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Diploma: Commerce: General Management 
21062  Diploma: Commerce: General Management 
Intec College 
QCTO - Quality Council for Trades and Occupations  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
Advanced Certificate  Field 03 - Business, Commerce and Management Studies  Generic Management 
Undefined  240  Level 5  NQF Level 06  Regular-Provider-ELOAC 
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
SAQA 9900/00  2018-07-01  2023-06-30 
2024-06-30   2026-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification does not replace any other qualification and is not replaced by any other qualification. 

The primary purpose of the qualification is to provide qualifying learners with the appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes to effectively pursue a career in business management. 

Upon entry to the Diploma Programme, it is assumed that learners should have demonstrated:
  • the ability to express themselves clearly and correctly both orally and in writing in English (NQF4);
  • the ability to apply numerical skills, including basic arithmetic (add, subtract, divide, multiply) (at least NQF3); and
  • a basic awareness of the nature business functioning.

    Upon entry to the Diploma programme the learners should be in possession of:
  • a Matric entrance - Grade 12 or a Standard 10; and / or
  • IBS Higher Diploma or equivalent; and / or
  • A certificate in General Management that will offer credits towards the Diploma and / or
  • Four years business experience. 


    This qualification may be achieved in whole or in part through the recognition of prior learning [Regulation 8(l)(h)]. 

    Critical Cross-field Outcomes:

    1. Identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made.

    2. Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation and community.

    3. Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively.

    4. Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    5. Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that the problem-solving context does not exist in isolation.

    6. Reflect on and explore a variety of strategies to learn more effectively.

    7. Explore business and career opportunities.

    8. Develop entrepreneurial opportunities.

    9. Look at the environment on a macro basis rather than a micro basis in order to enhance the current environment.

    10. Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and language skills in the modes of oral and / or written persuasion.

    11. Demonstrate an understanding of the economic world in context as a dynamic interactive world that does not exist in isolation.

    12. Demonstrate effective and responsible decision-making.

    13. Stimulate and develop thinking patterns involving creativity.

    14. Interpret information received via the media and other sources.

    15. Remain receptive and responsive to current trends and developments.

    16. Use technology effectively and responsibly.

    17. Conduct research independently.

    Specific Outcomes:

    1. Economics
    Ability to:
  • Describe the theory of demand and supply;
  • Describe how the total economic activities are measured;
  • Describe the economics and dis-economics of scale;
  • Describe the market structure and define terms such as perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition and oligopoly);
  • Describe the law of diminishing utility;
  • Describe the law of diminishing returns;
  • Identify the macro-economic variables;
  • Explain economic equilibrium in two, three and four sector models;
  • Define terms consumption, the multiplier, aggregate demand, aggregate supply, credit creation;
  • Describe the functions of money and explain the demand for money (liquidity preference);
  • Explain the relationship between inflation and unemployment and their impact on the economy;
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of direct and indirect taxes;
  • Describe the meaning of fiscal policy;
  • Define the term monetary policy and explain the instruments of monetary policy;
  • Describe the concept of economic growth;
  • Describe terms such as protectionism, balance of payments, exchange rate;
  • Explain various exchange rate systems.

    2. Financial Accounting I:
    Ability to:
  • Demonstrate understanding of the double-entry system of accounting.
  • Describe the classification of and accounting for capital, assets, liabilities, expenses and income.
  • Describe the distinction between revenue and capital expenditure;
  • Illustrate the accounting equation;
  • List the books of original entry;
  • Record repetitive transactions in the books (journals) of prime entry and posting to the general ledger;
  • Extract a trial balance;
  • Describe the concepts of matching, prudence, consistency and going concern;
  • Explain how accruals and prepayments are entered;
  • Describe and illustrate the various methods of stock valuation (Range: FIFO method, LIFO method, weighted average method, and the lower of cost or net realisable value)
  • Define the term depreciation;
  • Explain the various depreciation methods (Range: straight-line, reducing balance, revaluation, and sum of the digits);
  • Explain how fixed assets are disposed of;
  • Describe bad debts, bad debts recovered;
  • Explain how to provision for doubtful debts and provision for discount;
  • Demonstrate the preparation of financial statements;
    - Sole traders (Range: trading account, year-end adjustments, closing entries, income statement and balance sheet;
    - Associations not for gain (for example, clubs) - receipts and payments account, year-end adjustments, income statement and balance sheet;
  • Reconcile a bank statement;
  • Write up and reconcile debtors and creditors control accounts with debtors and creditors ledgers;
  • Make adjustments (Range: errors of principle, omission, commission and original entry, and compensating errors);
  • Prepare departmental income statements;
  • Prepare inter-departmental transfers;
  • Allocation departmental expenses;
  • Describe partnership accounts and define terms (Range: Appropriation accounts, interest on capital and drawings, salaries paid to partners, sharing of profit or loss fixed and fluctuating capital accounts and current accounts;
  • Prepare a simple cash flow statement in respect of a sole trader (Range: capital introduction, profit, drawings, loans raised and repaid, increases and decreases in working capital, purchase and disposal of assets);
  • Describe the presentation of manufacturing statements and define terms (Range: elements of costs, stock valuation, unit costs, mark-up percentage, work in progress, sales of raw materials, allocation of expenses);
  • Prepare departmental income statements;
  • Prepare inter-departmental transfers;
  • Allocation of departmental expenses;
  • Describe partnership accounts and define terms (Range: Appropriation accounts, interest on capital and drawings, salaries paid to partners, sharing of profit or loss fixed and fluctuating capital accounts, and current accounts;
  • Prepare a simple cash flow statement in respect of a sole trader (Range: capital introduction, profit, drawings, loans raised and repaid, increases and decreases in working capital, purchase and disposal of assets);
  • Describe the presentation of manufacturing statements and define terms (Range: elements of costs, stock valuation, unit costs, mark-up percentage, work in progress, sales of raw materials, allocation of expenses);

