SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate understanding of advanced aeronautical navigation 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
120154  Demonstrate understanding of advanced aeronautical navigation 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Air Defence 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security Safety in Society 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  15 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Demonstrate understanding of magnetism and compasses.
  • Demonstrate understanding of in-flight navigation.
  • Demonstrate understanding of Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Mathematics at NQF Level 5.
  • Physical Science at NQF Level 5.
  • Basic Aeronautical Navigation at NQF Level 5. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The terms "aircraft" and "aeroplane" are used as synonyms where appropriate.

    The typical scope of this unit standard:
    This unit standard is applicable to navigation on short and long range flights including intercontinental, over water flights, using equipment and materials typically found in airline operation. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate understanding of magnetism and compasses. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The dip of the earth's magnetic field is analysed in terms of its effect on magnetic compasses. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Analyses of the effect of dip includes:
  • Explanation of aggonic line.
  • Dim or inclination relation to freely suspended needle.
  • Magnetic equator and aclinic line.
  • Effect of aircraft magnetism on compass.
  • State effect heading and latitude changes on compasses.
  • Calculation of the effect of changes of dip on the compass reading.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate understanding of in flight navigation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Advanced flight progress monitoring techniques are determined from chart plots in order to contribute to flight planning. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Techniques include but are not limited to:
  • Point of no return.
  • Point of safe return.
  • Point of no alternate.
  • Interceptions of other aircraft or surface craft.
  • Radius of action.
  • Fixing by means of transferring position line using the expanding vector method.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Long distance and trans oceanic navigation requirements are stated and applied in accordance the approved standards. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Navigation requirements include but are not limited to:
  • Flight management.
  • Route, speed and altitude.
  • Transoceanic and polar flight procedures.
  • Minimum navigation performance specifications airspace procedures.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate understanding of inertial navigation systems (INS). 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The principles of advanced navigation systems are described as a basis for their safe use. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Principles include but are not limited to:
  • Measurement and integration of accelerations.
  • Accuracy.
  • Reliability.
  • Errors.
  • Coverage of Inertial navigation system/Inertial reference system.
  • Schuler tuned system.
  • Initialisation procedures.
  • Typical flight deck implementation.

    Navigation Systems
  • Microwave landing system.
  • Flight management system.
  • Area navigation.
  • Inertial navigation system.
  • Inertial reference system.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An individual wishing to be assessed (including through RPL) against this Unit Standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution accredited by the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard or assessing this Unit Standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be conducted by the relevant ETQA at its discretion. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Area navigation system
  • Self contained and external navigation systems
    Basics of navigation

    Position reference system: geometrical shape of the earth, latitude, longitude, poles, great circles.

    Directions
  • True directions.
  • Magnetic directions.
  • Compass directions.

    Navigation requirements for long range flights
  • Magnetism and compasses
    General principles of magnetism
  • Ferromagnetism.
  • Magnetic poles.
  • Lines of force.
  • Magnetic materials.
  • Terrestrial magnetism
  • Resolution of the earth's total magnetic force (intensity) into vertical and horizontal components.
  • The effects of change of magnetic latitude on these components.
  • Directive force and magnetic dip and variation.

    Components of aircraft magnetism
  • The resulting magnetic fields.
  • The variation in directive force.
  • Compass errors.

    Remote reading and direct reading compasses
  • Legal requirements for construction, care and calibration.
  • Chart representation of meridians, parallel, great circles and rhumb lines.
  • The use of current aeronautical charts.

    Dead reckoning navigation (DR)
  • Use of mechanical and electronic navigational computers.
  • Triangle of velocities and methods of solution.
  • Elements required for establishing dead reckoning position.
  • Name range specifics of maximum range and radius of action.
  • Miscellaneous dead reckoning inconsistencies and practical means of correction.

    In-flight navigation
  • Use of visual observations and application to in-flight navigation.
  • Navigation in climb and descent.
  • Navigation in cruising flight, use of fixes to revise navigation data.
  • Flight log.
  • Principles of (FMS) Flight Management Systems.

    Inertial navigation systems (INS)
  • Principles and practical application.
  • Alignment procedures.
  • Accuracy, reliability, errors and coverage of Inertial navigation system/Inertial reference system.
  • Flight deck equipment and operation.
  • Inertial navigation system operation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    The learner is able to identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made by:
  • Recognising how navigational concepts are applied in response to dynamic flight operations thereby ensuring safe, efficient and legal flight is achieved. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
  • Communicating, liaising and seeking input from relevant parties in regard to potential/required changes that are to be made to the flight profile.
  • Seeking input from other parties in considering options for changing the flight profile. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Plotting flight progress on charts including air position, ground position, fixes, wind effect, top of climb and top of descent.
  • Timeously adapting flight operations in response to Air Traffic Control requirements, weather changes such as wind and turbulence, as well as terrain requirements, in order to ensure continued safety and efficiency of flight. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse and critically evaluate information by:
  • Applying the principles of navigation (in-flight and dead reckoning), magnetism and charts to flight operations.
  • Analysing and applying airspace, terrain and performance considerations together with meteorological information in order to make decisions that affect the safety and efficiency of the flight. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion by:
  • Reading and interpreting maps, graphs, charts and tables.
  • Using appropriate communication techniques to obtain navigation system status, airspace and Air Traffic Control requirements and information.

    Techniques include but are not limited to:
  • Radio telephony procedures.
  • Aircraft interception procedures.
  • Intercepting required flight track and correcting flight track errors.
  • Light signals.
  • Accessing appropriate electronic displays.
  • Observing and interpreting electro mechanical displays.
  • Consulting company Operations Manuals.
  • Consulting Aeroplane Flight Manuals. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Understanding how the general principles of magnetism are applied in the context of navigation.
  • Understanding how the influences of the solar system are applied in the context of navigation.
  • Utilising mechanical and electronic navigational computers in order to source accurate information from which to perform navigation calculations.
  • Understanding the impact of terrain, aircraft performance and navigation system limitations/status on a flight and knowing the appropriate techniques for avoiding hazards.
  • Understanding how the flight profile of an aircraft can and should be modified within the boundaries set by authorities, performance and safety considerations in such a way as to minimise environmental impact and nuisance to residents living under the potential flight path. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation by:
  • Understanding the hazards of fixating on a particular sub-system without using all available information to create a complete mental awareness of situations.
  • The consequences of focusing on the resolution of a specific problem to the exclusion of other systems may result in additional problems ultimately affecting the safety and security of the aircraft operation, surrounding environment and inhabitants. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Abbreviations:

    INS: Inertial Navigation Systems
    LMT: Local Mean Time
    UTC: Universal Coordinated Time
    ST: Standard Times
    SR: Determinations of Sunrise
    SS: Determinations of Sunset
    DR: Dead Reckoning Navigation
    FMS: Flight Management Systems 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  49950   National Certificate: Navigation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  TETA 
    Fundamental  58008   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.