SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Mark shot holes for primary blasting in an underground working place 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
244461  Mark shot holes for primary blasting in an underground working place 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful to people who have to mark shot holes for primary blasting in an underground working place.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Explain specified requirements pertaining to the marking of shot holes for primary blasting.
  • Prepare to mark shot holes for primary blasting.
  • Mark shot holes for primary blasting.
  • Perform post-marking activities.

    The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard contribute to social and economic transformation and the upliftment and economic growth of the mining and minerals sector by marking shot holes for primary blasting in an underground working place as part of the mining process.

    This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of persons responsible for marking shot holes for primary blasting in an underground working place in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable, competent and informed workers. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credit calculation is based on the assumption that learners are already competent in terms of the following outcomes or areas of learning when starting to learn towards this unit standard:
  • Follow basic occupational health and safety practices underground at NQF Level 2.
  • Treat and remove misfires at NQF Level 2.
  • Test for flammable gas by means of a hand held electronic instrument and take appropriate action at NQF Level 2. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria.

    Both of the following range of working places must be selected:
  • Stope face.
  • Development end face. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain specified requirements pertaining to the marking of shot holes for primary blasting. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The explanation of the significant risks and consequences associated with the workplace hazards pertaining to the marking of shot holes for primary blasting is according to specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Workplace hazards must include those relating to:
  • Ground conditions.
  • Support conditions.
  • Misfires.
  • Areas that is difficult to examine for misfires.
  • Flammable and noxious gases.
  • Accumulation of water.
  • Fire.
  • Exposure to unsafe Electrical connections.
  • Working under unsafe roof or sidewalls.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The explanation of the significant risks and consequences associated with the work related hazards pertaining to the marking of shot holes for primary blasting is according to specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Work related hazards must include:
  • Using paint in confined spaces.
  • Marking in the proximity of sharp rock edges.
  • Grit liberated as a result of marking.
  • Working on slippery surfaces.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The specified requirements when marking holes regarding support, footwall cleaning, distances that a person may mark a hole from sockets and misfires, dealing with misfires, explosives and sockets and the effects to occupational health and safety if these requirements are not adhered to are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The specified requirements pertaining to the holing of a working face in terms of stopping distances, dimensions and the safety precautions to be taken when holing into another workplace and the effects to occupational health, safety and production if these requirements are not adhered to are explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Safety precautions must include those pertaining to:
  • Flammable and noxious gases.
  • Heat.
  • Flooded areas.
  • Misfires.
  • Inadequate support in old areas to be mined into.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The specified requirements regarding the marking of shot holes in terms of position and burden, direction and dip, when encountering geological discontinuities are explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Geological discontinuities must include:
  • Faults.
  • Dykes.
  • Sills.
  • Fissures.
  • Changes in the direction, dip and thickness of the ore body.
  • Changes in the rock type, composition and hardness.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The specified requirements regarding the marking of shot holes when encountering high stress environments are explained in terms of positions, burdens and excavation dimensions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The specified requirements regarding the reasons for applying a specific marking pattern are explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Stope face marking, drilling and timing patterns must include:
  • Reverse.
  • Stagger.
  • Box.