    3. Information systems and technology (Concepts of management computing)
    Ability to:
  • Define management information systems and the way it provides information for decision-making at different management levels;
  • Define, discuss and demonstrate a working knowledge of the different aspects of computer hardware and software fundamentals;
  • Describe and demonstrate the use of files, databases and the processing and storage of data;
  • Demonstrate a working knowledge of basic computer terminology;
  • Demonstrate the ability to develop and implement a computer system;
  • List the provisions of the 1983 Computer Evidence Act.

    4. Business Communications
    Ability to:
  • Give a broad definition of communication with special reference to the interpersonal communication process in the business environment;
  • Distinguish between verbal and non-verbal communication;
  • Describe the interpersonal communication process and a basic interpersonal communications model, including reference to the message, code, feedback and interference;
  • Describe mass communication as a process, with reference only to the way in which it differs from the interpersonal communications process;
  • Outline of development and functions, advantages and disadvantages of mass media;
  • Describe the different types of non-verbal communication;
  • Describe organisational communication, the grapevine, internal communications media, external communications media;
  • Identify communication barriers (Range: Physical, Physiological, Psychological, Semantic);
  • Define verbal communications (Range: register, style, tone);
  • Analyse using practical communication situations;
  • Deal with business correspondence. Range:
    - Concise formats (telephone messages, telegrams, telexes, formal invitations and accepting / declining these, bulletin board notices, and so on)
    - Memorandum (inter-office and inter-departmental)
    - Letters of enquiry and replies to these
    - Letters of complaint and adjustment.
    - Letters of invitation to VIPs.
    - Sales promotion / marketing through circulars.
    - Application with / without curriculum vitae.
    - Letters of appointment / resignation.
    - Testimonials / references.
    - Letters to the press.
    - Letters of goodwill / introduction.
  • Prepare and advertisement. Range:
    - The AIDA formula.
    - Factual, emotive and persuasive advertising.
    - Advertising ethics and the Advertising Standards Authority.
    - Classified ('smalls')
    - Display advertisements (including those featuring employment opportunity)
    - Mail drops (leaflets, brochures, circulars).
    - Press releases.
  • Prepare and chair meetings. Range:
    - Notice, agenda and minutes of organisations not for gain.
    - Annual general meeting.
    - Special / extraordinary general meetings.
    - Executive / committee meetings.
    - Knowledge of basic meeting procedure applicable to the appointment, rules of debate - proposals and amendments, seconding, motions, replies, point of order, voting, adjournment / closing, and so on, excluding proxies - and relevant terminology.
    - Holding of mock meetings.
  • Prepare written reports. (Range: Formal and semi-formal (memorandum or letter form) reports, Summary (investigation), progress, attendance and annual reports, Graphic representations, Questionnaires, Objective scientific writing).
  • Answer a telephone.
  • Conduct an interviewing.
  • Conduct a public performance. (Range: introduction, announcements, welcoming speeches, proposing toasts, presentation of reports, formal speeches.

