SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of dry pet food extrusion principles 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
116041  Demonstrate an understanding of dry pet food extrusion principles 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Secondary Agriculture: Processing 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 01 - Agriculture and Nature Conservation Secondary Agriculture 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  12 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A learner who has achieved this unit standard will be competent in:
  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of principles of advanced extrusion and associated technologies.
  • Understand the aspects for the safe operation of extrusion equipment.
  • Prepare for the extrusion of a pet food
  • Extrude a pet food using a continuous food extruder using advanced technologies.
  • Perform shutdown procedures after extrusion is completed

    This unit standard is intended for a person working in the dry pet food industry who has the responsibility of operating advanced extruder and associated equipment in the manufacture of a dry kibbled pet food. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    To enter a learning programme for this unit standard or to be assessed against this unit standard, the learner is assumed to have :

    Literacy, mathematics, physical science and communication skills at or equivalent to NQF level 3.

    Attended a course on Introduction to Pet Food Manufacturing Industry NQF level 1.

    An understanding of General safety in the work place at NQF level 1.

    Demonstrate an understanding of dry pet food extrusion principles NQF level 2.

    Cleaning procedures, handling of equipment and chemicals NQF level 1.

    Take a representative sample NQF level 1. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The learner has to comply with operational and statutory requirements regarding the operation of a an advanced continuous food extruder inclusive of die and cutting head assembly and other related accessories.

    The advanced extrusion equipment referred to in this unit standard;- includes single/twin screw extruders, automated/semi-automated, process controlled extruders, compactor accessories, co-extrusion accessories, downstream cutting-, forming-, shaping-, sizing- and crimping-, equipment.

    Advanced extrusion technologies include the manipulation of formulations, expanded delicate pet foods, unexpanded products, filled extruded products, co-extruded products, high fat extrusion, liquid additions, meat slurry additions used in the manufacture of dry and semi-moist pet foods and treats.

    The specific outcomes as reflected in this unit standard are performed without direct supervision, but with access to work site procedures and operating instructions. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of advanced extrusion principles and technologies. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Sound knowledge of the theoretical principles of advanced dry or semi-moist pet food extrusion demonstrated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Knowledge of advanced extruded treat manufacturing techniques. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Knowledge of the differences between single and twin screw extruders in terms of design, operation and cost. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Knowledge of the operational limitations of an advanced extruders and associated equipment and the factors influencing them are discussed 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Sound knowledge of the different types of advanced (sophisticated) extruders and associated equipment used in the manufacture of dry and semi-moist pet foods. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Understanding of the extrusion input variables and the influence thereof on the extruded end product outcome. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Understanding of the main components of an advanced continuous food extruder and associated equipment. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the procedural aspects related to the preparation for extrusion of a dry pet food or treat using advanced technologies. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Understanding the safety aspects that require attention when operating an advanced extruder and associated equipment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Understanding of the reasons for the order of startup procedures and the consequences of not adhering to standard site operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Preparation of any additions to the extrusion process. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Conduct first line routine maintenance on the advanced extruder and associated equipment according to standard operating and work site procedures. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the operational procedures in extrusion of petfoods and treats using advanced extrusion technologies 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Operate a continuous food extruder and related post extrusion equipment according to work-site procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Extrude a dry pet food or treat to the required product specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Take a representative sample of the extruded product and analyze it for moisture content. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Control and record product and extrusion parameters. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Knowledge of the necessary adjustments that are required to restore end product quality parameters. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Knowledge of the consequences of not achieving the desired product specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Understand the consequences of not working according to work site procedures. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the capturing of operational and product details. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Complete relevant documentation according to work-site procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of each of the monitored parameters. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Report all deviations to affected parties according to work site procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Understand the consequences of not adhering to work site procedures. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the procedural aspects to be conducted on the completion of extrusion. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Shutdown the extruder according to work site and safety procedures 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Handle sub-standard product according too work site procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Work area and extrusion equipment are cleaned and sanitized according to work site procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Clean and sanitize the work area and coating equipment according to work site procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Ensure that cleaning equipment is stored in the designated area according to work site procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Waste from the cleaning process is handled, stored or disposed of according to work site requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Understand the consequences of not adhering to work site procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Process and store records are kept according to work site procedures. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    An individual wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to an assessor accredited by SETASA.

    Any training provider offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be registered and accredited by SETASA.

    Moderation of assessment will be done by SETASA in its ETQA capacity at its discretion. 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    New developments in extrusion technologies.

