SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

Conduct skills development administration in an organisation 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
15227  Conduct skills development administration in an organisation 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Human Resource Management and Practices 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 03 - Business, Commerce and Management Studies Human Resources 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
9949  Compile report on workplace skills plan(s)  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  20   

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This Unit Standard is intended for persons who support, or seek to support, skills development facilitation. The Unit Standard will be especially useful to human resource development officers who plan to take on skills development facilitation roles.

Persons credited with this Unit Standard are able to:
  • collate and store data related to skills development
  • provide information related to skills development
  • contribute to the improvement of systems and procedures related to processing skills development data. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that people starting to learn towards this Standard are competent in:
  • Communication at NQF level 3
  • Computer Literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    For the purposes of assessment against this Unit Standard, candidates may demonstrate the ability to apply the Specific Outcomes to a small to medium organisation, or a department within a large organisation. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Collate and store data related to skills development. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Data includes all information related to targets and achievements of skills development interventions identified in the organisation's workplace or sector skills plan (e.g. number of learners per learnership or skills programme and other skills development programmes, budgeted and actual costs). 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Data is obtained from valid sources. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Sources includes but is not limited to approved sector skills plans, workplace skills plans, individual skills plans, provider reports, impact reports and financial reports.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The data is verified for accuracy. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Data is recorded and captured accurately within pre-determined timeframes according to organisational policies and procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The data is updated accurately. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Problems experienced in the collation and storage of data are resolved directly, or referred to relevant persons with the required competency and/or authority. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Provide information related to skills development. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The purpose, nature and scope of the request to retrieve and present information are accurately established and interpreted correctly. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Requests that fall outside the defined responsibilities or authority of the candidate are referred to the appropriate person. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The information is retrieved and provided in the form and manner appropriate to the needs of the recipient. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The information is presented in a manner that demonstrates respect for the individuals about whom information is given. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The information provided is accurate, current and relevant. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The information is provided in sufficient detail to allow parties to make informed decisions related to the purpose for which the data has been retrieved. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The information is provided in a manner that is consistent with organisational policy and procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. Confidentiality is maintained according to organisational policies and procedures. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Contribute to the improvement of systems and procedures related to processing skills. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Contribute to the improvement of systems and procedures related to processing skills development data. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Problems related to the processing of skills development data are identified and solutions are arrived at for their solution 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Recommendations are made to relevant people to improve systems and procedures 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Organisational constraints are taken into account when making the recommendations. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    1. Anyone assessing a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an assessor with a relevant Education and Training Quality Assurance Body (ETQA) for this Unit Standard, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
    2. Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard or will assess this Unit Standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
    3. Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed accredited ETQA procedures.
    4. Therefore, anyone wishing to be assessed against this Unit Standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevnt ETQA. 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Legislation and regulations related to skills development information (including the National Learner Record Database (NLRD) and principles of confidentiality)
  • Indicators of the impact of skills development programmes on the organisation
  • Organisational plans, policies and procedures related to skills development
  • Requirements of the relevant Sector Education and Training Authority with regard to reporting on skills development. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking by, e.g.,
  • Identifying problems and solutions according to assessment criterion 1.5:
    Problems experienced in the collation and storage of data are resolved directly, or referred to relevant persons with the required competency and/or authority and the assessment criteria of Specific Outcome 3:
    Contribute to the improvement of systems and procedures related to processing skills development data. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one`s activities by, e.g.
