SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Navigate an aircraft in Visual Meteorological Conditions 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
120146  Navigate an aircraft in Visual Meteorological Conditions 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Air Defence 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security Safety in Society 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Prepare for the route to be flown
  • Navigate the aircraft on the prepared route
  • Perform diversion procedure
  • Resolve and recover from uncertain position 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Mathematics NQF Level 4
  • Physical Science NQF Level 4
  • Communication skills NQF Level 4 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The terms "aircraft" and "aeroplane" are used as synonyms where appropriate.

    The typical scope of this unit standard:
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with Civil Aviation Authority and or Military Aviation Authority Regulations and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aeroplane and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the Aircraft Flight Manual and or Pilot Operating Handbook.
  • Cockpit Resource Management is not to be assessed as a stand-alone element, however, the outcomes resulting from Cockpit Resource Management can be assessed. Cockpit Resource Management is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of Cockpit Resource Management are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way.
    Range of procedural elements include but are not limited to: Use of checklists, crew briefings, radio calls, and callouts.
  • Assessment:

    > Assessments shall be conducted in an aeroplane certified for single and or multi crew operations.
    > If a multi-engine aeroplane is provided for assessment, the learner shall be assessed on competence in carrying out appropriate manoeuvres with one engine (simulated) inoperative.
    > Assessments shall be carried out in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC).
  • Competence shall be assessed in a single or multi-engine aeroplane with retractable undercarriage and adjustable flaps, and variable pitch propeller, or turbo-propeller or turbo-jet engines, or an equivalent flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority.
  • Emergencies (simulated):
    Under no circumstances shall the aircraft or its occupants be placed in jeopardy.
  • Good airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Assessment of the learner does not include high speed flight or high altitude flight.
  • Assessment of the outcomes "Perform Lost Procedure" and "Perform Diversion Procedure" may be accomplished wholly or partly by oral or written assessment.
  • Assessment of the outcome "Navigate Aeroplane" shall be performed in at least one flight, over a triangular course of no shorter than one and a half hours. A landing at an away base may be included.
  • Competency in the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) is to be assessed only if the aeroplane provided for the assessment is GPS equipped.
  • Note: Competency in the use of Global Positioning System shall be assessed if this competency is required by Civil Aviation Authority regulations.
  • Navigation should at all times be conducted within the Civil Aviation Authority Regulations 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Prepare for the route to be flown. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    The route to be flown for the navigation assessment shall be chosen by the assessor. The route may end at the airport of departure or at another airport. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    In-flight documents and charts are prepared for navigation on the selected route to ensure effective flight management. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Preparation includes but is not limited to:
  • Selection
  • Airspace consideration
  • Flight track
  • Chart annotation
  • Folding
  • Meteorological information
  • Notice to airman
  • Altitude/flight level
  • Alternative airports
  • Data transfer: chart to navigation log
  • Calculations: True Air Speed (TAS), headings, ground speeds and time intervals, fuel and reserves
  • Radio frequency log
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Air Traffic Control flight plan is compiled and submitted in accordance with prescribed procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Procedures include International Civil Aviation Organization flight plan format and time required before flight and confirmation of receipt.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Navigate the aircraft on the prepared route. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Aircraft is navigated by dead reckoning within general flight tolerances as to ensure a safe flight. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    It is expected of the pilot and navigator to react appropriately to changing circumstances observed during the flight.

    Navigation includes but is not limited to:
  • Navigation log maintenance
  • Adherence to planned flightpath
  • Fuel log maintenance
  • Progress monitoring
  • Altimeter setting procedures
  • Ground feature identification
  • Position fixing
  • Error tracking (this includes the identification of errors timeously and their continuous effect on navigation)
  • Checks and procedures
  • Anticipation and preparation: headings, radio frequencies and altitude
  • Weather condition monitoring
  • Radio procedures
  • Set heading procedures
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Radio navigation systems are utilised for position fixing and homing. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    It is expected that navigation systems are utilised as supplements to Dead Reckoning navigation.

    Radio navigation systems include but are not limited to:
  • Automatic Direction Findering (ADF)
  • Very high frequency omni-directional range (VOR)
  • Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) /Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN)
  • Global Positioning System (GPS) flight plan
  • Surveillance radar
  • GPS "direct to" function
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Aircraft is navigated at low level with due regard to the additional hazards. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    It is expected of the pilot and or navigator to react appropriately to changing circumstances or additional hazards observed during the low level flight.

