SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Apply military joint and multi-national doctrine and policy during campaign planning 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
119918  Apply military joint and multi-national doctrine and policy during campaign planning 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Military Professional Development 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security Sovereignty of the State 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  42 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is for officers to function at the Operational Level of War by developing their skills in interpreting and applying military Joint and Multi-national doctrine and policy as well as to broaden their professional understanding of military single-service, joint and multi-national operations, the management of defence and the wider aspects of across-the-continuum of conflict, from full-scale war, to the use of armed force in extremely constrained circumstances, specifically during military operations other than war.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Exercise appropriate judgement when applying international laws, national laws, treaties and conventions during military operations
  • Apply the theory of Operational Art in planning and conducting a military operation
  • Apply joint and multi-national military doctrine and national policy in planning and conducting a military campaign and/or major operation
  • Analyse military single-service capacity, capabilities and their employment across the spectrum of conflict
  • Analyse historical military campaigns and major operations in order to draw conclusions on the application of Operational Art

    The achievement of this unit standard contributes to the professional development of learners within the military single-service, joint and multi-national operations environment and to provide further mobility and transportability within the field of Law, Security and Military Science. The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for a beneficial impact on national security, social and economic transformation and upliftment within the South African society. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that the learner has the following knowledge and skills:
  • Knowledge of the context of DOD and military activities - L5
  • Basic communication skills (report writing, presentation skills and English language proficiency) - L4
  • Basic analysis and research skills - L5
  • Security awareness - L5
  • Basic time management and self-management - L4
  • Social awareness - L4
  • Knowledge of Joint and Service doctrine, policy and instructions - L5
  • Knowledge of tactical employment of Service capabilities within the relevant fundamental warfare areas on land, sea and airspace - L5 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The range covers the role and purpose of military operations at the Operational Level of War in the context of the national security of South Africa. The range includes practice and culture of military operations at the Operational Level of War, the regulatory framework of military operations at the Operational Level of War, the main activities of military operations at the Operational Level of War, and military operations' stakeholders in and outside of South Africa.

    This unit standard is intended for learners who are being developed as officers for senior appointment at the Operational Level of war.