    5. Management 1
    Ability to:
  • Explain the role of the business organisation and management in satisfying people's needs;
  • Describe what the management process entails and how it enables organisations to achieve their goals;
  • Describe the different levels and kinds of managers in an organisation;
  • Explain the skills required of management and how the skills are acquired;
  • Describe the scope of management and its challenges;
  • Describe the concepts of systems theory;
  • Describe the composition and characteristics of the management environment;
  • Describe the internal and micro-environment including the different levels of management in the enterprise; the managerial skills required at the various levels;
  • Explain the market or task environment; and macro-environment;
  • Understand the interface between the enterprise and the environment including change, competition and crisis;
  • Explain ways in which management reacts to the environment;
  • Understand the importance of planning;
  • Explain the development of organisational goals as s step in the planning process;
  • Understand the impact of planning premises;
  • Describe the nature and specifications of organisational goals;
  • Explain the process of goal setting; the management of multiple goals and the techniques for goal setting for the individual organisation with special emphasis on the process, benefits and weaknesses of MBO.
  • Understand the importance of planning;
  • Identify and discuss the different kinds of organisational plans and explain the time frame for planning;
  • Explain the steps in the planning process;
  • Identify barriers to effective planning and know how to overcome these barriers;
  • Identify and discuss important planning tools;
  • Discuss the concept of strategic planning;
  • Describe the strategic planning process;
  • Explain the levels of strategy;
  • Explain each component of the strategic planning process and discuss behavioural considerations affecting strategic choice;
  • Define an information system and identify the components of an information system
  • Describe a classification of information systems
  • Describe the steps in developing an information system
  • Understand the term 'organising" in the management sense and describe how organising fits in with other functions in the management process;
  • Describe the designing of the structure of an organisation and describe the use and limitations of the various kinds of structures;
  • Understand how authority ties into management;
  • Distinguish between various types of power
  • Do an analysis of delegating and understand the link between authority, centralisation and decentralisation;
  • Explain the importance of co-ordination;
  • Highlight the aspects of job design;
  • Define the major types of managerial decisions and explain conditions under which managers make decisions;
  • Describe the rational model of decision-making;
  • Discuss the techniques for improving group decision-making;
  • Explain quantitative tools for decision-making;
  • Discuss the importance of leadership as a fundamental management function and explain the nature and components of leadership;
  • Participate in the leadership versus management debate
  • Examine different leadership models in an effort to throw light on the essence of leadership;
  • Discuss the contemporary perspectives on leadership;
  • Review the interfaces between leadership and organisational politics
  • Explain what motivation encompasses and explain the different motivational theories;
  • Explain the role of money as a motivator;
  • Describe how to create jobs that motivate;
  • Describe the difference between groups and teams and the reasons why people form teams;
  • Describe the different types of groups found in an organization;
  • Describe the stages in group development and appropriate leadership styles;
  • Explain the emergence of group characteristics and describe intergroup dynamics;
  • Discuss how to develop groups and teams;
  • Understand the importance of control as the final component of the management process and explain the focal points of control;
  • Illustrate the relationship between control and planning and hence the cycle of the management process;
  • Understand the difference between planned and reactive change;
  • Describe the forces for change and the types of change;
  • Explain the change process;
  • Understand resistance to change and to overcome it;
  • Describe the methods to introduce change;
  • Understand the relationship between culture and change.

    6. Management II
    Ability to:
  • Define and explain the scope of the following functions using work-related examples;
  • Marketing;
  • Operations;
  • Purchasing;
  • Financial;
  • Human resources;
  • Public relations;
  • Explain the nature and attributed of information and data and the managers need for these;
  • Demonstrate a working knowledge of computer systems;
  • Identify, define and explain the terms "business ethics" and "social responsibility" and the relationship / balance between them.

    7. Principles of Law
    Ability to:
  • Define the concept of law;
  • Relate the purposes and functions of law;
  • Describe real rights and personal rights;
  • Define the concept of legal personality;
  • Explain the various forms of business enterprise
  • Identify the sources of SA law;
  • Differentiate between the various SA courts and the jurisdiction of these courts;
  • Describe the doctrine of precedence;
  • Explain legal procedures and practitioners;
  • Describe the divisions of law in SA
  • Identify the basic legal principles that feature in all contracts;
  • Explain how and when a contract is created and the rules that apply to all contracts;
  • Demonstrate the difference between void and voidable contracts;
  • Describe the conditions that may attach to a contract;
  • Describe contracts in restraint of trade;
  • Define the meaning of contracts for the benefit of third parties;
  • Define cession, delegation and assignment;
  • Explain how a contract can be breached and the remedies for breach of contract;
  • Describe the ways in which a contract may be terminated; and
  • Describe the rules relating to misrepresentation in delict.

    8. Public Relations I
  • Define publicity and public relations.
  • Define publics and identify the various publics of the firm.
  • Analyse the differences and relationship between advertising and public relations.
  • Identify the role of public relations in a firm.
  • Identify the basic requirements for a PR campaigns.
  • Specify the fundamental principles of public relations.
  • List the field of public relations and provide examples.
  • Analyse the role differences between PR consultants and a PRP from
    within the firm.
  • Identify a career path within the PR industry.
  • Describe the organisation of PR in the company structure.
  • Describe the activities of the PRP within the firm.
  • Describe the ways in which a PRP would deal with publics.
  • Describe how you would plan a PR campaign.
  • Describe PR as a management tool.
  • Describe the activities associated with PR.
  • Describe the role of PRISA and demonstrate understanding of the code of conduct that members of PRISA must adhere to.
  • List the advantages and disadvantages of employing a consultancy.
  • Discuss the objectives of Public Relations.
  • Describe the ways in which internal and external public relations can take place.
  • Describe the methods for public relations research.
  • Discuss the relationship between public relation and marketing.
  • List and explain the steps in public relations research.
  • Describe how you would plan a public relations programme.

