SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Monitor and control the recovery of pulping liquor chemicals 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256281  Monitor and control the recovery of pulping liquor chemicals 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Pulp and Paper 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Engineering and Related Design 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  15 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
114280  Produce recyclable chemical compounds and steam by converting magnesium sulphite organic and inorganic pulping by-products  Level 4  NQF Level 04  22  Complete 
246714  Produce recyclable chemical compounds and steam by converting magnesium sulphite organic and inorganic pulping by-products  Level 4  NQF Level 04  15  Complete 
246715  Produce recyclable chemical compounds and steam by converting Kraft organic and inorganic pulping by-products  Level 4  NQF Level 04  15  Complete 
246718  Produce chemical compounds by converting spent organic and inorganic pulping by-products using a fluidised bed reactor  Level 4  NQF Level 04  12  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Learners who demonstrate competence as described in the outcomes of this unit standard will be able to monitor and control the recovery of chemical compounds from spent pulping liquor. The Unit Standard covers the process from spent liquor storage up to the storage of cooking liquor. It excludes the evaporation process, the causticizing process and the production of unslaked lime in the case of the Kraft process.

The qualifying learner is able to:
  • Explain the fundamental principles applicable to the chemical recovery process.
  • Monitor and control the different ancillary systems interacting with the chemical recovery process.
  • Monitor and control the quality standards of process materials in the chemical recovery process.
  • Monitor and control the chemical recovery process.

    Note:
  • The impact of the chemical recovery process is measured at various stages later in the process and feedback is required for necessary control. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Learners accessing this unit standard will have demonstrated competence against Communication and Mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3 or equivalent. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical context of this unit standard covers the recovery of cooking liquor chemicals produced during the chemical pulping process in a pulp and paper mill. The Unit Standard covers the process from spent liquor storage up to the storage of cooking liquor. It excludes the evaporation, the causticizing process and the production of unslaked lime in the case of the Kraft process.

    Range statements, which are applicable to the unit standard titles, specific outcomes and assessment criteria are found beneath the applicable assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain the fundamental principles applicable to the chemical recovery process. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The purpose of the chemical recovery process is explained in terms of the cooking liquor produced and the recovery of energy. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The principles of the chemical recovery process are explained by making use of a generic flow diagram. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The chemical recovery process is explained in relation to its supplier's- and customer's processes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The flow of material through the chemical recovery section is traced and all equipment is identified using standard industry terminology. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The purpose and functioning of each piece of equipment used in the chemical recovery section is explained in terms of its role in the overall process. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The functions of all chemicals in the process are explained in terms of their chemical and physical properties. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Monitor and control the different ancillary systems interacting with the chemical recovery process. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Ancillary systems refer to the interface between mechanical equipment, electrical equipment, instrumentation and utilities and the chemical recovery process. It only includes those parts of each ancillary system which interact directly with the chemical recovery process and not the full ancillary system. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Mechanical equipment used in the chemical recovery process is identified and described in terms of purpose and application. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Mechanical equipment may include bulk handling equipment, conveying equipment, weighing equipment, storage equipment, transport equipment and packaging equipment.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Electrical equipment used in the chemical recovery process is identified and described in terms of purpose and application. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Electrical equipment may include electrical motors, switchgear and drive equipment.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Instrumentation used in the chemical recovery process is identified and described in terms of purpose and application. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Instrumentation includes the key process indicators, control valves and controllers used to monitor and control the process.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Utilities used in the chemical recovery process are identified and described in terms of purpose and application. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Utilities may include air, steam, electricity and cooling water.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Typical ancillary equipment problems within the chemical recovery process are discussed and solutions offered in accordance with workplace procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Ancillary systems are monitored and any deviations from operating parameters are corrected in accordance with operating procedures. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Monitor and control the quality standards of process materials in the chemical recovery process. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Process materials include the cooking liquor and spent cooking liquor as well as all other chemicals forming part of the chemical recovery process. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The properties of process materials are explained in terms of key characteristics. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The purpose of process material quality control procedures as well as the consequences of not adhering to these procedures are explained with regards to the impact thereof on the final product produced. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The quality requirements of raw materials and other relevant chemicals are explained according to general and workplace specifications. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Specifications are defined by machine or mill operating instructions. Specifications may include, but are not limited to, the different components and their concentrations.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Typical raw material problems and its impact on the properties of the cooking liquor and emitted gases as well as costs are discussed in terms of the purpose of the process. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Raw material problems refer to the problems associated with the properties of the spent cooking liquor as well as other chemicals added to the process.

    Product properties include but are not limited to the pH, density, concentration, free sulphur dioxide and combined sulphur dioxide as identified by the workplace quality control system.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Corrective action to be taken in the case of non-conforming raw materials is discussed in accordance with workplace procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Product variations are evaluated and corrective action taken in accordance with workplace procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    "Product" includes cooking liquor as well as emitted gases.