    The use of the pre-conditioner to increase product quality and flexibility.
    Operational procedures in the operation of process controlled extrusion or/compactor accessories or/ co-extrusion accessories /or downstream cutting-, forming-, shaping-, sizing- and crimping-, equipment.

    The aspects of extruding high fat products.

    The applications of liquid additions in the process of extrusion.

    Meat slurry additions to the pre-conditioner. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made.

    Assessment criteria
  • Sound knowledge of the theoretical principles of advanced dry or semi-moist pet food extrusion demonstrated.
  • Knowledge of advanced extruded treat manufacturing techniques.
  • Knowledge of the differences between single and twin screw extruders in terms of design, operation and cost.
  • Knowledge of the operational limitations of an advanced extruders and associated equipment and the factors influencing them are discussed
  • Sound knowledge of the different types of advanced (sophisticated) extruders and associated equipment used in the manufacture of dry and semi-moist pet foods.
  • Understanding of the extrusion input variables and the influence thereof on the extruded end product outcome.
  • Understanding of the reasons for the order of startup procedures and the consequences of not adhering to standard site operating procedures.
  • Preparation of any additions to the extrusion process.
  • Operate a continuous food extruder and related post extrusion equipment according to work-site procedures.
  • Extrude a dry pet food or treat to the required product specifications.
  • Knowledge of the necessary adjustments that are required to restore end product quality parameters.
  • Complete relevant documentation according to work-site procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation and community.

    Assessment criteria
  • Sound knowledge of the theoretical principles of advanced dry or semi-moist pet food extrusion demonstrated.
  • Knowledge of advanced extruded treat manufacturing techniques.
  • Knowledge of the differences between single and twin screw extruders in terms of design, operation and cost.
  • Knowledge of the operational limitations of an advanced extruders and associated equipment and the factors influencing them are discussed
  • Sound knowledge of the different types of advanced (sophisticated) extruders and associated equipment used in the manufacture of dry and semi-moist pet foods.
  • Understanding of the extrusion input variables and the influence thereof on the extruded end product outcome.
  • Understanding of the main components of an advanced continuous food extruder and associated equipment.
  • Understanding the safety aspects that require attention when operating an advanced extruder and associated equipment.
  • Understanding of the reasons for the order of startup procedures and the consequences of not adhering to standard site operating procedures.
  • Preparation of any additions to the extrusion process.
  • Conduct first line routine maintenance on the advanced extruder and associated equipment according to standard operating and work site procedures.
  • Operate a continuous food extruder and related post extrusion equipment according to work-site procedures.
  • Extrude a dry pet food or treat to the required product specifications.
  • Take a representative sample of the extruded product and analyze it for moisture content.
  • Control and record product and extrusion parameters.
  • Knowledge of the necessary adjustments that are required to restore end product quality parameters.
  • Knowledge of the consequences of not achieving the desired product specifications.
  • Understand the consequences of not working according to work site procedures.
  • Complete relevant documentation according to work-site procedures.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of each of the monitored parameters.
  • Report all deviations to affected parties according to work site procedures.
  • Understand the consequences of not adhering to work site procedures.
  • Shutdown the extruder according to work site and safety procedures
  • Handle sub-standard product according too work site procedures.
  • Work area and extrusion equipment are cleaned and sanitized according to work site procedures.
  • Clean and sanitize the work area and coating equipment according to work site procedures.
  • Ensure that cleaning equipment is stored in the designated area according to work site procedures.
  • Waste from the cleaning process is handled, stored or disposed of according to work site requirements.
  • Understand the consequences of not adhering to work site procedures.
  • Process and store records are kept according to work site procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively.