    9. Public Relations II
    Ability to:
  • Distinguish between opinions, attitudes and beliefs.
  • Describe how opinions, attitudes and beliefs influence human behaviour.
  • Describe the relevance of these opinions, attitudes and beliefs to the public relations practitioner.
  • Explain the uses of the research.
  • Distinguish between formal and informal methods
  • Explain the steps in the research process.
  • Explain the techniques used in evaluating PR programs.
  • Identify the elements of public relations budgeting.
  • Explain the principles of costing for an internal department.
  • Describe the costing of an external consultancy.
  • Plan costing of films, house publications, press receptions, plant tours, and
  • Demonstrate the systematic costing principles.
  • Apply the steps of the planning process to a given situation, and
  • Present ideas for solving a given problem creatively and concisely.

    10. Marketing Management I
  • Describe and define marketing.
  • Describe the place of marketing within the organisation.
  • Describe the marketing concepts.
  • List and briefly explain the marketing mix.
  • Describe the tasks and the organisation of a marketing department.
  • Define market segmentation, target marketing and product positioning.
  • Describe the basis for market segmentation.
  • Apply and discuss the market segmentation process.
  • Describe the variables of the marketing environment.
  • Describe the Interaction between the variables in the environment.
  • Identify the components of a marketing information system and the sources of information for marketing managers.
  • Explain the market research process using suitable work based examples.
  • Identify the factors affecting consumer behavior.
  • Demonstrate the consumer decision-making process and the participants in the process.
  • Discuss the Nature and development of consumerism.
  • Define a product.
  • Classify products.
  • Discuss the planning and development of new products.
  • Discuss the stages in the product life cycle;
  • Identify decisions regarding the product mix and product ranges.
  • Describe trademark (brand) and packaging decisions.
  • Describe the selection and management of distribution channel and structure.
  • Describe the steps in managing the distribution channel and briefly explain aspects of the management of physical distribution.
  • Describe the use of Intermediaries and their right of existence.
  • Describe the pricing process and various approaches to and factors affecting pricing.
  • Explain the meaning of price.
  • Identify the needs and types of pricing policies.
  • Describe the nature of marketing promotion and the components of the promotions mix.
  • Define the roles of advertising, sales promotion, public relations and personal selling in the promotion mix.
  • Identify the important elements of marketing communication.
  • Describe advertising as an important element in marketing communication, especially with regard to the formulation of advertising message, managing the advertising campaign and the role of the advertising practitioner.
  • Explain how sales promotion campaigns are developed and implemented.
  • Explain ho companies use public relations to communicate with their publics.
  • Describe the strategic marketing process.