    Changing circumstances affecting safety of low-level navigation include but are not limited to:
  • Configuration and speed adjustment
  • Apparent slip and skid
  • Raised fuel consumption
  • Changed appearance of ground features
  • Weather conditions
  • Obstacles and rising terrain
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Altimeter subscale settings are determined with reference to current meteorological conditions. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Resolve and recover from uncertain position. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Way point, estimated time of arrival (ETA) and conflicting positions may be simulated for the purposes of in-flight assessment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Navigation information is evaluated in terms of resolving position uncertainties. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Confirmed position uncertainties refer to unsure of current position.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Good airmanship is demonstrated in terms of the position resolution process. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Elements of good airmanship that are specific to resolving uncertain position include but are not limited to:
  • Avoidance of impulsive action.
  • Initial actions: Time noted and track maintained, anchor point, fuel endurance maximised.
  • Logical problem resolution attempted: flight history, equipment settings, flight plan and map reading.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Actual position is established using available information and established techniques in order for normal navigation to resume. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Establishing position includes but is not limited to:
  • Construction of most probable position (MPP)
  • Map reading
  • Systematic search technique
  • Radio Navigation
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Flight planning is revised in accordance with new circumstances in order for safe conclusion of flight. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Recovery includes but is not limited to:
  • Recovery plan
  • Feasibility of recovery plan is confirmed: fuel remaining, daylight remaining and weather conditions
  • Selection of suitable airfields for potential diversion
  • Situation and intentions are communicated to Air Traffic Service (ATS)
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Recovery plan is implemented to bring the flight to a safe conclusion. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Perform diversion procedure. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Diversion: Changing of the route. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Diversion plan suitable to the circumstances is formulated and implemented if continuation along the planned route becomes inadvisable. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Circumstances include but are not limited to:
  • Track and distance to suitable alternative airport
  • Suitable cruising altitude/flight level
  • Weather avoidance
  • Fuel reserves
  • Suitable diversion point is selected
  • Estimated time of arrival (ETA) calculation
  • New diversion heading is adopted
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Navigation information is selected, analysed and compiled into a navigation log in order to plan a safe diversion route. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influence of the diversion is communicated to identified stakeholders in order to inform and or enlist their assistance. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Stakeholders include but are not limited to:
  • Air Traffic Service Unit (ATSU)
  • Operator and or owner
  • Passengers
  • Other aircraft
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Conditions are continuously assessed to ensure a safe conclusion to the diversion. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Conditions include but are not limited to:
  • Weather
  • Fuel and daylight remaining
  • Track made good
  • Groundspeed
  • Engine condition
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An individual wishing to be assessed (including through RPL) against this Unit Standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution accredited by the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard or assessing this Unit Standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be conducted by the relevant ETQA at its discretion. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Form of the earth and position description on the earth
  • Emergency procedures
  • Appropriate route selection considerations
  • Characteristics of different chart types
  • Calculations to convert Imperial, United States and metric measures
  • Flight planning requirements
  • Use of the navigational computer
  • Use of the aeroplane manual to determine performance parameters
  • General and type-specific aeroplane technical knowledge
  • Aviation regulations and procedures
  • Pilot navigation techniques
  • Dead reckoning navigation technique
  • Factors affecting en route performance, range and endurance
  • Interpretation of meteorological reports and forecasts and observed weather
  • Low level navigation techniques
  • En route navigation techniques
  • Chart reading techniques
  • Operation of radio navigation aids and Global Positioning System required for use of on-board equipment
  • The limitations of radio navigation aids and Global Positioning System
  • Controlled airspace requirements and tolerances
  • Circuit joining procedures
  • Procedures when lost 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    The learner is able to identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made by:
  • Planning and performing flights to achieve objectives within the constraints of the aeroplane limitations and regulatory requirements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
  • Acting as a member of a flight crew.
  • Communicating with Air Traffic Service and organising the flight in cognisance to other air traffic. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Planning ahead.
  • Compliance with applicable legislation.
  • Performing appropriate checks and procedures.
  • Using checklists where appropriate.
  • Exercising command ability and manoeuvring the aeroplane within its limits in order to achieve the desired outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse and critically evaluate information by:
  • Identifying symptoms of instrument, system and engine malfunction. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion by:
  • Radio and cockpit communication is in accordance with standard procedures and phraseology to ensure clarity and brevity of communication is achieved. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Proper and effective visual scanning to clear the area before and while performing manoeuvres by visual reference.
  • Operation of the aeroplane and its systems in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual / Pilot Operating Handbook.
  • Taking prompt corrective action when tolerances are exceeded.
  • Navigate the aeroplane in such a way that Civil Aviation Authority limitations are conformed to. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation:
  • A high level of situational awareness is maintained.
  • Airspace restrictions and requirements are adhered to.
  • Curfews, noise abatement procedures and other measures to minimise disturbance to the environment and the public are observed.
  • Safe flying practice is maintained. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Specified requirements

    Specified requirements include but are not limited to legal and legislative specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:
  • The learner shall be assessed as competent if he or she has become uncertain of the geographical position and demonstrates competence in recovering from the situation as outlined in Specific Outcome 3.
  • Use of distractions during practical assessment:

    Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. To strengthen this area of pilot and or navigator training and evaluation, the assessor shall provide a realistic distraction during the flight portion of the practical test. This will give the assessor a positive opportunity to evaluate the learner's ability to divide attention both inside and outside the cockpit while maintaining safe flight.
  • The information contained in this unit standard does not supercede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.
  • Assessors are encouraged to write comments on any of the outcomes.

    Abbreviations:

    VMC: Visual Meteorological Conditions
    CAA: Civil Aviation Authority
    MAA: Military Aviation Authority
    CRM: Cockpit Resource Management
    GPS: Global Positioning Systems
    TAS: True Air Speed
    ADF: Automatic Direction Findering
    VOR: Very High Frequency Omni-directional Range
    DME: Distance Measuring Equipment
    TACAN: Tactical Air Navigation System
    ETA: Estimated time of arrival
    MPP: Most Probable Position
    ATS: Air Traffic System
    ATSU: Air Traffic Service Unit
    AFM: Aircraft Flight Manual
    ATC: Air Traffic Control
    DR: Dead Reckoning Navigation
    IAS: Indicated Air Speed
    IATA: International Air Transport Association
    ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization
    NOTAM: Notice to airman
    POH: Pilot Operating Handbook
    VFR: Visual Flight Rules
    VMC: Visual Meteorological Conditions 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  49950   National Certificate: Navigation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  TETA 
    Core  58023   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.