  • Planning to collate relevant skills development data according to the Assessment criteria set for Specific Outcome 1: Collate and store data related to skills development 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information by, e.g.,
  • collating and processing relevant human resources data in accordance with the Assessment criteria set for Specific Outcome 1:
    Collate and store data related to skills development 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively by, e.g.,
  • providing data according to Assessment criteria set for Specific Outcome 2:
    Provide information related to skills development 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, e.g.,
  • calculating costs incurred by the implementation of skills development programmes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standard 9949, "Compile report on workplace skills plan(s)", Level 5, 20 credits. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  57805   National Certificate: Public Sector Employment and Skills Development Practices  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2023-06-30  PSETA 
    Core  50333   National Diploma: Occupationally Directed Education, Training and Development Practices  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2023-06-30  ETDP SETA 
    Elective  61595   Further Education and Training Certificate: Business Administration Services  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2023-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
    Elective  49176   Further Education and Training Certificate: Business Systems Operations: End User (ERP)  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2023-06-30  SERVICES 
    Elective  67463   Further Education and Training Certificate: Human Resources Management and Practices Support  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2023-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
    Elective  50332   Further Education and Training Certificate: Occupationally-Directed Education Training and Development Practices  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2023-06-30  ETDP SETA 
    Elective  93995   Further Education and Training Certificate: Payroll Administration Services  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2023-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
    Elective  59201   National Certificate: Generic Management  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2023-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
    Elective  50334   National Certificate: Occupationally Directed Education Training and Development Practices  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2023-06-30  ETDP SETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. A5 Competence Evolution 
    2. ABASUNGULI TRAINING SPESIALISTS (PTY) LTD 
    3. Abinet Training and Development 
    4. ACADEMY OF PEOPLE DEVELOPMENT PTY LTD 
    5. Academy Training Group 
    6. Accreditation & Training Services 
    7. Acorser Corporate & Business Consulting t/a Acorser Academy 
    8. Advantage Training Services cc 
    9. Affari Consultants cc 
    10. AFRICA COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT (PTY) LTD 
    11. African Learing and Development Academy for Adults ALDAA 
    12. African Learning & Development Academy (Pty) Ltd (ALDA) 
    13. Afrika Tikkun NCC 
    14. Aldabri 106 Institute for Quality (Pty) Ltd 
    15. Amandla Obunye Training Academy Pty Ltd 
    16. Amaqamu Project Management and Consulting 
    17. Amyoli Consulting 
    18. Annacol Training Consultants 
    19. AQUARIUS SKILLS SOLUTION 
    20. ASORIP NPC 
    21. Assessment and Entrepreneurship Centre 
    22. ASSESSMENT COLLEGE OF SOUTH AFRICA PTY LTD 
    23. Assured Vocational Skills Institute (Pty) Ltd 
    24. ATE Solutions (Pty) Ltd 
    25. ATTE - The Training Edge 
    26. ATTI (Advanced Technonogy Training Institute) 
    27. Aubrey Nyiko Business Enterprise cc 
    28. Audit Campus 
    29. Ayoba Training Institute (Pty)Ltd 
    30. B T Group of Companies Pty Ltd 
    31. Basadi Africa Management 
    32. BEPE Developments 
    33. Bohlali Provider Support 
    34. Bonang Training & Development 
    35. BORDERGATE EVENTS MANAGEMENT AND PROJECTS 
    36. Boston City Campus (Pty) Ltd formerly Boston City Campus and Business College (Pty) Ltd 
    37. Brain Boosters Business Education (PTY) LTD 
    38. Brainwave Projects 1997 CC 
    39. Breakeven 59(PTY) Ltd 
    40. Bull's Business and Skills Training Institute 
    41. Business Development Unit (PTY)Ltd 
    42. Business Intelligence Trading 48 (PTY) LTD 
    43. BYTES PEOPLE SOLUTIONS (PTY) LTD 
    44. Cale Developments 
    45. Centre for Entrepreneurship Management and Innovation 
