SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

Coagulate a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented dairy product 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
9172  Coagulate a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented dairy product 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2004-10-13  2006-04-20  SAQA 0556/04 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2007-04-20   2010-04-20  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard is replaced by: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
123307  Coagulate milk or a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented product  Level 4  NQF Level 04  20  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • demonstrate knowledge of starter cultures for fermented dairy product manufacturing
  • demonstrate knowledge of the mechanism of coagulation during fermented dairy product manufacturing,
  • demonstrate knowledge of the methods of coagulation for fermented dairy product manufacturing,
  • coagulate a dairy mixture for fermented dairy product manufacturing.

    This unit standard is for anyone who has to produce a coagulum from a pasteurised and standardised dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented dairy product.

    This unit will contribute to the full development of the learner within the dairy manufacturing environment by providing recognition, further mobility and transportability within the field of manufacturing and assembly. The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and upliftment within the dairy manufacturing and processing environment. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Description of required skills:

    Knowledge of bulk starter preparation.
    Representative sample taking for quality control purposes. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The scope of this unit standard is for anyone who has to produce a coagulum from a pasteurised and standardised dairy mixture for the production of fermented dairy products.

    In the context of this unit standard, fermented dairy products include yoghurt, buttermilk, maas, sour cream and smooth cottage cheese, but exclude chunky cottage cheese.

    The level assigned to this unit standard is appropriate because the process requires a wide range of technical skills and offers a considerable choice of procedures. A broad knowledge base incorporating some theoretical concepts, analytical interpretation of information, informed judgement and a range of sometime innovative responses to concrete but often unfamiliar problems are employed. The application of this unit standard is to qualify the person for certification in advanced trade and technical occupations. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge of starter cultures for fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Different methods of starter culture application for fermented dairy products manufacturing, with their advantages and disadvantages, are described according to standard dairy and microbiological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Different methods of application include:
  • Mother, daughter and working cultures,
  • Starter prepared from a concentrated deep frozen or freeze dried culture,
  • DVI-culture.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. A starter culture is defined by referring to its universal components. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The activities of starter cultures are defined according to standard microbiological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The activities refer to:
  • Glycolysis,
  • Proteolysis,
  • Lipolysis.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The importance and functions of a starter culture in the manufacturing of fermented dairy products are explained according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The explanation refers to:
  • Acid production, where applicable,
  • Aroma production, where applicable,
  • Enzyme production, where applicable,
  • Gas production, where applicable,
  • The contribution of starter cultures to the body and texture of the final product.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The types of starter cultures for fermented dairy product manufacturing are classified according to standard microbiological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Classification includes:
  • Strain composition (single or multiple) of the starter culture,
  • Genes and species of the micro-organisms present in the starter culture (specific for each fermented dairy product),
  • Growth requirements (optimum temperature, optimum pH and required growth medium).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The growth phases of starter culture bacteria are described according to standard microbiological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description refers to:
  • Lag phase,
  • Logarithmic phase,
  • Stationary phase,
  • Dying-off phase.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The symbiotic relationship between different strains of bacteria in a yoghurt starter culture is explained according to standard microbiological and dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. The requirements for a starter culture are identified according to standard microbiological and dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The identification refers to:
  • Starter activity,
  • Absence of starter contamination,
  • Required contribution of the starter to the desired characteristics of the final product,
  • Temperature.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. Factors that inactivate starter cultures are described according to standard dairy principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the mechanism of coagulation during fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Coagulation is defined and its purpose during manufacturing of fermented dairy products is described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The coagulation of a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented dairy product is described according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description refers to:
  • The changes in the structure of the protein complex,
  • The importance of the starter culture,
  • The importance of available calcium,
  • The importance of pH.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Five (5) factors that influence the coagulation of a dairy mixture are identified and described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Five (5) milk composition factors that influence coagulation are identified and described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The significance of pH.4.6 during coagulation is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Fermentation in dairy products is defined according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The definition includes:
  • Substrate and product of fermentation,
  • Way in which fermentation is initiated.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The nutritional and health value of fermented or coagulated products is identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the methods of coagulation for fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Methods of coagulation are identified and described according to standard dairy principles. One (1) example of each is also given. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Method of milk coagulation include:
  • Coagulation by means of starter cultures only (acid coagulation),
  • Coagulation by means of starter cultures in combination with enzymes (sweet coagulation).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The types of enzymes used for coagulation are identified according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Types of enzymes include:
  • Animal rennet,
  • Microbial rennet,
  • Pepsin rennet,
  • Vegetable rennet.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The requirements for enzymes are identified according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The requirements include:
  • pH,
  • Temperature,
  • Enzyme concentration,
  • Absence of enzyme inhibitors.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Factors that inactivate starter cultures and enzymes are described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The types of acids used for coagulation are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Coagulate a dairy mixture for fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Preparation of equipment and personal preparation is done according to standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Preparations include:
  • Hygienic practices,
  • Wearing of protective clothing and safety gear.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The relevant coagulants are added to the mixture according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The values for the parameters of coagulation are identified and the reasons for the specific parameters are explained according to standard dairy principles 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Parameters include:
  • Incubation period,
  • Incubation temperature,
  • Inoculum size.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The mixture is coagulated according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The coagulated mixture complies with site-specifications and product requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Records are kept according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Problems are solved within scope of work. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. End-of-coagulation duties are performed according to standard operating procedures. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Internal moderation.
  • External moderation.
  • An assessor, accredited by the relevant ETQA, will assess the learner`s competency.
  • Assessment procedures will be supplied by the ETQA in alignment with NSB requirements.
  • All assessment activities must be fair, so that all candidates have equal opportunities. Activities must be free of gender, ethnic or other bias.
  • Assessment and moderation procedures, activities and tools must be transparent, affordable and support development within the field, sub-field and NQF.
  • Questions and answers to determine theoretical knowledge are expected.
  • Examination of an assessment portfolio.
  • Reporting skills are demonstrated by effective communication, using verbal (language) and/or writing skills.
  • Direct observation in simulated or actual work conditions.
  • Practical demonstration of coagulating milk for the manufacturing of a fermented dairy product. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected within the assessment criteria of each specific outcome. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made by:
  • Solving problems within scope of work.

    Evident in the following specific outcome:
    Coagulate a dairy mixture for fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Preparing for milk coagulation.

    Evident in the following specific outcome:
    Coagulate a dairy mixture for fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information by:
  • Making sure that the coagulated milk meets site-specifications and product requirements.

    Evident in the following specific outcome:
    Coagulate a dairy mixture for fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations by:
  • Keeping records.

    Evident in the following specific outcome:
    Coagulate a dairy mixture for fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large.

    Evident in all the specific outcomes 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard has been replaced by unit standard 123307, ''Coagulate milk or a diary mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented product'', level 4, 20 credits as soon as 123307 is registered.

    1. Legal requirements:

    The following acts and/or codes, current and future regulations and amendments will be applicable:
  • Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, No. 54 of 1972,
  • Health Act, No 63 of 1977,
  • Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993,
  • SABS Food Hygiene Management Code 49: 1989.

    2. Definition of terms within this unit standard:

    Terminology and clarification/ explanation/ definition.

    Standard operating procedures:
    Refer to company procedures, prescribed procedures from the manufacturer, personal and food safety procedures, good manufacturing practices, best practices, applicable legislation, time frames, recipes and specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  20553   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Cottage Cheese Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  20520   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Fermented Dairy Products Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  20519   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Frozen Ice Cream and Frozen Ice Cream Related Products Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.