    Assessment criteria
  • Sound knowledge of the theoretical principles of advanced dry or semi-moist pet food extrusion demonstrated.
  • Knowledge of advanced extruded treat manufacturing techniques.
  • Knowledge of the differences between single and twin screw extruders in terms of design, operation and cost.
  • Knowledge of the operational limitations of an advanced extruders and associated equipment and the factors influencing them are discussed
  • Sound knowledge of the different types of advanced (sophisticated) extruders and associated equipment used in the manufacture of dry and semi-moist pet foods.
  • Understanding of the extrusion input variables and the influence thereof on the extruded end product outcome.
  • Understanding of the main components of an advanced continuous food extruder and associated equipment.
  • Understanding the safety aspects that require attention when operating an advanced extruder and associated equipment.
  • Understanding of the reasons for the order of startup procedures and the consequences of not adhering to standard site operating procedures.
  • Preparation of any additions to the extrusion process.
  • Conduct first line routine maintenance on the advanced extruder and associated equipment according to standard operating and work site procedures.
  • Operate a continuous food extruder and related post extrusion equipment according to work-site procedures.
  • Extrude a dry pet food or treat to the required product specifications.
  • Take a representative sample of the extruded product and analyze it for moisture content.
  • Control and record product and extrusion parameters.
  • Knowledge of the necessary adjustments that are required to restore end product quality parameters.
  • Knowledge of the consequences of not achieving the desired product specifications.
  • Understand the consequences of not working according to work site procedures.
  • Complete relevant documentation according to work-site procedures.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of each of the monitored parameters.
  • Report all deviations to affected parties according to work site procedures.
  • Understand the consequences of not adhering to work site procedures.
  • Shutdown the extruder according to work site and safety procedures
  • Handle sub-standard product according too work site procedures.
  • Work area and extrusion equipment are cleaned and sanitized according to work site procedures.
  • Clean and sanitize the work area and coating equipment according to work site procedures.
  • Ensure that cleaning equipment is stored in the designated area according to work site procedures.
  • Waste from the cleaning process is handled, stored or disposed of according to work site requirements.
  • Understand the consequences of not adhering to work site procedures.
  • Process and store records are kept according to work site procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information.

    Assessment criteria
  • Sound knowledge of the theoretical principles of advanced dry or semi-moist pet food extrusion demonstrated.
  • Knowledge of advanced extruded treat manufacturing techniques.
  • Knowledge of the differences between single and twin screw extruders in terms of design, operation and cost.
  • Knowledge of the operational limitations of an advanced extruders and associated equipment and the factors influencing them are discussed
  • Sound knowledge of the different types of advanced (sophisticated) extruders and associated equipment used in the manufacture of dry and semi-moist pet foods.
  • Understanding of the extrusion input variables and the influence thereof on the extruded end product outcome.
  • Understanding of the main components of an advanced continuous food extruder and associated equipment.
  • Understanding of the reasons for the order of startup procedures and the consequences of not adhering to standard site operating procedures.
  • Preparation of any additions to the extrusion process.
  • Operate a continuous food extruder and related post extrusion equipment according to work-site procedures.
  • Extrude a dry pet food or treat to the required product specifications.
  • Take a representative sample of the extruded product and analyze it for moisture content.
  • Control and record product and extrusion parameters.
  • Knowledge of the necessary adjustments that are required to restore end product quality parameters.
  • Complete relevant documentation according to work-site procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate with others effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes oforal and /or written persuasion.

    Assessment criteria
  • Sound knowledge of the theoretical principles of advanced dry or semi-moist pet food extrusion demonstrated.
  • Knowledge of advanced extruded treat manufacturing techniques.
  • Knowledge of the differences between single and twin screw extruders in terms of design, operation and cost.
  • Knowledge of the operational limitations of an advanced extruders and associated equipment and the factors influencing them are discussed
  • Sound knowledge of the different types of advanced (sophisticated) extruders and associated equipment used in the manufacture of dry and semi-moist pet foods.
  • Understanding of the extrusion input variables and the influence thereof on the extruded end product outcome.
  • Understanding of the main components of an advanced continuous food extruder and associated equipment.
  • Understanding the safety aspects that require attention when operating an advanced extruder and associated equipment.
  • Understanding of the reasons for the order of startup procedures and the consequences of not adhering to standard site operating procedures.
  • Preparation of any additions to the extrusion process.
  • Conduct first line routine maintenance on the advanced extruder and associated equipment according to standard operating and work site procedures.
  • Operate a continuous food extruder and related post extrusion equipment according to work-site procedures.
  • Understand the consequences of not working according to work site procedures.
  • Complete relevant documentation according to work-site procedures.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of each of the monitored parameters.
  • Report all deviations to affected parties according to work site procedures.
  • Understand the consequences of not adhering to work site procedures.
  • Shutdown the extruder according to work site and safety procedures
  • Handle sub-standard product according too work site procedures.
  • Work area and extrusion equipment are cleaned and sanitized according to work site procedures.
  • Clean and sanitize the work area and coating equipment according to work site procedures.
  • Ensure that cleaning equipment is stored in the designated area according to work site procedures.
  • Waste from the cleaning process is handled, stored or disposed of according to work site requirements.
  • Understand the consequences of not adhering to work site procedures.
  • Process and store records are kept according to work site procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and the health of others.

