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Environmental impacts are discussed and explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Gaseous emissions, liquid emissions.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
    Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
    Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Things the learner knows and can explain:

    Names, Functions and Locations of
  • The equipment pertaining to repulping, refining, deflaking, cleaning [centrifugal] screening, thickening, ink flotation, washing, air removal equipment

    Description, properties and characteristics of
  • Raw Materials (Wood Species, Wood Chips, Power, Steam, Water)
  • Product/s [paper making stock]
  • Process Equipment (repulping, refining, deflaking, cleaning [centrifugal] screening, thickening, ink flotation, washing, air removal equipment)
  • A Typical layout of a stock preparation plant for different paper and pulp configurations

    The Purpose of the
  • Process in terms of product/s, efficiencies and quality. Causes, effects and implications of:
  • The process variables/conditions associated with repulping, refining, deflaking, cleaning [centrifugal] screening, thickening, ink flotation, washing, air removal equipment
  • Raw Material (chemical pulp, mechanical pulp, waste fibre)
  • Product Variables (pulp strength properties, freeness, colour properties)
  • Hazards

    Interrelationships
  • Between the variables of stock preparation, the process equipment and process conditions
    Regulations, legislation, agreements and policies related to:
  • Environmental impact of gaseous and liquid emissions
    Theory: rules, principles, laws
  • Length
  • Temperature
  • Pulp drainage properties and fibre development
  • Fluid flow
  • Pumping theory
  • Mixing theory
  • Effect of consistency on pulp properties
  • pH
  • Surface theory applied to ink particle removal
  • Separation of particles by size
  • Mass balancing
  • Energy balancing 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems
  • Describe typical pulp bleaching process problems and solutions to these problems
  • Describe the basic scientific theory behind typical processes and problems and generate alternative solutions based on theory. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage self and activities
  • Participate in life long learning
  • Develop analytic skills in managing process operations 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organize and critically evaluate information
  • Use various sources of information pertaining to pulp bleaching including basic scientific and engineering theory 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively
  • Give written or oral descriptions pertaining to pulp bleaching
  • Respond to questions
  • Identify and solve problems 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  61971   National Certificate: Pulp and Paper Operations  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FPMSETA 
    Elective  48643   Further Education and Training Certificate: Chemical Pulp Manufacturing  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-02-11  Was FPMSETA until Last Date for Achievement 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Ehlanzeni TVET College 
    2. Eskilz College (Pty) Ltd 
    3. MPACT 
    4. SAPPI LTD 
    5. VEB CELE & Associates (Pty) Ltd 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.