    Development end face marking, drilling and timing patterns must include:
  • Burn cut.
  • Drag.
  • Wedge cut.
  • Sliping.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The specified requirements in terms of how the burden and position, direction and dip of shot holes, type and quantity of explosives and timing of shot holes could affect rock fragmentation, heave and induced rock stresses are explained. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Prepare to mark shot holes for primary blasting. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The required personal protective equipment is available, in good working order, fit for purpose and used in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The required tools, material and equipment are available in the workplace, fit for purpose and in good working order according to specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The area where shot holes are to be marked is examined for workplace hazards and such hazards are dealt with according to specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Workplace hazards must include those relating to:
  • Ground conditions.
  • Support conditions.
  • Misfires.
  • Areas that is difficult to examine for misfires.
  • Flammable and noxious gases.
  • Accumulation of water.
  • Fire.
  • Exposure to unsafe Electrical connections.
  • Working under unsafe roof or sidewalls.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The explanation of the consequences to safety, occupational health and production, if specified requirements are not adhered to whilst preparing to mark shot holes for primary blasting, is according to specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include consequences of non-adherence to specified requirements in terms of:
  • Personal protective equipment.
  • Selection and examination of tools, material and equipment.
  • Area examination.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Mark shot holes for primary blasting. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The shot holes are marked according to specified requirements in terms of position, burden, direction, dip and dimensions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include and is applicable to either a stope face or a development end face:
  • Required marking pattern inclusive of pilot holes.
  • Straightening of the face.
  • Adaptation to geological discontinuities.
  • Countering the effects of rock stresses.
  • Ensuring the required rock fragmentation.
  • Measures taken to rectify the identified causes of inefficient face advance during the previous blast.
  • Application of relevant notes.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The tools and equipment are used according to specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The work related hazards related to the marking of shot holes are dealt with according to specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Work related hazards must include:
  • Using paint in confined spaces.
  • Marking in the proximity of sharp rock edges.
  • Grit liberated as a result of marking.
  • Working on slippery surfaces.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Interpersonal interaction is positive, consistent with specified requirements, promotes effective teamwork and avoids conflict. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The explanation of the consequences to safety, occupational health and production, if specified requirements are not adhered to whilst marking shot holes for primary blasting, is according to specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include consequences of non-adherence to specified requirements in terms of:
  • Marking of holes.
  • Use of tools, material and equipment.
  • Interpersonal interaction.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Perform post-marking activities. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Tools and equipment are prepared and stored for subsequent use and those defective are dealt with according to specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Reports are completed and submitted according to specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The explanation of the consequences to safety, occupational health and production, if specified requirements are not adhered to whilst performing post-marking activities is according to specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include consequences of non-adherence to specified requirements in terms of:
  • Preparation and storage of tools and equipment for subsequent use.
  • Completion and submission of reports.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:

    Causes and effects, implications of:
  • Hazards and risks not dealt with.
  • Sub-standard work practices.
  • Sub-standard use of tools and equipment.

    Procedures and techniques:
  • Marking techniques.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies, standards:
  • Safety, occupational health and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements.

    Relationships, systems:
  • Interpersonal interaction with team members. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.

    Note: The ability of the learner to identify sub-standard and hazardous conditions, assess and take appropriate action. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.

    Note: The ability and willingness of the learner to accept and interpret work instructions correctly. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.

    Note: The ability of the learner to indicate what methods, tools and personal protective equipment is required and communicate to fellow workers his/her intentions and assistance required. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note: The ability of the learner to reconcile the information from visual and physical examinations and constantly evaluate the changing situation. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note: The appropriate communication with the relevant personnel with regard to the reporting of hazards and sub-standard conditions will indicate his/her proficiency in effective communication. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and occupational health of others.

    Note: The learner demonstrates an understanding of and ability to use advanced mining technology in terms of production, safety and communication. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Note: The ability of the learner to recognise the importance of correctly marking shot holes in an underground working place and to understand the consequences of not adhering to standards in terms of the safety of all persons working underground. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives.

    Site Specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Voluntary Codes of Practice.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications of 1993.

    Notes to Assessors:

    Assessors should keep the following principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessment at title level is unmanageable, focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes.
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the learner is able to perform in the real situation.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The assessment criteria provide the specifications against which assessment judgements should be made. In most cases, knowledge can be inferred from the quality of the performances, but in other cases, knowledge and understanding will have to be tested through questioning techniques. Where this is required, there will be assessment criteria to specify the standard required.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence, of the prescribed type and quality, as specified in this unit standard, that the learner can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well documented principles of assessment: appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, direct, authentic, sufficient, systematic, open and consistent.

