SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Navigate an aircraft with reference to radio aids 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
120162  Navigate an aircraft with reference to radio aids 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Air Defence 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security Safety in Society 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Intercept and maintain predetermined tracks inbound to and outbound from ground-based navigational aids.
  • Homing in on ground-based navigational aids.
  • Intercept and maintain distance measuring equipment and or tactical air navigation system arcs.
  • Intercept and maintain predetermined routes with satellite navigation and flight management systems.
  • Navigate an aircraft. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    120059: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of operation and use of radio aids in air navigation. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The terms "aircraft" and "aeroplane" are used as synonyms where appropriate.
  • Homing refers to: flying towards a position or beacon.

    The typical scope of this unit standard:
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with Civil Aviation Authority and or Military Aviation Authority Regulations and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aeroplane and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the Aircraft Flight Manual and or Pilot Operating Handbook.
  • The assessment of the learner shall be conducted both with and without the use of automatic flight control systems fitted to the aeroplane provided for the assessment.
  • Competence shall be assessed under actual or simulated sole reference to instruments except where noted.
  • Take off shall be conducted visually.
  • Landings shall be conducted in meteorological conditions at or above Category 1 minima.
  • Cockpit Resource Management is not to be assessed as a stand-alone element, however, the outcomes resulting from Cockpit Resource Management can be assessed. Cockpit Resource Management is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of Cockpit Resource Management are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way. Range of procedural elements include but are not limited to: Use of checklists, crew briefings, radio calls, and callouts.
  • Good airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Emergencies:

    > Assessment of the learner in emergency and abnormal operations shall be conducted using simulated emergency and abnormal situations. If a suitable simulator is available, use of the simulator is preferred.
    > Assessment of the learner in simulated emergencies should be terminated at a point where successful outcome can be judged, and safe recovery to normal conditions can be achieved.
    > Under no circumstances must the aircraft or its occupants be placed in jeopardy.
  • Assessment:

