SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate understanding of the principles of navigating an aircraft 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
120058  Demonstrate understanding of the principles of navigating an aircraft 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Air Defence 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security Safety in Society 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Explain and apply basic navigation concepts
  • Explain magnetism in navigation
  • Utilise aeronautical charts
  • Conduct dead reckoning navigation (DR)
  • Navigate an aircraft in equatorial and mid latitude flights 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Mathematics at NQF Level 4
  • Physical Science at NQF Level 4 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The terms "aircraft" and "aeroplane" are used as synonyms where appropriate.

    This unit standard is applicable to navigation in short and medium range operations using ground based navigational aids and equipment, materials and practices typically found in the commercial operation of small aeroplanes. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain and apply basic navigation concepts. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The solar system is described in terms of planetary motion. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Earth rotation and orbit is described in terms of celestial events. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Celestial events includes seasons, sunrise, sunset.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Position reference systems are explained in terms of aeronautical navigation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Position reference systems include but are not limited to:
  • Latitudes
  • Longitudes
  • Other grid systems
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Direction and distance on earth are explained in terms of navigation activities. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Time is calculated in terms of navigation activities. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Explain magnetism in navigation. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Magnetism includes aircraft magnetism and compasses. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Magnetism is described in terms of general scientific principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    General scientific principles include but are not limited to ferromagnetism, induced magnetism and magnetic force fields.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Terrestrial magnetism is described in terms of parameters relevant to navigation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Aircraft magnetism is described in terms of its origin and the effects on the aircraft compasses. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Direct and remote reading compasses are described in terms of their construction, maintenance and operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Compass errors are described in terms of aircraft systems and manoeuvres. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Compass calibrations are explained in terms of maintenance procedures and ICAO standards. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Utilise aeronautical charts. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The construction of aeronautical maps and charts is described in terms of international cartography principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Construction includes but is not limited to earth shape models and map projections used for aeronautical purposes.
  • Aeronautical maps includes but is not limited to lamberts, polar stereographic and transfer projections.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Lines on maps are identified in terms of their uses. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Lines include but are not limited to great circles, rhumb lines and small circles.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Chart scales are applied in aeronautical navigation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Aeronautical charts are applied in aeronautical navigation. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Conduct dead reckoning navigation (DR). 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Navigation problems are solved by means of navigation computers. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Navigation computers include one of slide rule or electronic versions.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    DR navigation errors are described in term of corrective actions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The elements of DR navigation are utilised for position determination. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Elements of a DR navigation includes but is not limited triangle of velocity, altitudes and meteorological conditions.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Aircraft operational limits are calculated for flight planning. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Operational limit includes point of no return, radius of action, points of equal time, critical points, point of no alternates.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Navigate an aircraft in equatorial and mid latitude flights. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Actual or simulated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Visual observation techniques are described in terms of in-flight navigation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Flight progress is plotted on charts. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Flight progress includes air position, ground position, fixes, and wind effect, top of climb, top of descent.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Navigation requirements are described for equatorial and mid latitude flights. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    An aircraft is navigated during climb, cruise and descent. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Position, Speed and time determination, Construction of position lines, Use of radio navigation aids, Maintenance of flight log.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Fuel consumption is monitored in terms of flight plan calculations. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    An individual wishing to be assessed (including through RPL) against this Unit Standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution accredited by the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.

    Anyone assessing a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.

    Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard or assessing this Unit Standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.

    Moderation of assessment will be conducted by the relevant ETQA at its discretion. 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Basics of navigation:
  • The solar system:

    > Elements
    > Law of Gravity, Kepler's Law
  • The earth:

    > Effects of orbital and rotational motions of the earth in relation to the sun: seasons, sunrise, sunset
    > Position reference system: Geometrical shape of the earth, latitude, longitude, poles, great circles
  • Time and time conversions:

    > Apparent time
    > Mean time
    > Local mean time (LMT)
    > Universal co-ordinated time (UTC)
    > Standard times (ST): international dateline, determinations of sunrise (SR) and sunset (SS)
  • Directions:

    > True directions
    > Magnetic directions
    > Compass directions
  • Distance and its application in navigation:

    > Nautical miles
    > Statute mile
    > Kilometres
    > Latitude
    > Longitude
    > Convergency
    > Departure

    Magnetism and compasses:
  • General principles of magnetism:

    > Ferromagnetism
    > Magnetic poles
    > Lines of force
    > Magnetic materials
  • Terrestrial magnetism:

    > Resolution of the earth's total magnetic force (intensity) into vertical and horizontal components
    > Directive force and magnetic dip and variation
  • Components of aircraft magnetism:

    > The resulting magnetic fields
    > Compass errors
  • Remote reading and direct reading compasses:

    > Legal requirements for construction, care and calibration

    Charts:
  • Types and characteristics:

    > Transfer projections
    > Lambert's conformal conic
    > Polar stereographic
  • Chart representation of meridians, parallel, great circles and rhumb lines
  • The use of current aeronautical charts

    Dead Reckoning Navigation (DR):

    > Basics of dead reckoning
    > Use of mechanical and electronic navigational computers
    > Triangle of velocities and methods of solution
    > Elements required for establishing DR position
    > Techniques for calculating DR elements and constructing DR position on Mercator and Lambert charts
    > Maximum range, radius of action, point of equal time and critical point
    > Miscellaneous DR inconsistencies and practical means of correction

    In-flight navigation:

    > Use of visual observations and application to in-flight navigation
    > Navigation in climb and descent
    > Navigation in cruising flight, use of fixes to revise navigation data
    > Flight log 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    The learner is able to identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made by:
  • Recognising how navigational concepts are applied in response to prevailing conditions thereby ensuring safe, efficient and legal flight is achieved.
  • Applying the corrective action techniques should a special operational procedure or hazard be identified. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
  • Communicating, liaising and seeking input from relevant parties in regard to potential/required changes that are to be made to the flight profile
  • Seeking input from other parties in considering options for changing the flight profile 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Plotting flight progress on charts including air position, ground position, fixes, wind effect, top of climb and top of descent
  • Timeously adapting flight operations in response to ATC requirements, weather changes such as wind and turbulence, as well as terrain requirements, in order to ensure continued safety and efficiency of flight
  • Managing flights optimally 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse and critically evaluate information by:
  • Applying the principles of navigation (in-flight and dead reckoning), magnetism and charts to flight operations
  • Analysing and applying airspace, terrain and performance considerations together with meteorological information in order to make decisions that affect the safety and efficiency of the flight
  • Applying general operational procedures, special operational procedures and hazards 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion by:
  • Reading and interpreting maps, graphs, charts and tables
  • Using appropriate communication techniques to obtain navigation system status, airspace and Air Traffic Control requirements and information
  • Techniques include but are not limited to:
    > Radio telephony procedures
    > Aircraft interception procedures
    > Intercepting required flight track and correcting flight track errors
    > Light signals
    > Accessing appropriate electronic displays
    > Observing and interpreting electro mechanical displays
    > Consulting company Operations Manuals
    > Consulting Aeroplane Flight Manuals 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Understanding how the general principles of magnetism are applied in the context of navigation
  • Understanding how the influences of the solar system are applied in the context of navigation
  • Utilising mechanical and electronic navigational computers in order to source accurate information from which to perform navigation calculations
  • Understanding the impact of terrain, aeroplane performance and navigation system limitations / status on a flight and knowing the appropriate techniques for avoiding hazards
  • Understanding how the flight profile of an aeroplane can and should be modified within the boundaries set by authorities, performance and safety considerations in such a way as to minimise environmental impact and nuisance to residents living under the potential flight path 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation by:
  • Understanding the hazards of fixating on a particular sub-system without using all available information to create a complete mental awareness of situations
  • Understanding the consequences of focusing on the resolution of a specific problem to the exclusion of other systems may result in additional problems ultimately affecting the safety and security of the aircraft operation, surrounding environment and inhabitants 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Abbreviations:

    ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization
    DR: Dead Reckoning Navigation
    LMT: Local Mean Time
    UTC: Universal Coordinated Time
    ST: Standard Times
    SR: Determinations of Sunrise
    SS: Determinations of Sunset 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  59256   National Diploma: Flight Dispatch  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Fundamental  63309   National Certificate: Defensive Mission Control  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Reregistered  2023-06-30  SAS SETA 
    Fundamental  49950   National Certificate: Navigation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  TETA 
    Fundamental  58023   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Fundamental  49853   National Diploma: Defensive Mission Control  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2008-09-17  Was SAS SETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  50500   National Diploma: Electronic Warfare  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2020-07-30  SAS SETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.