    11. Marketing Management II
  • Explain the strategy for cultural change and the consequences.
  • Describe the obstacles to business transactions in international marketing.
  • List and explain the ten basic criteria that international marketers should meet when dealing with international firms.
  • Discuss the influences of culture on the methods of doing business.
  • Describe the effects of disparate business on international marketing.
  • Describe the effect of high context cultures and low context cultures on conducting business.
  • Explain ways in which international marketers can ensure that they remain ethically and socially responsible in their behavior.
  • Discuss the factors that create stability or instability on prevailing government policies of a country.
  • Explain the political risks that can impact on the performance of business activities.
  • Describe the risks and controls associated with the investments in foreign markets.
  • Describe the ways in which businesses can protect their investment in foreign markets and limit political risk.
  • Explain the four sources of law (heritages) that form the basis for the majority of legal systems of the world and the impact on the international marketer.
  • Explain the three situations where legal disputes can arise.
  • Explain the three methods of dispute resolution available to the international marketer.
  • Describe the problems that companies face protecting intellectual property rights and ways in which these can be protected through international agreements.
  • Describe the differences between countries that affect international marketing plans.
  • Explain why the international marketer must be aware of green marketing legislation.
  • Describe the scope of international marketing research.
  • Analyse the three basic differences between domestic and foreign market research.
  • Describe, using an example, the market research process.
  • Explain the problems that may be encountered with secondary data.
  • Describe the methods for gathering primary data and the problems associated with the collection process.
  • Explain how the Internet can assist with research.
  • Describe the problems associated with analysing and interpreting research information.
  • Explain how to analyse and use research information.
  • Describe the functions of multinational marketing information systems.
  • Analyse the differences between international marketing and global marketing.
  • Describe the benefits of global orientation.
  • Describe the international planning process using a product/company of your choice.
  • Describe the importance of international alliances to a firm going international.
  • Explain the importance of planning to achieve company goals.
  • Explain the various alternative market-entry strategies.
  • Explain the various ways in which a company can structure itself to maximize international potential.
  • Describe why it is important to offer a product that is suitable for the intended market.
  • Describe the current thoughts on standardised products versus differentiated products.
  • Discuss the relationship between product acceptance and the market into which it is introduced.
  • Describe the importance of quality and how quality is defined.
  • Describe the country of origins effect on product image.
  • Describe the physical, mandatory and cultural requirements for product evaluation.
  • Describe the components of a product using an example, and how it is necessary to view all the attributes of the product to overcome resistance to its acceptance.
  • Describe the growing importance of greening products.
  • Describe the various distribution channels and how they affect the cost and efficiency of marketing.
  • Describe the Japanese distribution structure and its impact on consumers and importers.
  • Discuss the impact of distribution patterns on the various aspects of international marketing.
  • Discuss the various options that the international marketer has to choose in respect of channels, locally as well as internationally.
  • Explain the functions, advantages and disadvantages of various middlemen.
  • Describe the importance of middlemen to a product's success and the importance of selecting and maintaining middlemen.
  • Explain factors that affect the choice of channels.
  • Describe the importance of e-commerce as a distribution alternative.
  • Describe the local market characteristics that affect the advertising and promotion of products.
  • Define modified advertising and explain when modified advertising is necessary.
  • Explain the creative challenges placed on advertising.
  • Discuss the various considerations that must be made when advertising internationally.
  • Discuss the Internet as an emerging medium for advertising globally.
  • Discuss the effect of limited media, excessive media, paper shortages, equipment shortages and government regulations on advertising and promotion budgets.
  • Describe the strengths and weaknesses of sales promotion in global marketing.
  • Explain the international communications process and how this impacts on the received message.
  • Describe the components of pricing and the factors that affect pricing.
  • Describe the factors that cause prices to escalate.
  • Explain the three ways manufacturers can lessen price escalation.
  • Explain what a foreign trade zone it and how these can be used to lessen price escalation.
  • Explain how to control pricing in parallel imports or gray markets.
  • Explain how counter trade works and how this can give a company the competitive advantage.
  • Discuss the benefits of intra-company pricing strategies.
  • Explain the requirements for price quotations in international sales.
  • Define industrial marketing.
  • Classify industrial products.
  • Define the two types of market organization.
  • Discuss the categories of industrial (business) products.
  • Compare the industrial buying process with the consumer buying process and identify the differences in the processes.
  • Identify and explain the rational buying techniques used by industrial buyers.
  • Identify the major factors that influence business buyer behavior.
  • Identify the participants in the business buying process (buying centre).
  • Describe the business buying process using an example.
  • Describe the factors that affect the choice of distribution channel.
  • Explain the various ways in which industrial selling occurs.
  • Identify the role of the sales person in industrial selling.
  • Describe how a marketer can forecast sales and the factors that affect the forecasting process.
  • Describe the considerations made when pricing industrial products.
  • Explain the relationship between costs, profit and price.
  • Explain how the use of price incentives can attract business customers.
  • Explain 4 ways in which industrial markets can be segmented.
  • Define industrial market research and describe the differences between consumer market research and industrial market research.
  • Describe the main techniques used to source primary data.
  • Illustrate a typical organisational structure of an industrial organisation.
  • Describe the process of developing an industrial marketing strategy.
  • Identify the ways in which a company can market industrial products to the government sector.
  • Define a product in terms of tangibility and intangibility.
  • Describe the relationship between the product and service.
  • Analyse a product in terms of core product, actual product and augmented product.
  • Describe the nature and characteristics of a service.
  • Describe the strategies that can be used for service firms to manage the service characteristics.
  • Describe the challenges and considerations when marketing services internationally.

    12. Labour Relations I
    Ability to:
  • Describe the history of labour relations and the various theories that have evolved.
  • Discuss how labour relations in South Africa have evolved.
  • Discuss the environmental variables that impact on labour relations in the organisation.
  • Explain the objectives and functioning of trade unions, employers' organisations and the State and the relationship between these role players.
  • Describe the Legislation that affects labour relations in the workplace.
  • Demonstrate how this Legislation is applied.
  • Describe the structures put in place for employee involvement in the workplace through workplace forums.
  • Describe the conflict resolution procedure through the CCMA and the Labour Court.
  • Illustrate the purpose of workplace agreements and describe how these are applied in the workplace.