    The level assigned to this unit standard is appropriate, as learners are required to be able to exercise judgement in complex planning, design and technical functions related to military operational planning at the Operational Level of War. Furthermore, responsibility must be accepted for determining and achieving personal and/or group outcomes. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Exercise appropriate judgement when applying international laws, national laws, treaties and conventions during military operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The Law of War and the Law Against War is analysed to determine their application to a specific military operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The United Nations Charter is analysed to determine the mandate of national and coalition forces in conflicts. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Memoranda of Understanding are designed to clarify roles, relationships etc of participating states' relationships. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Relationships = roles, functions, mandates and responsibilities.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Rules of Engagement and Status of Agreements are designed for military forces participating in specific military operations that reflect and are in accordance with international and national laws. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    International and national laws are critically evaluated to determine participating military forces' rights to self-defence for a specific military operation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Specific military operations - military operation that is being planned, simulated or studied.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Apply the theory of Operational Art in, planning and conducting a military operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The context, importance and characteristics of Operational Art are interpreted as applied in military operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Military operations = conventional war and Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW).
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The conclusions after analysis of operational factors are integrated in order to define possible solutions to the military problem. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Operational factors = space, time and force.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The Operational Functions are synchronised to ensure the optimal employment of forces across the operational continuum. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Operational Functions - Operational Movement & Manoeuvre, Operational Intelligence, Operational Sustainment, Operational Command and Control, Operational Fire Power and Operational Protection.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Operational Concepts are applied in both the designing and planning of military operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Operational Concepts = Design concepts and approach concepts.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The theory related to theatres is applied in the management of the battle-space and in the conduct of military operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Theory related to theatres - design of theatres, theatre geometry and scope of the theatre.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The Principles of War are utilised in designing and planning campaigns and major operations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Apply joint and multi-national military doctrine and national policy in planning and conducting a military campaign and/or major operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) military doctrine is compared with other countries. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Past and current South African campaigns and major operations are analysed to evaluate the appropriateness of SANDF doctrine. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The relationship between Operational Art and doctrine is analysed for effective application in planning and conducting a campaign and/or major operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Mission Command is applied in planning and conducting military operations in accordance with SANDF doctrine. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Analyse military single-service capacity, capabilities and their employment across the spectrum of conflict. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The nature and dynamics of land, maritime and air warfare are considered during the planning and designing of joint military operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Military single-service doctrine, strategies and policies are applied to reflect the concept of jointness. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Military single-service procedures, systems and structures are applied during campaign planning. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Analyse historical military campaigns and major operations in order to draw conclusions on the application of Operational Art. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Historic military campaigns and major operations are analysed to enhance the planning of a military appreciation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Military appreciation includes the sequencing and synchronisation of related tactical actions and major operations and the flow of campaigns and/or major operations.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Special techniques applied by military forces are analysed to determine correct utilisation in designing and planning campaigns and major operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The impact of weapons of mass destruction is analysed to determine their effect on the design of campaigns/major operations and operational command. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Military campaigns and major operations are designed in accordance with theories, philosophies and concepts of Conflict Termination and Conflict Transformation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The relationships between strategic, operational and tactical methods of combat force employment are compared to determine their impact on planning and the design of military campaigns and major operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Emerging theories, such as Revolutionary Military Affairs (RMA), asymmetry, types of war and effects-based warfare are evaluated in the planning and design of military campaigns and major operations. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    The assessment will be governed by the policies and guidelines of the relevant Education and Training Quality Assuror (ETQA) that has jurisdiction over this field of learning.
    The assessor will (at the very least) be accredited and have a relevant qualification and/or be a subject matter expert in this learning area and at least have experience in the skills specific area.
    The learner can be assessed against this unit standard to obtain credits or as part of an integrated assessment for a qualification. To this effect the following must be complied with:
  • Internal moderation must be conducted.
  • External moderation must be conducted.
  • An assessor, accredited by the relevant ETQA, will assess the learner's competency.
  • Assessment procedures will be supplied by the ETQA in alignment with NSB requirements.
  • All assessment activities must be fair, so that all candidates have equal opportunities. Activities must be free of gender, ethnic or other bias.
  • Assessment and moderation procedures, activities and tools must be transparent, affordable and support development within the field, sub-field and NQF.
  • Questions and answers to determine theoretical knowledge are expected.
  • Assessment of a portfolio of evidence.
  • Direct observation in simulated and/or controlled work conditions. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    1. Names, functions and locations of:
  • Threats and opportunities
  • Roles of various military and security organisations and structures
  • Functional structures within military and security organisations
  • Government structures (national and international) - especially, regional
  • Military structures and constituencies
  • Stakeholders and their relation to military community
  • Civil-military relations

    2. Purpose of processes and procedures of:
  • The legislation (International, regional and national)
  • The purpose of military operations
  • The activities in the planning cycle
  • The military operations in fulfilling mandates whilst providing a service to stakeholders

    3. Attributes, properties, characteristics related to:
  • National security concepts
  • Military culture
  • Stakeholders and their rights

    4. Cause and effect, implications of:
  • Causality of events
  • The research cycle
  • The processes in providing operational planning
  • Restrictions and limitations

    5. Categories of things, processes, concepts:
  • Definitions of aspects of Operational Art
  • Elements of warfare
  • Levels of War
  • Military strategy
  • Peace operations
  • The need for a regulatory framework

    6. Procedures and techniques:
  • Departmental procedures, methods and techniques
  • Procedures of military practices
  • Liaison protocol
  • Service doctrine, procedures, methods, techniques and tactics (SA Army, SA Air Force, SA Navy and SA Medical Health Services)

    7. Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies:
  • Bilateral and multilateral agreements of the RSA
  • Historical, political and economic overview of bi-lateral agreements, links, problems and challenges: Africa, Europe - including the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union (NIS), Asia, The Middle East and the Americas
  • South Africa's Foreign and National Policies
  • RSA`s role in Regional and International Organisations and their particular mandates: Africa (African Union (AU), Southern African Development Community (SADC), Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS), Southern African Customs Union (SACU), New Economic Partnership for African Development (NEPAD), etc); Science and Technology (International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Universal Postal Union (UPU), International Telecommunications Satellite Organisation (ITSO), United Nations Committee of Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), etc); Environment (all sub-sections: marine, pollution, conservation, etc.); Social Development (humanitarian and disaster relief, migration, etc,); Peace, Security (Disarmament, nuclear & non-proliferation, etc.) the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), Non Aligned Movement (NAM), Commonwealth, Peace Missions; Democracy & Good Governance: International Crime, international terror. Constitution of South Africa (Bill of Rights, sections relevant to defence)
  • Relevant legislation relating to military community
  • Departmental policies, directives and doctrine
  • Relevant White Papers
  • Coalitions and Alliances
  • Treaties and Memoranda of Understanding
  • Service and joint doctrine

