SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate understanding of cockpit resource management 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243333  Demonstrate understanding of cockpit resource management 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is intended for learners who will need to demonstrate understanding of cockpit resource management (CRM) in line with Civil Aviation Authority (CAA)/Military Aviation Authority (MAA) Regulations and safe flying practice. The concept of Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is an accepted practice within the aviation industry and is intended to positively influence the learner's behaviour in future aviation-related operations. Learners will complete this unit standard within the context of commercial piloting.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Explain concepts associated with cockpit resource management (CRM).
  • Apply cockpit resource management (CRM) concepts in the aviation context. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Communication NQF Level 4.
  • Demonstrate understanding of human performance and limitations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical scope of this unit standard:
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) guidelines, Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) or Military Aviation Authority (MAA) Regulations, operator's approved procedures and industrial agreements, in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aircraft and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the Aircraft flight Manual (AFM) or Pilot Operating Handbook (POH).
  • Knowledge of CRM elements are to be assessed through written, oral or practical assessments.
  • CRM is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of CRM are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way and therefore should not be assessed as a stand-alone element.
    > Range of procedural elements include but are not limited to: Use of checklists, crew briefings, radio calls, and callouts.
  • Good airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Emergencies:

    > Assessment of the learner in emergency and abnormal operations shall be conducted using simulated emergency and abnormal situations. If a suitable simulator is available, use of the simulator is preferred.
    > Assessment of the learner in simulated emergencies should be terminated at a point where successful outcome can be judged, and safe recovery to normal conditions can be achieved.
    > Under no circumstances must the aircraft or its occupants be placed in jeopardy.
  • Assessment:

    > Assessments shall be carried out with the learner acting both as pilot flying and pilot not flying, if the assessment is conducted in an aircraft certified for multi-crew operation.
    > The assessment is carried out with reference to the operator's standard operating procedures.
    > The learner is expected to demonstrate competency in performing appropriate procedures with one or more systems or engines simulated inoperative.
    > Learners will be assessed in their ability to deal with simulated emergencies.
  • Competence shall be assessed in a single-engine or multi-engine aeroplane (excluding a multi-engine aeroplane with centre line thrust) with retractable undercarriage and adjustable flaps, and variable pitch propeller, or turbo-propeller or turbo-jet engines, or a helicopter with a maximum certified mass not less than 500 kg. A flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority may be substituted for the aircraft. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain concepts associated with cockpit resource management (CRM). 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    CRM terminology is explained to reflect the importance of safety in the aviation context. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    CRM terminology may include but is not limited to terminology associated with: personality types; human culture; human information processing; interpersonal communication; dynamics of teams; motivation; stress; decision making; aviation hazards.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Regulations are identified and explained in terms of their impact. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    CRM requirements are explained in terms of their impact on operators and crew members. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Requirements include but are not limited to the in-puts in terms of training and certification.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    CRM is explained in terms of its influence on operational objectives and levels of safety in aircraft operations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Apply cockpit resource management (CRM) concepts in the aviation context. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The role of situational awareness is explained in terms of its impact on aviation safety and meeting of operational objectives. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Interpersonal communication and interaction are explained in terms of its importance in a CRM context. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Problem solving and decision-making techniques are applied in given situations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The concepts of team leadership and team functioning are explained in terms of their impact on aviation safety and meeting of operational objectives. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The concept of stress and stress management techniques are explained within the context of CRM. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Resources beyond the immediate cockpit are identified and described for possible use in CRM. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Resources include but are not limited to other flight crew members, Air Traffic Control (ATC), passengers, flight operations office, operational control centres, maintenance control centres, other aircraft, medical advice facilities.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Threat and error management models are evaluated and selected for use in a given situations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Evaluation must include a comparison of various models.
  • Given situations include but are not limited to case studies, simulation.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Own behaviour in structured environment is evaluated in order to determine effectiveness of actions and decisions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    An individual's ability to assess group dynamics is evaluated in order to determine effectiveness of actions and decisions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The influence of CRM concepts in given situations is evaluated in order to enhance aviation safety. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Given situations include but are not limited to case studies, simulation.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Aviation services procedures.
  • Communication channels.
  • The aviation legislation.
  • Aviation operations.
  • Aviation operations in fulfilling mandates whilst providing a service to stakeholders.
  • National aviation law enforcement concepts.
  • Causality of events.
  • The processes in providing operational planning.
  • Restrictions and limitations.
  • The need for a regulatory framework to ensure safety.
  • Civil Aviation Act as amended.
  • Civil Aviation Regulations and Technical Standards.
  • Military Aviation Regulations.
  • ICAO.
  • Aviation terminology and concepts.
  • The inter-relationship between stakeholders and the community.
  • Protocol between national and international roleplayers. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community during:
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Plan ahead to achieve objectives within the constraints of the aircraft limitations and regulatory requirements.
  • Performing appropriate checks and procedures.
  • Using checklists where appropriate.
  • Exercise command ability when applicable. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion when:
  • Communication is in accordance with standard procedures and phraseology to ensure clarity and brevity of communication is achieved.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • A high level of situational awareness is maintained. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Learners who are not competent in the language proficiency standard for ICAO defined operational English at ICAO level 4 will find it difficult to meet licensing requirements.

    Use of distractions during practical assessment:

    Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. To strengthen this area of pilot training and evaluation, the assessor shall provide a realistic distraction during the flight portion of the practical test. This will give the assessor a positive opportunity to evaluate the learner's ability to divide attention both inside and outside the cockpit while maintaining safe flight.

    The information contained in this unit standard does not supersede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.

    Abbreviations:
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority.
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority.
  • CRM: Cockpit Resource Management/Crew Resource Management.
  • AFM: Aircraft flight Manual.
  • POH: Pilots Operating Handbook.
  • ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organisation.

    Definitions:
  • Airmanship is defined as incorporating the ability to make sound judgements and execution of safe practices.
  • Situational awareness: The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.
  • Where the term CRM is used it refers to Cockpit Resource Management or Crew Resource Management. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Fundamental  58023   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Elective  49950   National Certificate: Navigation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.