    46. Chartall Business College 
    47. Colleen Osorio Skills Development Consultancy cc 
    48. College of Cape Town - Athlone Campus 
    49. Commerce and Computer College 
    50. Compass Academy of Learning 
    51. Competency Alignment Forum (C.A.F) t/a Tlhatlogo Educational Services 
    52. Competitive Edge Training & Consulting 
    53. Contra-lit (Pty) Ltd 
    54. CORE TRAINING INTERNATIONAL 
    55. Corporate Safety Training Academy PTY Ltd 
    56. CTU Training Solutions 
    57. D and D Lwazi Renaissance Research and Development Institute 
    58. D M Management and Consulting 
    59. Dabulamanzi & Njabulo Ndaba Consulting cc 
    60. Daleseb Business Enterprise 
    61. Dee s Training PTY LTD 
    62. Designa Qualifications Pty Ltd 
    63. Diligence Defined Projects PTY Ltd t/a Deligence Defined 
    64. Dionysus Skills Development Initiative 
    65. Ditebogo Consultancy 
    66. Ditseko Training & development Services 
    67. Divine Inspiration Trading 704 PTY Ltd 
    68. Dotcentre Business Consulting (Pty) Ltd 
    69. Driving Instincts cc 
    70. Dru A Professional Further Education and Training College DAPFETC PT 
    71. Dynamic Safety Solutions 
    72. Eagles Wings Skills Development Consultants 
    73. EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ASSOCIATION INC 
    74. Education and Training Unit 
    75. EDUTEL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT PTY LTD 
    76. Edzani Community Development and Consultancy 
    77. Emergence Learning Academy (Pty) Ltd 
    78. Empirical Training Agency (PTY) Ltd 
    79. Employmax 
    80. Enjo Consultants (Pty) Ltd 
    81. Environment and Language Education Trust 
    82. Equipt Training and Development cc 
    83. EXECUTIVE COACHING AND FACILITATION 
    84. Faranang Business and Training Solutions PTY(LTD) 
    85. First Trust Academy 
    86. Fourways Private College 
    87. Future Discovery Training Academy CC 
    88. Future Performance Training and Development 
    89. Gateway City College 
    90. Genius Business College (Pty) Ltd 
    91. Giver of Givers Foundation Organisation 
    92. Gotsec Skills Training 
    93. Guru Group of Learning (Pty) Ltd 
    94. HDPSA 
    95. HEART Solutions 
    96. Heirs Training and Development 
    97. HIGHVELD TRAINING ACADEMY AND BUSINESS SOLUTIONS 
    98. HLOSI SECURITY SOLUTIONS 
    99. HRD Performance Consultants 
    100. HRD Training & Consulting 
    101. ICM t/a Institute for Career Management 
    102. IdleAds 
    103. Igugu Training and Investments 
    104. Ikamva Projects Pty Ltd 
    105. Imsimbi Training 
    106. Infomage Pty Ltd 
    107. Inkwazi Learning Network 
    108. INKWENKWEZI PRIVATE COLLEGE - SKILLS DEVELOPMENT cc 
    109. Isamon Vocational College of Excellence Pty Ltd 
    110. Isibani Skills Academy 
    111. Isibani Soluntu Development Trust 
    112. ITUMELENG TRAINING SOLUTIONS (GARFONTEIN) 
    113. IYAM Investments (Pty) Ltd 
    114. Izibuko The bridge Training Consultancy 
    115. J and N Ikwekwezi Yokusa Development Training 
    116. JIKA ST ANDREW'S LANGUAGE PROJECT (PTY) LTD 
    117. Kalideen Management Services 
    118. Karabo Info Centre and Trading 
    119. Katiso-kuno Consulting 
    120. Katlego Compliance Training 
    121. KDS Centre for Skills Development and Training Pty Ltd 
    122. Keetileafrika Training Institute 
    123. KG Business Development 
    124. Kgaka Kgolo Institute (Pty) Ltd 
    125. Kgang-Kgolo Consulting 
    126. Khaas Training Academy 
    127. Khoali Group of Companies (Pty) Ltd 
    128. KITSO TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 
    129. Klein Karoo Resource Centre 
    130. Kukhula Global Projects 
    131. Labohlano Trading 66 Pty Ltd 
    132. Learnership Support Systems (Pty) Ltd 
    133. Learning 4 Life Pty Ltd 
    134. Learning Performance Link 
    135. Lebzatainment Foundation NPC 
    136. LEDISA Academy 
    137. LEMBETSI BUSINESS ENTERPRISE 
    138. Leronsa Trading Enterprise 
    139. Letsete Behub 
    140. LICENCE WISE TRAINING SPECIALISTS 
    141. Lionsden Africa Business Solutions Pty Ltd 
    142. Loago Business Consulting 
    143. M3i Skills Development 
    144. Mabidi Funzani Trading And Projects Pty Ltd 
    145. MACCAUVLEI LEARNING ACADEMY (PTY) LTD 
    146. Malandela Training and Development (Pty) Ltd 
    147. Marematlou Training Institute 
    148. Masimong Resource Solutions 
    149. Matimba Management and Labour cc 
    150. Mawethu Training 
    151. Mentor Me Corporate Foundation 
    152. MENTORNET (PTY) LTD 
    153. Metro Minds 
    154. MI Learning & Development Consultancy 
    155. MIET Africa 
    156. Mlamuli M Connect (Pty) Ltd 
    157. MMELA VILLAGE TECHNOLOGIES (PT 
    158. Mnambithi FET College - Central Office 
