SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

Demonstrate understanding of the principles of blasting operations and rock breaking techniques in an underground hard rock environment 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
116671  Demonstrate understanding of the principles of blasting operations and rock breaking techniques in an underground hard rock environment 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Registered" 
2004-12-02  2007-08-16  SAQA 0857/04 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2008-08-16   2011-08-16  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard is replaced by: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
244470  Demonstrate understanding of blasting products pertaining to blasting operations and principles of rock breaking activities in an underground hard rock environment  Level 3  NQF Level 03   

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and contribute to the upliftment and economic growth of the mining and minerals sector.

This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of demonstrating understanding of blasting products pertaining to blasting operations and principles of rock breaking activities in an underground hard rock environment in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Explain the basic principles of blasting products and systems
  • Explain the application of blasting products and systems
  • Explain the basic principles of rock breaking techniques. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credit calculation is based on the assumption that learners are already competent in terms of the following outcomes or areas of learning when starting to learn towards this unit standard:
  • Understanding of basic mining terminology
  • Follow basic health and safety practices pertaining to mining operations.
  • Test for flammable gas by means of a hand held electronic instrument and take appropriate action.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the most common harmful gases and vapours. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain the characteristics of explosives and initiation systems. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The explanation of the characteristics of cartridged, ammonium nitrate and bulk explosives and how their characteristics determine the application of these explosives is consistent with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Characteristics must include:
  • Solubility in water
  • Sensitivity to detonation
  • Generation of fumes, gases and levels of toxicity
  • Application of different explosives and the effect thereof on safety
  • Standing time of charged holes
  • Tamping of charged holes.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The explanation of the principles of various initiating systems is consistent with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Initiating systems must include:
  • Electrical centralised blasting system
  • Remote controlled mobile (hand held) electric blasting system
  • Non-electric delay starters.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Explain the application of explosives and initiation systems. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The explanation of the application of various explosives and systems is consistent with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explosives and systems must include:
  • Fuses, igniter cord and accessories
  • Electric detonators and accessories
  • Shock tubes and accessories
  • Electronic Detonators, control equipment and accessories
  • Explosives and accessories placed in shot holes - cartridged explosives
  • Explosives and accessories placed in shot holes - ammonium nitrate based explosives
  • Explosives and accessories placed in shot holes - pumpable emulsion explosives
  • Explosives and accessories not placed in shot holes - secondary blasting
  • Detonating fuses and accessories
  • Pentolite Boosters.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The explanation of the application of various initiation systems is consistent with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Initiation systems must include:
  • Electrical centralised blasting system
  • Remote controlled mobile (hand held) electric blasting system
  • Non-electric delay starters.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Explain the basic principles of rock breaking techniques. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The explanation of face preparation to ensure an effective blast is consistent with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Face preparation must include:
  • Support
  • Barring
  • Cleaning of the footwall
  • Treatment of misfires and sockets
  • Position of sockets.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The explanation of the facts / principles to be considered when marking and drilling of holes is consistent with the specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors and principles must include:
  • Burden
  • Spacing
  • Tram or dimension lines
  • Directions
  • Positions
  • Hole lengths
  • Dips
  • Geological disturbances
  • Sockets / Misfires
  • Preparation of drilled holes for charging.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The explanation of the application of sequential firing for various drilling patterns is consistent with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Drilling patterns must include:
  • Stoping drilling patterns
  • Development drilling patterns
  • Specialised blasting operations
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The explanation of the interpretation of a blast and actions required to improve blast results is consistent with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Stoping width
  • Development end dimensions
  • Rock fragmentation and heave
  • Blast induced fractures
  • Hangingwall, sidewall and footwall
  • Face advance
  • Support
  • Explosives
  • Misfires
  • Socket length and appearance
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The explanation of the principles of eliminating fires in the workplace due to blasting is consistent with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Principles of eliminating fires must include:
  • Flammable material
  • Excess explosives and accessories
  • Flammable gas
  • Watering down
  • Initiating systems
  • Tamping.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:
  • The characteristics of cartridged, ammonium nitrate and bulk explosives and how their characteristics determine the application of these explosives
  • The principles of various initiating systems
  • Principles of face preparation to ensure an effective blast
  • The facts / principles to be considered when marking and drilling holes
  • The application of sequential firing for various drilling patterns
  • The interpretation of a blast and actions required to improve blast results
  • The principles of eliminating fires in the workplace due to blasting. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.
    Note: The ability of the candidate to identify sub-standard and hazardous conditions, assess and take appropriate action. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.
    Note: The ability and willingness of the candidate to accept and interpret work instructions correctly. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.
    Note: The ability of the candidate to indicate what methods, tools and personal protective equipment is required and communicate to fellow workers his/her intentions and assistance required. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
    Note: The ability of the candidate to reconcile the information from visual and physical examinations and constantly evaluate the changing situation. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.
    Note: The appropriate communication with the relevant personnel with regard to the reporting of hazards and sub-standard conditions will indicate his/her proficiency in effective communication. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
    Note: The ability of the candidate to use equipment, follow processes and access and record data in a technological environment in accordance with environmental, occupational health and safety requirements. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
    Note: The ability of the candidate to identify and refer anomalous behaviour to a specialist confirms understanding that a specific observation, inference, action or decision can have a devastating effect. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    Assessors should keep the following principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessment at title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes.
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The assessment criteria provide the specifications against which assessment judgements should be made. In most cases, knowledge can be inferred from the quality of the performances, but in other cases, knowledge and understanding will have to be tested through questioning techniques. Where this is required, there will be assessment criteria to specify the standard required.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence, of the prescribed type and quality, as specified in this unit standard, that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well documented principles of assessment: appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, direct, authentic, sufficient, systematic, open and consistent. 

  • UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard has been replaced by unit standard 244470, which is "Demonstrate understanding of blasting products pertaining to blasting operations and principles of rock breaking activities in an underground hard rock environment", Level 3, 9 credits.

    Terminology

    Specified requirements

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991)
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice
  • SABS and other relevant Standards
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives
  • Guidelines issued by the Chief Inspector of Mines

    Site specific
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA)
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme
  • Voluntary Codes of Practice
  • Managerial Instructions
  • Mine Standard Procedures
  • List of Recorded OH&S Significant risks and consequences
  • Working Guides
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications of 1993.

    Motivation regarding number of specific outcomes

    Even though there are less than four specific outcomes in this unit standard it represents a whole competency. It is NOT merely a description of tasks, jobs or procedures but it focuses on outcomes of activity. It also has a broad application across a range of contexts as stipulated in the unit standard.

    In addition this unit standard is considered as a milestone of learning in the sector. It is worth recognizing in its own right, as it is attributable to and achievable by an individual.

    This unit standard is fit-for-purpose for the sector and the specific outcomes jointly meet all the competence requirements of the title of the standard.

    In addition the unit standard has been integrated to avoid artificial distinctions.

    Unit standard justification

    Level

    Attribute-Level-Justification
    Skills-3-The skills required now have a significant variety and extend beyond the simple range
    Procedures-4-Considerable choice
    Context-3-Range of familiar
    Knowledge-4-Broad knowledge base incorporating some theoretical concepts
    Information processing-3-Interpretation of available information
    Problem Solving-3-A range of known responses to familiar problems
    Orientation of activities-3-Directed, with some autonomy
    Application of responsibility-4-Under broad guidance and evaluation
    Orientation of scope of responsibility-3-Significant responsibility for the quantity and quality of output

    Average level: 30/9 = 3.3 actual level assigned: 3

    Credits

    Total hours required by the learner to achieve the required outcome:

    Activity-Hours
    Classroom Teaching-78
    On-The-Job Training-12
    Total-90

    Credits achieved: 90/10 = 9 credits assigned: 9. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  49014   National Certificate: Rockbreaking: Underground Hard Rock  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2007-08-16  Was MQA until Last Date for Achievement 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. ANGLOGOLD ASHANTI LTD (V/R) 
    2. CONCOR PROJECTS PTY LTD 
    3. DIGGERS TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SERVICES 
    4. FOSKOR (PTY) LTD 
    5. HARMONY GOLD MINING CO LTD 
    6. NORTHAM PLATINUM LTD 
    7. PALABORA COPPER (PTY) LTD 
    8. SENZEKO EXECUTIVE RISK CC 
    9. SHAFT SINKERS MINING PTY LTD 
    10. SIBANYE GOLD ACADEMY PROPRIETARY LIMITED 
    11. VENETIA MINE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.