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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Collect blood for medical pathology and blood transfusion 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
252400  Collect blood for medical pathology and blood transfusion 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Phlebotomy Technicians 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 09 - Health Sciences and Social Services Curative Health 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  15 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
114726  Collect blood for medical pathology or blood transfusion  Level 4  NQF Level 04  15  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is intended for learners who are required to collect venous and/or capillary blood samples from adults and children for medical pathology and blood transfusion.

The unit standard excludes the collection of blood from arteries and the collection of blood involving more complex techniques which require special skills. The exclusion applies to the following:
  • Collecting blood from premature neonates, femoral veins, umbilical veins, scalp veins, the internal and external jugular vein, the anterior fontanelle, central venous pressure (CVP) and arterial lines.

    Qualifying learners will be empowered through knowledge, skills and attitude to fulfil their role in the medical field thus enhancing health care delivery in the country.

    Learners credited with this standard will be able to:
  • Comply with pre-collection requirements.
  • Prepare for blood collection.
  • Collect the blood.
  • Comply with post-collection requirements. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Unit standard 252396: Demonstrate knowledge of anatomy, physiology and medical terminology relevant to medical pathology and blood transfusion at NQF Level 4.
  • Unit standard 252401: Comply with safety requirements in the medical pathology and blood transfusion fields at NQF Level 4.
  • Unit standard 252402: Demonstrate knowledge of medical ethical guidelines in the medical pathology and blood transfusion fields at NQF Level 4. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The prescribed protocols referred to in this unit standard are the written instructions relating to specific tasks and procedures of the institution where the learner is currently employed. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Comply with pre-collection requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A professional and ethical manner is demonstrated at all times. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Patients/donors are identified in accordance with prescribed protocol. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Informed consent for the blood collection procedure is obtained according to the prescribed protocol. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Patient/donor demographics and clinical data are recorded according to the prescribed protocol. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Pre-collection constraints pertaining to the required specimen are assessed and recorded according to the prescribed protocol. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Pre-collection constraints includes the specific time the specimen must be collected; fasting status, activity status of the patient/donor, assessment of the suitability of the blood donor.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Prepare for blood collection. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Knowledge of the collection sites and the possible complications associated with them is demonstrated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Sites include preferred and lesser-preferred collection sites and sites which may not be accessed.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The method of collection is identified according to specimen requirements and venous accessibility. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Open, closed system and capillary collections.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Equipment suitable for the choice of site, method of collection and specimen requirements is identified and assembled. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Patient/donor is positioned and prepared for the procedure according to the site chosen, the test to be performed and related safety requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Collect the blood. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Infection control guidelines relevant to the institution are followed throughout the procedure to minimise infection and cross infection. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Hand washing, cleansing of the skin, aseptic technique, discarding of medical waste, prevention of accidental exposure to blood borne pathogens, hospital isolation and cross infection protocols.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The blood vessel is accessed according to correct technique and corrective action taken if the blood flow is inadequate. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Corrective action refers to the following:

    Venous blood:
  • Small adjustments to the position of the needle, release of tourniquet, allowing venous spasm to subside, trying another evacuated tube, following the prescribed protocol regarding attempting another puncture.

    Capillary blood:
  • Application of gentle pressure followed by releasing of the site, holding the finger or the heel downwards, keeping the site free from clotting blood, following the prescribed protocol regarding attempting another puncture.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The required volume of blood, correct order of draw and additive mixing requirements are adhered to according and prescribed protocol. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The bleeding is stopped as per prescribed protocol. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The patient/donor is observed throughout the procedure for any signs of adverse reaction and corrective action is taken should a reaction occur. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Adverse reactions include but are not limited to:
  • Syncope, haematoma, excessive pain, skin reaction, excessive post puncture bleeding, nausea/vomiting, petechiae, seizures/convulsions.

    Corrective action includes but is not limited to:
  • Immediate first aid response, reporting and documentation of the incident according to prescribed protocol.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Knowledge of venous and capillary puncture complication is demonstrated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Venepuncture:
  • Difficulty in finding veins, infection, nerve damage, inadvertent arterial puncture, backflow of anticoagulants, vein damage, lactrogenic anaemia, haemoconcentraton, haemolysis, partially filled tubes, specimen contamination, failure to obtain blood/blood stop flowing.

    Capillary puncture:
  • Bruising, infection, haemolysis, poor blood flow, contaminated specimen.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Specimens are labeled with the patient/donor details according to the prescribed protocol. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Comply with post-blood collection requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Medical and general waste is discarded according to the prescribed protocol. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Documentation is completed according to prescribed protocol. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Specimens are prepared for transit to processing facilities or storage according to the prescribed protocol. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the ETQA policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments at exit points of the qualification, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described both in individual unit standards as well as the integrated competence described in the qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Anatomy of the arm relevant to phlebotomy - veins used for venepuncture, bones, nerves, muscles and arteries in close proximity to venepunture sites.
  • The safe use of phlebotomy equipment.
  • The relevance of the additives found in the different collection containers.
  • Factors that can influence the quality of the blood specimen before, during and after collection.
  • Special considerations regarding the collection of blood from children, the elderly and the disabled.
  • Policies and procedures/protocols of the relevant organisation/institution.
  • Risk behaviour assessment of potential blood donors.
  • The measuring and recording of patient vital signs. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made in determining the site from which blood has to be drawn. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, community to ensure that a suitable specimen is sent for analysis. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsively and effectively to collect blood professionally and efficiently. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information to ensure that the patient/donor is properly identified and prepared for the procedure. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentation to solicit the correct information from the patient/donor and to ensure that the patient/donor knows exactly what procedures are going to be performed. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and the health of others by collecting blood through the correct and efficient use of equipment and correct disposal of bio-hazardous medical waste. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    Learners collecting blood for medical pathology and blood transfusion must be registered with a relevant Statutory Health Council. 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standard 114726, "Collect blood for medical pathology or blood transfusion", Level 4, 15 credits. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  59345   Further Education and Training Certificate: Phlebotomy Techniques  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  HPCSA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.