SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate understanding of aeroplane loading 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
120157  Demonstrate understanding of aeroplane loading 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Air Defence 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security Safety in Society 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of terminology relating to mass and balance.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of mass and loading principles.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the centre of gravity (CG) and its related calculations.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of heavy load limitations. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Mathematics at NQF Level 4
  • Physical Science at NQF Level 4 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The terms "aircraft" and "aeroplane" are used as synonyms where appropriate.

    Loading and centre of gravity scenarios typically found in the operation of small and large aeroplanes. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of terminology relating to mass and balance. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The centre of gravity (CG) relating to the aeroplane is defined and certified limits with regard to aeroplane operations are explained with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Mass and balance limits are sourced, stated and explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Source refers to sourcing from aircraft docs.

    Limits include but are not limited to:
  • Maximum floor load.
  • Maximum ramp and taxi mass.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The factors which determine maximum permissible mass and the position of the centre of gravity are explained with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The need for aeroplane load restraint systems is discussed with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The need for floor load limits is described in order to minimise damage to the aircraft. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of mass and loading principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The various terminologies, characteristics and limitations relating to loading and mass are described and calculated with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Terminology, characteristics and limitations relating to loading and mass includes but is not limited to:
  • Take-off and landing mass.
  • Maximum in-flight mass.
  • Empty, basic and basic empty mass.
  • Dry operating mass and operating mass.
  • Zero fuel mass and maximum zero fuel mass.
  • Standard mass.
  • Traffic load and useful load.
  • Mean aerodynamic cord.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The procedures and requirements for weighing the aircraft and equipment lists relating to aircraft mass checks are stated with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The term weighing refers to re-weighing and mandatory periodic weighing.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Aeroplane loadsheets are compiled ensuring mass elements are maintained within limits. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Mass element include but are not limited to:
  • Dry operating mass.
  • Passenger and cargo mass.
  • Fuel mass.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The various factors and effects of overloading an aircraft are described in terms of safety flight operations and performance. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors include but are not limited to:
  • Higher take-off and safety speeds.
  • Longer take-off and landing distances.
  • Lower rate of climb.
  • Influence on range and endurance.
  • Decreased engine-out performance.
  • Possible structural damage.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the centre of gravity (CG) and its related calculations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Centre of gravity (CG) calculations are performed to ensure that these range within manufacturer's limits. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The basis of CG calculations include but are not limited to:
  • Datum.
  • Moment arm.
  • Moment.
  • Percentage of MAC (mean aerodynamic chord).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Effect of mass changes and shift of centre of gravity position are calculated to ensure that it fits within manufacturer's limits. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The centre of gravity position applicable to the aeroplane dry operating weight is calculated from weighing data available in order to compile a mass and balance certificate. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate knowledge of heavy load limitations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Floor loads are calculated for various types of loads to comply with safety and operations limits. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Calculated floor loads are compared with manufacturers' limitations to comply with safety and operations limits. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The adverse effects of load shift are described to comply with safety and operations limits. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Restraint systems for prevention of load shifting are identified and discussed to comply with safety and operations limits. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An individual wishing to be assessed (including through RPL) against this Unit Standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution accredited by the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard or assessing this Unit Standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be conducted by the relevant ETQA at its discretion. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Introduction to mass and balance:
  • Mass and balance limitations.
  • Centre of gravity (principles and calculations).

    Loading:
  • Terminology specific to loading and mass.
  • Procedures for aircraft mass checks.
  • Procedures for compiling aircraft mass and balance documentation.
  • The effects of overloading.

    Centre of Gravity (CG):
  • Basis of CG calculations.
  • Calculations of CG.
  • The importance of securing and tying down loads.
  • Calculations and limitations of area and distributing loads. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    The learner is able to identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made by:
  • Planning loads in accordance with the limitations specified in aeroplane flight manuals.
  • Constructing loadsheets for specified loads in specific aeroplanes.
  • Determining the centre of gravity for the loaded aeroplane. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
  • Obtaining and verifying information received from relevant parties on the dimensions and mass of the load to be loaded onto the aeroplane. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Allowing sufficient time for conducting load planning activities and completing load documentation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse and critically evaluate information by:
  • Referring to the aeroplane flight manual in order to determine applicable loading limitations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion by:
  • Compiling legible load sheets in the correct format for verification by the pilot in command.
  • Liaising with aircraft loaders and providing them with loading plans. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Using electronic systems to plan aeroplane loading and generating load documentation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation:
  • Understanding the overall impact of correct load distribution in aeroplanes and accurate load documentation on flight safety and commercially viable flight operations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Abbreviations:

    CG: Centre of Gravity
    MAC: Mean Aerodynamic Chord 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  58023   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Core  59256   National Diploma: Flight Dispatch  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Fundamental  49950   National Certificate: Navigation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.