SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Manage non-normal and emergency flight situations 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243337  Manage non-normal and emergency flight situations 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable the learner to manage equipment and system malfunctions, demonstrate knowledge, understanding and use of emergency equipment and manage emergency and non-normal situations under simulated conditions in compliance with Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) or Military Aviation Authority (MAA) Regulations and safe flying practice thereby ensuring the continued safety of the aircraft and passengers. This unit standard will benefit learners within the arena of commercial piloting. The learner will demonstrate competency in addressing simulated emergencies and non-normal operations.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Manage equipment and system malfunctions during actual and or simulated flight operations.
  • Simulate the use of emergency equipment during actual and or simulated flight operations.
  • Manage simulated emergency situations during actual and or simulated flight operations.
  • Manage simulated non-normal situations during actual and or simulated flight operations. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Mathematics at NQF Level 4.
  • Physical Science at NQF Level 4.
  • Communication NQF Level 4.
  • Demonstrate understanding of human performance limitations in aviation.
  • Demonstrate understanding of cockpit resource management.
  • Fly a single-engine aircraft in all phases of flight in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) by day and by night. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical scope of this unit standard:
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) or Military Aviation Authority (MAA) Regulations and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aircraft and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the Aircraft flight Manual (AFM) or Pilot Operating Handbook (POH).
  • Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is not to be assessed as a stand-alone element. However the outcomes resulting from CRM can be assessed. CRM is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of CRM are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way.
    > Range of procedural elements include but are not limited to: Use of checklists, crew briefings, radio calls, and callouts.
  • Assessment:

    > Competence shall be assessed in a single or multi-engine aeroplane with retractable undercarriage and adjustable flaps, and variable pitch propeller, or turbo-propeller or turbo-jet engines, or in a helicopter with a maximum certificated mass of at least 500 kg.
    > An equivalent flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority may be substituted for the aircraft.
    > If a single engine aircraft is provided for assessment of the learner then the aircraft shall be certified for single pilot operation.
    > If a multi-engine aircraft is provided for assessment, the learner shall be assessed on competence in carrying out appropriate manoeuvres with one engine (simulated) inoperative.
  • Tolerances:

    > The assessor shall make allowance for environmental conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the type of aircraft.
    > Assessors should not over emphasize staying within the tolerances at the expense of smooth flying.

    General Flying:

    > 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, 50 ft altitude
    > Aircraft is balanced to within of the balance ball

    Asymmetric flight (applicable only to multi-engine aeroplane):