    159. Mokete Training and Consulting Services 
    160. MOKO SECURITY SERVICES 
    161. Montshai Skills Development and Consultants 
    162. Motheo Training Institute Trust 
    163. Mthimkhulu Training and Development Institute (PTY) LTD 
    164. Mtk Corporation Solutions 
    165. MWG Logistical Services 
    166. Ndwamato Training Solutions PTY LTD 
    167. Ndzalama Training 
    168. Nelson Mandela University 
    169. Neolebongi Trading Enterprise 
    170. Nero Training Consultants cc 
    171. Netgrow Training Solutions 
    172. Networx for Career Development 
    173. Next Step Academy (Pty) Ltd 
    174. NOMAKU TRADERS CC 
    175. Nsovo Learning Academy 
    176. NTI College 
    177. Ntsangalala Business Enterprise 
    178. OMNI HR CONSULTING PTY LTD 
    179. Opehst Trading 
    180. Open Learning Group 
    181. Pachi Global Foundation 
    182. Paradise Skills Development 
    183. PC Educational Holdings Pty Ltd 
    184. Peakford Management Consulting 
    185. Peritum Agri Institute Pty LTD 
    186. Petra institute of Development (PTY) Ltd 
    187. PHALANE SAFETY CONSULTANT AND TRAINING PROVIDERS PTY LTD 
    188. Pitt Institute T/A Imithombo Institute 
    189. Platinum Peak Consulting 
    190. PMA Holding (Pty) Ltd 
    191. PMADS Holdings (PTY) Ltd 
    192. PND Academy of Learning cc 
    193. Polly Maths Sci (Pty) Ltd 
    194. Primeserv Corporate Solutions 
    195. PRO-ACTIVE PUBLIC SERVICES COLLEGE/PTY/LTD 
    196. Production Management Institute of Southern Africa 
    197. Professional Development and Training Institute (Pty) Ltd 
    198. QED-Quality Executive Development 
    199. QPD CONSULTANTS 
    200. QT Training (Pty) Ltd 
    201. Reflections Development Institute 
    202. Regenesys Management (Pty) Ltd 
    203. Resonance Institute of Learning 
    204. Retshetse Training Project 
    205. RIO RIDGE 7 (PTY)LTD 
    206. S A Skills Solutions (Pty) Ltd 
    207. Saint Colonel Graduate Institute (PTY) Ltd 
    208. SAKHISISIZWE CONSTRUCTION AND PROJECTS CC T/A SAKHISISIZWE PROJECTS 
    209. SANDA SKILLS DEVELOPMENT 
    210. Sebenzisanane Human Capital 
    211. SEJ Skills Academy (Pty) Ltd 
    212. SEOPOSENGOE TRAINING CONSULTANCY CC 
    213. SHANWES TRAILER MANUFACTURING AND BUILDERS T/A SHANWES LEARNING AND DE 
    214. Sigodi Development Services and Associates (SDS) cc 
    215. Sims Khula Training & Skills Development 
    216. Sirius Training 
    217. Sisazi Consulting 
    218. Siyazama Professional Management Services t/a Siyazama 
    219. Sizanesu Consulting 
    220. Sizani Consulting cc 
    221. SKILLS DYNAMICS AFRICA PTY LTD 
    222. SKU Training and Assessment 
    223. South West Gauteng Tvet College 
    224. Southern African Institute of Learning (SAIL) 
    225. SPS Consulting (Pty) Ltd 
    226. STAFFING DIRECT CC 
    227. T Mabuya & Associates (Pty) Ltd 
    228. TDM Management Consulting Pty Ltd 
    229. TEAM CONSULTANTS CC 
    230. Tembe Service Providers 
    231. The Brokers Learning Centre 
    232. The East London Institute for Leadership Advancement & Development 
    233. The Finishing College (Pty) Lt 
    234. The Institute of People Development 
    235. The Iscariota Group (Pty) Ltd 
    236. THE SKILLS COLLEGE FOR DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING(PTY) LTD 
    237. THE SKILLS FACTOR 
    238. The Skills Launchpad 
    239. Thelin t/a TL Consulting 
    240. Thobologo Training and Education Group (Pty) Ltd 
    241. THRIVE LEARNING FACILITATION CC 
    242. Thuto Adult Centre 
    243. Thutolore Academy Pty Ltd 
    244. TLHARIHANI TRAINING CENTRE (PTY) LTD 
    245. TLN HUMAN PERFORMANCE SYSTEMS (PTY) LTD 
    246. TMG Quality Services 
    247. Totally Tailored Solutions Pty Ltd 
    248. Trainers Without Borders 
    249. Training Answers 
    250. Training Consultant and SD College 
    251. Trainyoucan (Pty) Ltd 
    252. Tshireletso Multi-skills and Training 
    253. Tsoelopele Leadership Consulting (Pty) Ltd 
    254. Tununu Trading cc 
    255. Turnstone Training Solutions 
    256. Ukwakhile Training 
    257. Ulwazi Training & Development 
    258. Umzansi Educational Programs Centre 
    259. University of Johannesburg 
    260. Vaiti Staffing and Training Solutions cc 
    261. VERYCOOLIDEAS 
    262. VEZOKUHLE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 
    263. Vicresco (Pty) Ltd 
    264. Visionary Skill Academy 
    265. VUSHENI LEARNING ACADEMY 
    266. Vutivi Training and Skills Development 
    267. VUTLHARI BYA DZONGA CONSULTANTS (PTY) LTD 
    268. VUWA PROJECTS 
    269. Workers Knowledge Centre Pty Ltd 
    270. XO EDUCATION (Pty) Ltd 
    271. Zisukumele Training Academy (Pty) Ltd 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.