    13. Labour Relations II
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the Interaction and processes with the labour relationship (Range: Commodity; Co-operation and w-operation processes; Conflict and collective bargaining; The power dynamic; The freedom of the individual versus allegiance to the collective and The interaction continuum.)
  • Discuss the factors regulating the interaction labour of relationships.
  • Describe the external influences on labour relationship (Range: The social political system; Social influences; The economic dispensation; The influence of trade unions and Additional influences.)
  • Identify and discuss the different approaches labour to the relationship (Range: The unitary approach; The pluralist approach; The radical approach; The neo-unitary/pluralist approach).
  • Compare South African labour relations systems with that of other countries (Range: United States of America; Great Britain; Germany; Yugoslavia.)
  • Discuss the principles of labour of economics (Range: The importance of labour economics; The nature and scope labour of economics; Wage and labour market theories; The functioning of labour the market; The effect of collective bargaining on wage and employment levels; The effect of wage determination on wage and employment Labour levels; market discrimination; Labour mobility).
  • Discuss principles of collective bargaining central labour to the relationship including aspects such as conflict, power, scope and the extent of the relationship, bargaining styles and the role of the state.
  • Discuss collective bargaining in South Africa. (Range: The right to free collective bargaining; Freedom of association and freedom from victimisation; Organisational rights; Bargaining units; Closed shop and agency shop; Enforceability of agreement; Centralise bargaining structures -bargaining council; Decentralised bargaining structures and the system of plant level recognition; The duty to bargain.)
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the negotiation process, the effects of collective negotiations on the environment and the variables influencing the negotiation process.
  • Describe the negotiating process (Range: preparation, conduct maneuvers and outlining the qualities of a good negotiator.
  • Discuss the outcome, implementation and monitoring of workplace agreements.
  • Describe the nature and scope of a labour dispute.
  • Describe the types of labour disputes, namely dispute of rights and disputes of interest.
  • Explain how to establish a dispute settlement procedure.
  • Outline the procedures established by legislation for dispute settlement.
  • List and explain the methods of dispute settlement.
  • Discuss dispute settlement in terms of Labour the Relations Act 1995.
  • Identify various dispute settlement mechanisms.
  • Define the term 'strike" and differentiate between the terms "go-slow", 'overtime ban "and' strike.
  • Analyse the differences between "protected a strike ", "unprotected strike" and a 'sympathy strike".
  • Establish the purposes of picketing.
  • Define the term "lock-out".
  • List the procedural requirements for a lockout.
  • Describe the two main functions of a lockout.

    14. Human Resource Management I
  • Discuss the Human Resource Management activities and goals.
  • Describe the relationship between line and staff organisational structures.
  • Define functional departmentalisation with specific reference the human resources function with reference to the range (range Job design, job specialisation, job enlargement, job enrichment).
  • Describe the human resource planning process-highlighting factors that influence human resource planning.
  • Describe how planning and forecasting the staffing requirements coincides with the organisational strategic plans.
  • Define terms, human resource objectives, and personnel inventories.
  • Describe methods of human resource forecasting.
  • Definition, terminology and uses of job analysis
  • Describe the job analysis process and methods used in the process of job analysis.
  • Describe the components of a job description.
  • Describe the components of a job specification.
  • Describe the purpose of recruitment and highlight the factors that influence recruitment.
  • Analyse the advantages, disadvantages and sources of recruitment (internal and external).
  • Write a job advertisement.
  • Identify the various selection methods.
  • Describe the steps in a job interview differentiating between structured and unstructured job interviews.
  • Develop a letter of appointment or labour contract.
  • Describe the objectives of orientation and the content of such a programme.
  • Describe why evaluation is necessary of the orientation programme.
  • List and describe the purpose of the various types of personnel records kept in the HR department.
  • Define performance management and discuss its advantages.
  • Identify the conditions for the successful implementation of performance management.
  • Discuss performance guidance (Range: preparing for guidance, observing performance, providing feedback, conducting review sessions, providing rewards, hints for guiding performance)
  • Describe the steps to be taken when correcting performance (Range: positive and negative deviations)
  • Define a career, career management and a career path.
  • Describe career path planning and elucidate the responsibilities of the individual and management.
  • Describe the factors that impact on career management.
  • Describe the five stages of career development using a practical example.

    15. Human Resource Management II
  • Describe various motivational theories of pioneers in behavioral science and apply these to modem thinking in the management of people at work.
  • Explain the communication process and the fundamentals in communication.
  • Describe the various methods/systems of communication in organisations (Range methods: letters, memorandums, newsletters, meetings)(Range systems: vertical - upwards and downwards, horizontal and lateral.
  • Describe the difference of formal and informal communication using practical examples.
  • Describe the barriers to communication in organisations and methods for eliminating barriers to communication.
  • Explain person-to-person communication to gain understanding (Range: speaking, writing and listening.
  • Discuss the various means of keeping in touch with all levels of staff to convey management policy; the image of the organisation; feedback in the case of grievances;
  • Describe the system available to workers to communicate and negotiate with management in connection with all matters relating to their work situation and environment;
  • Discuss the manner in which the business should handle worker demands or suggestions to ensure fair play and to ensure that the enterprise does not suffer financial losses through stay-aways or other for ms of work stoppages; and
  • Describe quality circles as a means of communication.
  • Describe the various leadership theories and apply these to workplace examples.
  • Describe how to establish training needs at various levels and how to develop training objectives throughout the organisation.
  • Describe the importance of proper selection prior to training.
  • Describe how to make use of assessment techniques in identifying candidates who are 'trainable 'and those whom you can develop further for supervisory and managerial positions.
  • Apply modem concepts in training workers.
  • Discuss the importance of supervisory training and management training.
  • Outline the structure of management development programmes and how you can evaluate their results in terms of increased effectiveness in the organisation.
  • Describe how career-path planning for individuals results in job satisfaction through promotions.
  • Describe how to place out unsatisfactory or redundant supervisors and managers.
  • Describe the importance of various staff appraisal systems, which reflect a comparison of the merits of a group of individuals who exhibit identifiable characteristics in performing their jobs.
  • Describe the importance of and reasons for equal opportunity and advancement programmes.
  • Discuss the role of top management in supporting and monitoring equal opportunity and advancement programmes.
  • Discuss the role of employment codes (Range objectives; contents; signatories; advantages; shortcomings; criticisms).
  • Describe the role of personnel practitioners towards the creation and maintenance of equal opportunity and advancement programmes. (Range: the strategic planning process; human resources planning; the selection criteria and methods of selecting black managers; identifying training needs for the development of black managers; identifying training needs for the development of black mangers; the development of black managers: principles and strategies; the motivation of black managers.)
  • Describe the employment relationship and the rights and duties of employers and workers.
  • Describe the general employment practices that affect industrial relations.