    > Heading 5 , +10/ -5 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Aircraft is balanced to within of the balance ball.
  • Emergencies (simulated): Under no circumstances shall the aircraft or its occupants be placed in jeopardy.
  • Good airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Assessment of the learner in emergency and non-normal operations shall be conducted using simulated emergency and non-normal situations.
  • Assessment of the learner shall include at least one practical demonstration of each of: simulated forced landing (single-engine aircraft only); precautionary landing; simulated engine failure after take-off.
  • Assessment of the learner in conducting forced landings, precautionary landings and managing engine failures after take-off under conditions and circumstances different to those prevailing may be performed by oral or written questioning.
  • Assessment of the learner in simulated emergencies should be terminated at a point where successful outcome can be judged and safe recovery to normal conditions can be achieved. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Manage equipment and system malfunctions during actual and or simulated flight operations. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Systems and equipment includes but is not limited to: engine and fuel system; electrical system; hydraulic and pneumatic systems; flight control systems; landing gear; transmission and rotor system. Only malfunctions for which the aircraft manufacturer or operator has provided recommended management procedures shall be assessed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Malfunctioning of equipment or systems is recognised and identified. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Initial recall actions are performed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Checklist procedures are followed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The impact of the malfunction is assessed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Contingency plan is formulated and implemented. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Status is continuously reviewed and applicable actions initiated. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Simulate the use of emergency equipment during actual and or simulated flight operations. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Emergency equipment includes but is not limited to fire detection and extinguishing equipment; emergency oxygen supply; first aid kits; signal strips; emergency location transmitters. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Emergency equipment is described in terms of their operating principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Location of emergency equipment is identified for future access. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The type of emergency is matched with the equipment to be used. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Conditions under which emergency equipment should be used are identified to inform decision making. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Conditions include but are not limited to: on-board and engine fires; depressurisation; forced landing.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The working condition of emergency equipment is verified in order to determine serviceability status. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Manage simulated emergency situations during actual and or simulated flight operations. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Only emergency situations as described in the AFM/POH shall be assessed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Emergency situation is recognised and identified. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Initial recall actions are performed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Checklist procedures are followed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The impact of the emergency is assessed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Contingency plan is formulated and implemented. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Status is continuously reviewed and applicable actions initiated. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Manage simulated non-normal situations during actual and or simulated flight operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Non-normal situation is recognised and identified. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Initial recall actions are performed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Checklist procedures are followed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The impact of the non-normal condition is assessed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Contingency plan is formulated and implemented. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Status is continuously reviewed and applicable actions initiated. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • The definition of airmanship.
  • Definition of situational awareness.
  • AFM/POH procedures for operating the aircraft.
  • AFM/POH procedures for non-normal and emergency situations that might occur.
  • Air traffic control procedures.
  • Procedures specific to the airport being used.
  • Aircraft systems and operating limitations.
  • Regulatory requirements and restrictions for piloting an aircraft.
  • Legal and operational requirements for flying multi-engine aircraft.
  • Sources for obtaining flight planning information.
  • Techniques for determining aircraft mass and balance.
  • Techniques for compiling a flight plan.
  • Operational documentation requirements and procedures.
  • Pre- and post-flight inspection procedures.
  • Safety procedures: fuelling the aircraft, positioning the aircraft for start-up and taxiing.
  • Procedures for securing equipment, passengers and loads.
  • Radio communication procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Planning and performing flights to achieve objectives within constraints of the aircraft limitations and regulatory requirements 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community during:
  • Acting as pilot-in-command of a flight crew.
  • Communicating with Air Traffic Services (ATC) and organising the flight in cognisance of other air traffic.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Plan ahead to achieve objectives within the constraints of the aircraft limitations and regulatory requirements.
  • Compliance with applicable legislation.
  • Performing appropriate checks and procedures.
  • Using checklists where appropriate.
  • Exercising command ability and manoeuvring the aircraft within its limits in order to achieve the desired outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • Identifying symptoms of instrument, system and engine malfunctions.
  • Identifying changes to the conditions and the prevailing weather.
  • Identifying changes to the traffic flow which may require adaptation of the flight path. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others when:
  • Proper and effective visual scanning to clear the area before and while performing emergency procedures.
  • Operation of the aircraft and its systems in accordance with the AFM/POH.
  • Taking prompt corrective action when tolerances are exceeded.
  • Flying the aircraft in such a way that tolerance exceedences are kept to a minimum. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • A high level of situational awareness is maintained.
  • Airspace restrictions and requirements are adhered to.
  • Curfews, noise abatement procedures and other measures to minimise disturbance to the environment and the public are observed.
  • Safe flying practice is maintained. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Learners who are not competent in the language proficiency standard for ICAO defined operational English at ICAO level 4 will find it difficult to meet licensing requirements.

    Use of distractions during practical assessment:

    Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. To strengthen this area of pilot training and evaluation, the assessor shall provide a realistic distraction during the flight portion of the practical test. This will give the assessor a positive opportunity to evaluate the learner's ability to divide attention both inside and outside the cockpit while maintaining safe flight.

    The information contained in this unit standard does not supersede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.

    Definitions:
  • Airmanship is defined as incorporating the ability to make sound judgements and execution of safe practices.

    Situational awareness:
  • The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.

    The following should be noted wherever the terms non-normal and abnormal is used.
  • Non-normal is synonymous to abnormal situations.
  • Any situation annunciated or un-annunciated, that would require crew non-normal checklist intervention to ensure maximum safety.
  • Abnormal: requires pilot attention.
  • Emergency: requires pilot action.

    Abbreviations:
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority.
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority.
  • CRM: Cockpit Resource Management.
  • AFM: Aircraft flight Manual.
  • POH: Pilots Operating Handbook.
  • VMC: Visual Meteorological Conditions. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  58023   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Elective  49950   National Certificate: Navigation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.