    8. Theory - rules, laws, principles:
  • Military terminology
  • Theory of Operational Art
  • Uses of operational level concepts and principles
  • Military culture
  • Unique characteristics of military operations and military leaders/leadership
  • Political systems
  • International Law

    9. Relationships, systems:
  • Between the constitution, legislation and military operations
  • Between the state and the military and civilian organisations
  • Between the elements of the military operational planning cycle
  • The inter-relationship between stakeholders and the military community
  • Between political aspects/influences impacting on relationships with stakeholders
  • Between Services
  • Between international actors
  • Between the Strategic, Operational and Tactical Levels of War
  • Between Levels Of War And Levels Of Command In military operations
  • Between doctrine and Operational Art
  • Between national policy and military strategy 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Complying with regulatory framework
  • Understanding and applying departmental policies and procedures
  • Understanding the relationships
  • Understanding the planning cycle 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community during:
  • Support and assistance processes
  • Liaison with stakeholders
  • The establishment of internal relationships 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Following processes, procedures and protocols 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • Information on the main functions of military operations at the Operational Level of War 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion when:
  • Complying with the regulatory framework
  • Applying the policies and procedures
  • Providing descriptions, explaining, defining, interpreting policy, doctrine and directives 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others when:
  • Sourcing information on the legislation and policies and procedures 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • Understanding military operations at the Operational Level of War across the continuum of conflict
  • Comparing and evaluating relationships between strategic, operational and tactical methods of combat force employment
  • The mandates are discussed
  • The military framework is explained
  • The relationship between elements of the military planning cycle is explained
  • The relationship between stakeholders and military operations is explained 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Supplementary Information:
    Notes to Assessors

    Assessors should keep the following general principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessment at title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes. Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • At this level some errors are to be expected. Assessors must use professional judgement in evaluating competence.
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the range as expressed under the title. Specific range statements under individual outcomes or assessment criteria are illustrations, from which learning programme developers can select. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence, of the prescribed type and quality, as specified in this unit standard, that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance can be reproduced.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well-documented principles: assessment should be appropriate, fair, manageable, integrated into work or learning, valid, and consistent. Evidence should be authentic, sufficient, and current.
  • Assessment of this standard can be carried out through continuous assessment throughout the course of study and specific performances assessed.

    Definitions:
  • Operational level (of war): The level at which military and non-military sources of power are employed to accomplish military-strategic or theatre-strategic objectives through the planning, preparation, and execution of a single campaign; sometimes the same objective could be accomplished by conducting a major Joint or Multi-national operation; this level of war is conducted in a given theatre of operations (Operational Warfare by Milan Vego).
  • Operational art: A Component of military art principally concerned with theoretical and practical aspects of planning, preparing, conducting, and sustaining major operations and campaigns to accomplish operational and strategic objectives in a theatre (Operational Warfare by Milan Vego).
  • Operational: Any theoretical or practical aspect of warfare or conflict at the operational level (Operational Warfare by Milan Vego).
  • Major Operation: A series of related battles, engagements, strikes, attacks and other tactical actions sequenced and synchronised in terms of time and place, and aimed at accomplishing an operational (and sometimes strategic) objective; it could be conducted by a single-Service, jointly or multi-nationally (Operational Warfare by Milan Vego).
  • Military campaign: A series of related major military operations sequenced and synchronised in terms of time and place and aimed at accomplishing a military-strategic objective; it is usually conducted jointly or multi-nationally (Operational Warfare by Milan Vego). 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  49783   National Diploma: Joint and Multi-National Operations  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Reregistered  2023-06-30  SAS SETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. SCHOOL OF ARTILLERY 
    2. SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.