SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate a basic understanding of geographical space and spatial relationships 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
116828  Demonstrate a basic understanding of geographical space and spatial relationships 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Geographical Information Sciences 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 12 - Physical Planning and Construction Physical Planning, Design and Management 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  12 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
The purpose of this unit standard is to introduce learners to basic geographical concepts of space and spatial relationships and their representation in a geographical information system. This unit standard will be useful to people who wish to have a basic level of Geo-information literacy. This standard will be an entry-level education for someone entering the GIS field.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate a basic understanding of geography in order to understand the context within which a GIS is used.
  • Demonstrate an awareness of geographical location in order to understand the context within which a GIS is used.
  • Read maps and aerial photographs in order to understand the context within which a GIS is used.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of elementary GIS concepts.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the nature of geographical data. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credit calculation is based on the assumption that learners are already competent in terms of the following outcomes or areas of learning when starting to learn towards this unit standard:
  • Literacy and numeracy at NQF level 4.
  • Computer literacy at NQF level 4.
  • Geography at NQF level 4. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria. These include inter alia: Absolute and relative location, Physical and Human geography, locational data attribute data; data versus information, temporality, dimensionality, measurement levels, resolution. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate a basic understanding of geography in order to understand the context within which a GIS is used. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Awareness of basic physical geography principles is demonstrated as required for elementary GIS use. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Including but not limited to climatology, hydrology, geomorphology, biogeography, urban and rural development.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Awareness of basic human geography principles is demonstrated as required for elementary GIS use. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Including but not limited to urban and rural development, demographics, economic geography, political geography, and epidemiology.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Awareness of basic relationships between humankind and the environment is demonstrated as required for elementary GIS use. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Including but not limited to pollution, conservation, land degradation, landscape transformation.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Awareness of basic spatial relationships is demonstrated as required for elementary GIS use. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Including but not limited to spatial distribution, spatial co variation and association, spatial differentiation and spatial interaction.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an awareness of geographical location in order to understand the context within which a GIS is used. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Orientation and location is understood and can be demonstrated by orientating oneself by using a hardcopy map or aerial photo. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Includes but is not limited to compass points, compass bearings, coordinates, measurement units.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Concepts of scale are understood through demonstrating the ability to identify features and take measurements at different scales. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Includes but is not limited to scale ratios, large scale v/s small scale, scale relationship between reality and representation.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Types of geo-information representation are recognized. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Includes but is not limited to topographical map, topo-cadastral map, cadastral map, thematic map, chart, orthophoto map, aerial photograph and satellite images.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Read maps and aerial photographs in order to understand the context within which a GIS is used. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Aerial photography as a valuable source of two and three dimensional data is recognized. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Main features on aerial photographs are identified. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Includes but not limited to elementary topographical features.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Map furniture is identified, interpreted and explained in order to read a map. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Includes but not limited to map title, north arrows, scalebar, legend, graticule, projection parameters, gridlines, edition, disclaimers, copyright, source, inset map, annotation.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Features are identified according to symbology and classification. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Includes but not limited to landform, infrastructure, hydrology, land use.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Thematic maps are read, understood and explained in order to identify spatial patterns within the theme. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of elementary GIS concepts. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Geometric primitives are explained and identified as required for elementary GIS use. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Includes but are not limited to point, line, polygon/area, surface and solids.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Spatial data formats are identified and the principle advantages and disadvantages are known as required for elementary GIS use. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Includes but are not limited to raster, vector formats.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Geo Information sources are understood and explained as required for elementary GIS use. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Includes but are not limited to primary (remote sensing and questionnaire surveys), secondary (scanning and digitising).