    16. Human Resource Development I
    Ability to:
  • Define training.
  • Distinguish between training, education and development.
  • State the reasons for training, education and development.
  • Discuss the various perspectives of the labour market.
  • Discuss the national initiatives to stimulate the manpower factor in the economy.
  • Outline the various pieces of Legislation affecting training and development in South Africa.
  • Give reasons why organisations do training.
  • Identify various approaches to training interventions.
  • Explain how training forms a subsystem of the organisation.
  • Discuss the need and the process of Strategic Human Resources Development.
  • Discuss various training models.
  • Describe the role of the training practitioner.
  • Identify the need for adequate records and information systems.
  • Identify the requirements in terms of training facilities.
  • Identify the various theories on learning.
  • Discuss the learning principles and the factors affecting effective learning.
  • Describe the considerations given to adult learning.
  • Conduct a training needs analysis.
  • Conduct a simple job analysis for training purposes.
  • Design a simple training programme.
  • Explain the difference between training and competence-based training.
  • Explain the process of programme delivery.
  • Describe the process of training evaluation.
  • Define management development.
  • Describe the methods used for management development.

    17. Human Resource Development II
  • Describe the role of a trainer, the functions of trainers, training principles and training methods.
  • Discuss and illustrate the basic steps in preparing and presenting a training session; and
  • Prepare a skills training programme for approval by the Department of Labour.
  • Describe the link between strategic planning and human resources management.
  • Describe strategic training management.
  • Describe the systems approach and the effect of macro- and micro-variables on training management.
  • Explain why a training and development philosophy is necessary.
  • Describe the integration of training and development in the business world; and
  • Describe the management process in training, with specific reference to planning, organising, leading, controlling, motivating, problem-solving and communicating.
  • Demonstrate an understanding for the theoretical basis of training needs analysis by conducting one in a work situation.
  • Explain the necessity for training evaluation.

    18. Cost and Management Accounting I:
    Ability to:
  • Define cost accounts;
  • Describe the object of coast accounts;
  • Outline the advantages of a cost accounting system;
  • Define cost;
  • Describe the two costing methods used and apply these to working examples;
  • Analyse the total costs of various items;
  • Define prime costs and explain the various prime costs;
  • Define the term overhead and explain the various overheads;
  • Illustrate items of job costs indicating how a total cost would be calculated;
  • Show how costs are estimated;
  • Describe the process of implementing a costing system;
  • Describe the responsibilities of the staff directly concerned with a costing system;
  • Describe the principles of factory organisation and how these impact on costs;
  • Describe how information on costs (cost data) should be used as a control mechanism;

    19. Cost and Management Accounting II
    Ability to:
  • Discuss various cost allocation concepts and apply these to product pricing;
  • Conduct financial analysis;
  • Prepare budgets;
  • Manage working capital through cash flow planning and control;
  • Explain the term cost of capital and the various elements that contribute to the cost of capital;
  • Perform calculations to calculate the cost of capital;
  • Identify ways in which a close corporation or limited company may acquire long term financing;