    "Variations" include but are not limited to pH, density, concentration, free sulphur dioxide and combined sulphur dioxide.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Monitor and control the chemical recovery process. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    The monitoring and controlling of the chemical recovery process should be performed according to operational requirements and standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The chemical recovery process is monitored and parameters recorded in accordance with workplace procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The impact of process variables on the product properties is explained in terms of final products and costs. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Process variables may include but are not limited to liquor solids content, chemical reactivity, temperature, water/steam supply, firing rate, absorption and retention time, pressure, process flows and production rate.

    The properties of recovered magnesium oxide, sulphur dioxide gases and cooking liquor include but are not limited to pH, density, liquor concentration, free sulphur dioxide and combined sulphur dioxide.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Typical equipment problems within the chemical recovery process are discussed and solutions offered in accordance to workplace procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Variations in the product are evaluated and corrective action taken in accordance with workplace procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Product deviations include but are not limited to pH, density, liquor concentration, free sulphite dioxide and total sulphite dioxide.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An assessor, accredited with a relevant NQF Level 4 or higher qualification, will assess the learner's competency.
  • Only an Assessor with considerable first hand experience in process operations will assess the learner's competency.
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an Assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Direct observation in simulated or actual work conditions is required. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Qualifying learners understand and can:

    Explain the names, functions and locations of:
  • All items of installed equipment.
  • Raw material/s.
  • Finished product/s.

    Describe the properties and characteristics of:
  • Raw material/s.
  • Product/s.
  • Process equipment.
  • Auxiliary equipment.
  • Process system/s.

    Explain the purpose of the:
  • Process, in terms of product/s, efficiencies and quality.

    Explain the causes, effects and implications of:
  • Process variables.
  • Raw material variables (suppliers).
  • Product variables (customers).
  • Not complying with quality standards.
  • Not complying with standard operating procedures.

    Demonstrate procedures and techniques of:
  • Monitoring and controlling the process.
  • Recording and reporting data.

    Explain the regulations, legislation, agreements and policies related to:
  • Standard Operating procedures.
  • Quality specifications. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    The learner is able to identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made by:
  • Identifying and addressing variations in ancillary system operation.
  • Identifying and addressing variations in material quality.
  • Identifying and addressing variations in the chemical recovery process.
  • Bringing all deviations into control.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcome(s):
  • Monitor and control the quality standards of process materials in the chemical recovery process.
  • Monitor and control the chemical recovery process. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
  • Maintaining sound relations with co-workers.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcome(s):
  • Monitor and control the quality standards of process materials in the chemical recovery process.
  • Monitor and control the chemical recovery process. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    The learner is able to organise and manage himself and his activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Working to achieve consistent results required by the process/customers.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcome(s):
  • Monitor and control the quality standards of process materials in the chemical recovery process.
  • Monitor and control the chemical recovery process. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information by:
  • Using various sources of information pertaining to the chemical recovery process, including basic scientific and engineering theory.
  • Monitoring and recording process, product and equipment variables.
  • Carrying out physical quality checks and tests.
  • Explaining the impact of non-conforming materials in terms of final products and costs.
  • Describing the relationship of the process to suppliers, customers and the overall chemical recovery process.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations during:
  • Recording of variables and actions taken to rectify.
  • Responding to questions and requests for additional information.
  • Liaising with relevant operational support units.
  • Drawing and interpreting diagrams and sketches.
  • Completing relevant documentation in accordance with workplace requirements.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Monitoring the process.
  • Bringing process, product and equipment variables into control.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcome(s):
  • Monitor and control the quality standards of process materials in the chemical recovery process.
  • Monitor and control the chemical recovery process. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by:
  • Explaining the purpose of the process as well as the relationship to the supplier and customer's processes.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large by:
  • Understanding the role of monitoring plant and process in a processing environment and the effect it has on the growth and development of the organisation, its customers and employees.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standard 114280: "Produce recyclable chemical compounds and steam by converting magnesium sulphite organic and inorganic pulping by-products", Level 4, 22 credits.

    Supplementary Information:

    Terms and definitions:
  • Standard operating procedures: The documented practice(s) defining the who, what, and when of quality activities.
  • Process: Process means the manufacturing process where a product is manufactured using machinery and equipment with limited guidance or control from the learner.
  • Process and operating specifications: The measurements and indications of all variables monitored during operations including temperatures, pressures, speed, flow rates, power consumption, noise, vibration and visual indicators. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  61949   Further Education and Training Certificate: Pulp and Paper Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  FPMSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. MPACT 
    2. Mpact Operations Paper Springs 
    3. SAPPI LTD 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.