    Unit Standard Justification:

    Level:

    Attribute; Level; Justification:
  • Skills; Level 3; The skills required now have a significant variety and extend beyond the simple range.
  • Procedures; Level 2; Although the procedure is known and familiar.
  • Context; Level 2; Although the process could occur in different contexts, the contexts are repeatedly applicable and known to the learner.
  • Knowledge; Level 3; Relevant theoretical knowledge is required to be fully competent.
  • Information processing; Level 2; Information is readily available but some processing is required.
  • Problem Solving; Level 3; The key difference from level two is the application of some "judgement.
  • Orientation of activities; Level 3; Follows instructions but has some autonomy to make own decisions and give instructions down ward.
  • Application of responsibility; Level 2; Learner's output is quality controlled.
  • Orientation of scope of responsibility; Level 2; Some responsibility towards quantity and quality.

    Average Level: 22/9 = 2.4.
    Actual Level Assigned: 2.

    Credits:

    Total hours required by the learner to achieve the required outcome:

    Activity; Hours:
  • Classroom Teaching; 40 Hours.
  • On-The-Job Training; 56 Hours.
  • Mentoring required; 0 Hours.
  • Other (Specify); 0 Hours.
  • Total; 96 Hours.

    Average Credits: 96/10 = 9.6.
    Actual credits assigned: 10. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  58760   National Certificate: Rock Breaking Underground Hard Rock  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. ADCORP TECHNICAL TRAINING (PTY) LTD 
    2. ALLOYS HEAD OFFICE 
    3. Anglo American Platinum Amendelbult Concentrators 
    4. ASSMANG (PTY) LTD 
    5. AVENG (AFRICA) (PTY) LTD 
    6. CONCOR PROJECTS PTY LTD 
    7. CULLINAN DIAMOND MINE PTY LTD 
    8. DIGGERS TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SERVICES 
    9. DWARSRIVER CHROME MINE (PTY) LTD 
    10. EASTERN CHROME MINES 
    11. EASTERN CROME MINES SAMANCOR 
    12. FINSCH DIAMOND MINE(PTY) LTD 
    13. FOSKOR (PTY) LTD 
    14. GEOSTRAT TRAINING 
    15. IMPALA PLATINUM SERVICES LTD 
    16. KHUTALA MINING SERVICES PL 
    17. KROONDAL OPERATIONS (PTY) LTD 
    18. MANCAS CONSULTINGS CC 
    19. MARULA PLATINUM PTY LTD 
    20. MATHOME TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT (PTY) LTD 
    21. MINERAL MINING TRAINING INSTITUTE(PTY) LTD 
    22. MODIKWA MINING PERSONNEL SERVICES PTY L TD 
    23. NKOMATI JOINT VENTURE 
    24. NORTHAM PLATINUM LTD 
    25. PALABORA COPPER (PTY) LTD 
    26. PRISMA TRAINING SOLUTIONS (PTY) LTD 
    27. Rustenburg Platinum Mines - Union Section 
    28. SAFETY TRAINING PRACTITIONERS PTY LTD 
    29. SAMANCOR CHROME LTD 
    30. SASOL GLOBAL LEARNING 
    31. SENZEKO EXECUTIVE RISK CC 
    32. SHAFT SINKERS MINING PTY LTD 
    33. SIBANYE GOLD ACADEMY PROPRIETARY LIMITED 
    34. SIBANYE RUSTENBURG PLATINUM MINES PTY LTD 
    35. SIYANDA BAKGATLA PLATINUM MINE 
    36. TAU LEKOA GOLD MINING COMPANY (PTY) LTD 
    37. TECHNOLOGY RISK SOLUTIONS (PTY)LTD 
    38. TRAIN THE NATION AND ASSOCIATES (PTY) LTD 
    39. TRITON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT (PTY) LTD 
    40. TWO RIVERS PLATINUM (PTY) LTD 
    41. VENETIA MINE 
    42. WESTERN PLATINUM MINE 
    43. XTRACT TRAINING SERVICES CC 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.