    Assessment criteria
  • Sound knowledge of the theoretical principles of advanced dry or semi-moist pet food extrusion demonstrated.
  • Knowledge of advanced extruded treat manufacturing techniques.
  • Knowledge of the differences between single and twin screw extruders in terms of design, operation and cost.
  • Knowledge of the operational limitations of an advanced extruders and associated equipment and the factors influencing them are discussed
  • Sound knowledge of the different types of advanced (sophisticated) extruders and associated equipment used in the manufacture of dry and semi-moist pet foods.
  • Understanding of the extrusion input variables and the influence thereof on the extruded end product outcome.
  • Understanding of the main components of an advanced continuous food extruder and associated equipment.
  • Preparation of any additions to the extrusion process.
  • Operate a continuous food extruder and related post extrusion equipment according to work-site procedures.
  • Extrude a dry pet food or treat to the required product specifications.
  • Take a representative sample of the extruded product and analyze it for moisture content.
  • Control and record product and extrusion parameters.
  • Knowledge of the necessary adjustments that are required to restore end product quality parameters.
  • Knowledge of the consequences of not achieving the desired product specifications.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of each of the monitored parameters. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Understands the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Assessment criteria
  • Sound knowledge of the theoretical principles of advanced dry or semi-moist pet food extrusion demonstrated.
  • Knowledge of advanced extruded treat manufacturing techniques.
  • Knowledge of the differences between single and twin screw extruders in terms of design, operation and cost.
  • Knowledge of the operational limitations of an advanced extruders and associated equipment and the factors influencing them are discussed
  • Sound knowledge of the different types of advanced (sophisticated) extruders and associated equipment used in the manufacture of dry and semi-moist pet foods.
  • Understanding of the extrusion input variables and the influence thereof on the extruded end product outcome.
  • Understanding of the main components of an advanced continuous food extruder and associated equipment. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contributing to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large by making it the underlying intention of any programme of learning to make an individual aware of the importance of;
  • Reflecting on and exploring a variety of strategies to learn more effectively.
  • Participating as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities.
  • Being culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts.
  • Exploring education and career opportunities and
  • Developing entrepreneurial opportunities.

    Assessment criteria
  • Sound knowledge of the theoretical principles of advanced dry or semi-moist pet food extrusion demonstrated.
  • Knowledge of advanced extruded treat manufacturing techniques.
  • Knowledge of the differences between single and twin screw extruders in terms of design, operation and cost.
  • Knowledge of the operational limitations of an advanced extruders and associated equipment and the factors influencing them are discussed
  • Sound knowledge of the different types of advanced (sophisticated) extruders and associated equipment used in the manufacture of dry and semi-moist pet foods.
  • Understanding of the extrusion input variables and the influence thereof on the extruded end product outcome.
  • Understanding of the main components of an advanced continuous food extruder and associated equipment.
  • Understanding the safety aspects that require attention when operating an advanced extruder and associated equipment.
  • Understanding of the reasons for the order of startup procedures and the consequences of not adhering to standard site operating procedures.
  • Preparation of any additions to the extrusion process.
  • Conduct first line routine maintenance on the advanced extruder and associated equipment according to standard operating and work site procedures.
  • Operate a continuous food extruder and related post extrusion equipment according to work-site procedures.
  • Extrude a dry pet food or treat to the required product specifications.
  • Take a representative sample of the extruded product and analyze it for moisture content.
  • Control and record product and extrusion parameters.
  • Knowledge of the necessary adjustments that are required to restore end product quality parameters.
  • Knowledge of the consequences of not achieving the desired product specifications.
  • Understand the consequences of not working according to work site procedures.
  • Complete relevant documentation according to work-site procedures.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of each of the monitored parameters.
  • Report all deviations to affected parties according to work site procedures.
  • Understand the consequences of not adhering to work site procedures.
  • Shutdown the extruder according to work site and safety procedures
  • Handle sub-standard product according too work site procedures.
  • Work area and extrusion equipment are cleaned and sanitized according to work site procedures.
  • Clean and sanitize the work area and coating equipment according to work site procedures.
  • Ensure that cleaning equipment is stored in the designated area according to work site procedures.
  • Waste from the cleaning process is handled, stored or disposed of according to work site requirements.
  • Understand the consequences of not adhering to work site procedures.
  • Process and store records are kept according to work site procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Values

    All learners should demonstrate :

    An application of company ethics, values as well as general safety and customer care principles.

    An awareness of expectations and obligations of basic worker / management / customer relationships. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  48893   Further Education and Training Certificate: Dry Pet Food Advanced Processing Technology  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  AgriSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.