    > The learner is to be assessed in conducting airport operations by day and by night.
    > The learner is to be assessed in performing take-offs, landings and go around by day and by night under IMC and VMC.
    > Assessments conducted in an aeroplane certified for single pilot operation, shall be conducted as if there was no other pilot available.
    > Assessments carried out in an aeroplane certified for multi-crew operation, shall be conducted as pilot flying during all sections of the assessment. The learner shall also demonstrate competence in pilot-not-flying duties.
    > The learner may conduct navigation from any position in the cockpit and will be assessed as crew member in charge of navigation.
    > Touch and go landings may form part of the assessment.
    > Learners are expected to demonstrate competency in performing appropriate manoeuvres with one engine simulated inoperative.
  • Competence shall be assessed in a multi-engine aeroplane, (excluding an aeroplane with centre line thrust) with retractable undercarriage and adjustable flaps, and variable pitch propeller, or turbo-propeller or turbo-jet engines, or a flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority.
  • Aeroplanes must be navigated within Civil Aviation Authority limitations. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Intercept and maintain predetermined tracks inbound to and outbound from ground based navigational aids. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Ground-based navigational aids include but are not limited to:
  • Non Directional Beacon
  • Very high frequency omni-directional radio range
  • VORTAC/TACAN 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Current position is determined in relation to the radio navigation aid. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Aids include but are not limited to:
  • Automatic Directional Finding (ADF)
  • Very high frequency omni-directional radio range (VOR)
  • Non Directional Beacon (NDB)
  • Tactical air navigation system (TACAN)
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Predetermined track is intercepted and maintained within the accepted tolerances. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Accepted tolerances include the corrections for drift.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Aircraft position is evaluated in relation to the radio aid in order to determine station passage. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Homing in on a ground based navigational aid. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Ground-based navigational aids include but are not limited to:
  • Non Directional Beacon
  • Very high frequency omni-directional radio range
  • VORTAC/TACAN 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Navigation instruments are selected to utilise the chosen ground based navigation aid. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Current position in relation to the navigational aid is established in order to determine flight path. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The home-bound track is established in order to fly to the ground based station. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The homing track is maintained within the accepted tolerances. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Awareness of the aeroplane position relative to the beacon is demonstrated in order to monitor aircraft flight progress. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Station passage is recognised in order to initiate follow on phase off flight. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Intercept and maintain distance measuring equipment (DME) and or tactical air navigation system arcs (TACAN). 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Current position is determined in relation to the distance measuring equipment, tactical air navigation system (VORTAC). 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Predetermined arcs are intercepted and maintained within the accepted tolerances. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Accepted tolerances include the corrections for drift.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Aircraft position is evaluated in relation to the radio aid in order to determine exit or entry track. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Intercept and maintain predetermined routes with satellite navigation and flight management systems. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Flight management systems refer to:
  • Inertial reference system (IRS)
  • Inertial navigation system (INS) 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Navigation system is prepared for use during in-flight navigation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Prepared refers to serviceability checks, entry of way points, mode selection, system integrity.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The navigation system is manipulated in order to extract navigation data for flight navigation and alignment procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Manipulated includes
  • Direct to function
  • Flight along the re-entered way points
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Navigation system integrity is evaluated in order to determine system usability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The predetermined track is established, intercepted and maintained within the general tolerances. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Constant awareness of the aircraft is demonstrated by using navigational data available. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Navigate an aircraft. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Navigation aids are evaluated in order to determine system integrity. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Navigation aids include but are not limited to:
  • Visual reference points
  • Global Navigation Satellite Systems
  • Inertial Reference System / Inertial Navigation System / Flight Management System navigation
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Aircraft position is determined in order to enhance situational awareness. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Navigation activities are executed in order to achieve conclusion of the flight. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Navigation activities include:
  • Track maintenance
  • Position determination
  • Drift determination
  • Fuel
  • ETA's
  • Forward estimates
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The aircraft is flown along the selected route, within the general flight tolerances whilst making safe deviations for weather en-route. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Traffic patterns are joined in accordance with prescribed procedures to conform with international and local regulations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Emergencies and equipment malfunctions are managed in accordance with Aircraft Flight Manual and or Pilot Operating Handbook recommended procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The techniques described in the Aircraft Flight Manual and or Pilot Operating Handbook should form the basis for the selection and management of simulated emergencies and equipment malfunctions.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Navigation log is maintained in order to enhance situational awareness. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Navigation log normally includes information which is used by an aviator in order to facilitate decisions based on structural awareness.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An individual wishing to be assessed (including through RPL) against this Unit Standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution accredited by the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard or assessing this Unit Standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be conducted by the relevant ETQA at its discretion. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Instrument serviceability indications and checks
  • Functioning of flight instruments, their errors and limitations
  • Limitations and functioning of aeroplane systems: general and aeroplane specific
  • Functioning of radio aids to navigation, their errors and limitations
  • Aerodynamics of flight
  • Environmental conditions likely to lead to IMC
  • Aeromedical factors that contribute to the spatial disorientation of the pilot when performing instrument manoeuvres under conditions of limited visibility 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    The learner is able to identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made by:
  • Planning and performing flights to achieve objectives within the constraints of the aeroplane limitations, operator and regulatory requirements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
  • Acting as pilot-in-command or navigator of a flight crew.
  • Communicating with Air Traffic Service and organising the flight taking cognisance of other air traffic.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Planning ahead.
  • Complying with applicable legislation.
  • Performing appropriate checks and procedures.
  • Using checklists where appropriate.
  • Exercising command ability and manoeuvring the aeroplane within its limitations and the limitations appropriate to the phase of flight in order to achieve the desired outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse and critically evaluate information by:
  • Identifying symptoms of instrument, system and engine malfunctions.
  • Identifying changes to the conditions and the prevailing weather.
  • Identifying changes to the traffic flow which may require adaptation of the flight path. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion by:
  • Radio and cockpit communication is in accordance with standard procedures and phraseology to ensure clarity and brevity of communication is achieved.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Proper and effective visual scanning to clear the area before and while performing manoeuvres by visual reference.
  • Operation of the aeroplane and its systems in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual / Pilot Operating Handbook.
  • Taking prompt corrective action when tolerances are exceeded.
  • Flying the aeroplane in such a way that tolerance exceedences are kept to a minimum.
  • Using weather avoidance equipment to achieve efficient and safe flight path. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation:
  • A high level of situational awareness is maintained.
  • Airspace restrictions and requirements are adhered to.
  • Curfews, noise abatement procedures and other measures to minimise disturbance to the environment and the public are observed.
  • Safe flying practice is maintained. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large, by making it the underlying intention of any programme of learning to make an individual aware of the importance of:
  • Ongoing maintenance of competency, physical and mental fitness.
  • Maintaining required level of knowledge and staying abreast of new developments in the aviation environment.

    Being culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts:
  • Understanding and making allowances for the differences in the command of English found within the aviation community.
  • Understanding and making allowances for the influence of different cultural backgrounds and the impact of this on flight crew management and safety.
  • Accepting different social norms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Specified requirements

    Specified requirements include but are not limited to legal and legislative specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:
  • Use of distractions during practical assessment:

    Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. To strengthen this area of pilot training and evaluation, the assessor shall provide a realistic distraction during the flight portion of the practical test. This will give the assessor a positive opportunity to evaluate the learner's ability to divide attention both inside and outside the cockpit while maintaining safe flight.
  • The information contained in this unit standard does not supercede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.
  • Assessors are encouraged to write comments on any of the outcomes.

    Abbreviations:

    DME: Distance Measuring Equipment
    INS: Inertial Navigation Systems
    IRS: Inertial Reference Systems
    CAA: Civil Aviation Authority
    MAA: Military Aviation Authority
    AFM: Aircraft Flight Manual
    POH: Pilot Operating Handbook
    CRM: Cockpit Resource Management
    IMC: Instrument Meteorological Conditions
    VMC: Visual Meteorological Conditions
    TACAN: Tactical Air Navigation System
    VOR: Very High Frequency Omni-directional Range
    ETA: Estimated time of arrival
    IMC: Instrument Meteorological Conditions
    ATS: Air Traffic System 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  49950   National Certificate: Navigation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  TETA 
    Core  58023   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Core  58008   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.