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    GIS output are known and explained as required for elementary GIS use. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Includes but are not limited to hard copy maps, electronic maps, internet mapping, PDA (Personal Digital Assistant), tables, business graphics and reports.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Samples of GIS applications are illustrated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    For example census, marketing, natural resource management, local government, crime prevention, utilities, exploration and navigation.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The basic elements of meta data are understood and described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Contains at least: spatial accuracy, attribute accuracy, currency, logical consistency, completeness and lineage, content, projection parameters, geographical extent, data format.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the nature of geographical data. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The link between place, time and attributes is understood and explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The difference between data and information is understood and explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Data measurement levels and their application are understood and can be explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Dimensionality of geographical data is understood, explained and recognised on maps and aerial photographs. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Points, lines, areas, discrete surfaces, continuous surfaces.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The relationship between scale and the level of detail is understood and can be explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Resolution, micro scale, meso scale, macro scale.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    Moderation Options:
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Essential embedded knowledge will be assessed through assessment of the specific outcomes in terms of the stipulated assessment criteria. Candidates are unlikely to achieve all the specific outcomes, to the standards described in the assessment criteria, without knowledge of the listed embedded knowledge. This means that for the most part, the possession or lack of the knowledge can be directly inferred from the quality of the candidate's performance. Where direct assessment of knowledge is required, assessment criteria have been included in the body of the unit standard.

    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:
  • Sense of location and direction.
  • Basic understanding of the world map.
  • Basic understanding of units of measurements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Solve problems.
  • Orientation and location is understood and can be demonstrated by orientating oneself by using a hardcopy map or aerial photo.
  • Concepts of scale are understood through demonstrating the ability to identify features and take measurements at different scales.
  • Main features on aerial photographs are identified.
  • Map furniture is identified, interpreted and explained in order to read a map.
  • Features are identified according to symbology and classification.
  • Spatial data formats are identified and the principle advantages and disadvantages are known as required for elementary GIS use. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • GIS output are known and explained as required for elementary GIS use.
  • The basic elements of meta data are understood and described. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematics and language skills in the modes of oral and written presentations.
  • Map furniture is identified, interpreted and explained in order to read a map.
  • Features are identified according to symbology and classification.
  • Thematic maps are read, understood and explained in order to identify spatial patterns within the theme.
  • Geometric primitives are explained and identified as required for elementary GIS use.
  • Geo Information sources are understood and explained as required for elementary GIS use.
  • GIS output are known and explained as required for elementary GIS use.
  • The basic elements of meta data are understood and described. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically (showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others).
  • Orientation and location is understood and can be demonstrated by orientating oneself by using a hardcopy map or aerial photo.
  • Concepts of scale are understood through demonstrating the ability to identify features and take measurements at different scales.
  • Types of geo-`information representation are recognized.
  • Aerial photography as a valuable source of two and three dimensional data is recognized.
  • Main features on aerial photographs are identified.
  • Map furniture is identified, interpreted and explained in order to read a map.
  • Features are identified according to symbology and classification.
  • Thematic maps are read, understood and explained in order to identify spatial patterns within the theme.
  • Geometric primitives are explained and identified as required for elementary GIS use.
  • Spatial data formats are identified and the principle advantages and disadvantages are known as required for elementary GIS use.
  • Geo Information sources are understood and explained as required for elementary GIS use.
  • GIS output are known and explained as required for elementary GIS use.
  • Samples of GIS applications are illustrated.
  • The basic elements of meta data are understood and described. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems.
  • Awareness of basic physical geography principles is demonstrated as required for elementary GIS use.
  • Awareness of basic human geography principles is demonstrated as required for elementary GIS use.
  • Awareness of basic relationships between humankind and the environment is demonstrated as required for elementary GIS use.
  • Awareness of basic spatial relationships is demonstrated as required for elementary GIS use. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    Notes to assessors:

    Assessors should keep the following principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessment at title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes.
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The assessment criteria provide the specifications against which assessment judgements should be made. In most cases, knowledge can be inferred from the quality of the performances, but in other cases, knowledge and understanding will have to be tested through questioning techniques. Where this is required, there will be assessment criteria to specify the standard required.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence, of the prescribed type and quality, as specified in this unit standard, that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well documented principles of assessment: appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, direct, authentic, sufficient, systematic, open and consistent. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  49063   National Certificate: Geographical Information Sciences  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Reregistered  2023-06-30  CETA 
    Core  58784   National Diploma: Geospatial Image Analysis  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2020-07-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. ESRI SOUTH AFRICA 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.