    20. Financial Accounting II
    Ability to:
  • Discuss the formation of a company;
  • Distinguish between par value shares and no par value shares;
  • Distinguish between the different classes of shares;
  • Process the accounting entries for the issue of shares and debentures;
  • Convert par value shares to no par value shares, and no par value shares to par value shares;
  • Process the accounting entries for the redemption of preference shares;
  • Process the accounting entries for the redemption of debentures;
  • Draw up company financial statements, including an income statement, balance sheet and cash flow statement;
  • Draw up a production cost statement, income statement and balance sheet of a manufacturing company;
  • Process the accounting entries when a company buys a business, including a partnership; and
  • Account for the conversion of a partnership into a company.
  • Discuss the formation of a close corporation;
  • Explain the differences between a close corporation, a company and a partnership;
  • Draw up financial statements for a close corporation;
  • Convert a partnership into a close corporation; and
  • Convert a company into a close corporation.
  • Write up the ledger accounts of non-independent branches;
  • Draw up the financial statements of dependent branches; and
  • Draw up the financial statements of foreign branches.
  • Draw up consolidated financial statements for a company with wholly owned subsidiaries.
  • Draw up contract accounts;
  • Draw up installment sales accounts; and
  • Account for joint ventures.
  • Prepare final accounts and statements;

    21. Company Law:
    Ability to:
  • List and describe the six forms of ownership that a business may choose;
  • Describe the reasons for forming close corporations and how a company is converted into a close corporation;
  • List the advantages and two disadvantages of each type of business ownership;
  • Choose the correct form of business ownership for a business;
  • Describe the formalities required when forming a limited company or close corporation;
  • Describe the different types of shares and the ways in which shares are issued;
  • Describe the offer of shares and the prospectus;
  • Describe the process of appointment and removal of directors;
  • Describe the rights and duties of directors;
  • Define and explain distributable profits and dividends;
  • Explain the term 're-organisation.

    22. Income Tax
    Ability to:
  • Describe the current law relating to Income Tax;
  • Compute taxable income and assess losses;
  • Demonstrate the ability to calculate gross income and be able to determine exemptions from, deductions and rebates on gross income;
  • Apply double taxation agreements;
  • Calculate amounts due to the South African Revenue Services with regard to Income Tax, PAYE, SITE and VAT.

    23. Employment Law
    Ability to:
  • Adopt legislation into the workplace. Range:
    - Labour Relations Act
    - Basic Conditions of Employment Act
    - Workmen's' Compensation Act
    - Unemployment Insurance Act
    - Occupation Health and Safety Act
    - Common law regulating relationships between employer and employee.

    24. Accounting and Finance
    Ability to:
  • Describe the components of financial statements.
  • Demonstrate the double entry principle
  • Write up the general journal.
  • Post from the general journal to the general ledger.
  • Extract a trial balance.
  • Describe various accounting concepts.
  • List and explain the different types of accounting records.
  • Describe a method of stock control.
  • Describe debtors and creditors control accounts.
  • Reconcile statements.
  • Describe budgetary control.
  • Describe break-even analysis.
  • Describe the preparation of financial statements.
  • Analyse financial statements. 

    Critical Cross-field Assessment:

    1.1 Problems are solved by means of exploring and critically evaluating abstract and personal situations.
    1.2 Problems are solved by generating alternative strategies for dealing with those problems.

    2. Collaborative work as part of a team, group, organisation or community is effective.

    3. Organisation and management of self and activities is responsible and effective.

    4.1 Information is collected, analysed, organised and critically evaluated.
    4.2 Recognition of the problems solving context as part of a larger context is demonstrated.

    5.1 Understanding of the world as a set of related systems is demonstrated.
    5.2 Strategies to manage effectively are explored and reflected on.

    6. Education and career opportunities are explored.

    7. Entrepreneurial opportunities are developed.

    8. -

    9.1 The environment is seen on a macro basis.
    9.2 Current environment is enhanced.

    10. Communication using visual, mathematical and language skills in the modes of oral and / or written persuasion is effective.

    11. Understanding of the economic world as a dynamic, interactive world that does not exist in isolation is demonstrated.

    12. Decision making is responsible and effective.

    13. Creative thinking patterns are stimulated and developed.

    14. Information from the media and other sources is interpreted.

    15.1 Current trends and developments are monitored.
    15.2 Appropriate responses to current trends and developments are made.

    16. Technology is used effectively and responsibly.

    17. Research is conducted independently.

    Specific Assessment Criteria:
    1. Economics
  • Explain the theory of demand, cost and supply.
  • Measure total economic activities.
  • Explain the critical factors and themes, which influence:
    - International trade and finance.
    - Monetary policy.
    - Public finance.
    - Labour economics.
  • Describe the growth and development of the South African economy.

    2. Financial Accounting I
  • Explain and demonstrate the ability to use the double entry system.
  • Record financial transactions in the books of original entry.
  • Post totals in books of original entry to the general ledger and extract a trial balance while demonstrating the ability to apply concepts such as matching, accrual, prudence, consisting and on-going concern concepts.
  • Reconcile bank statements with cash records.
  • Record transactions while posting correctly to control accounts.
  • Interpret accounts.

    3. Information systems and technology (Concepts of management computing)
  • Provide an overview an information system and its components.
  • Define the main terms.
  • Demonstrate the ability to develop and implement a computer system with due considerations to existing applicable legislation.

    4. Business Communications
  • Identify the major theoretical aspects of communication.
  • Demonstrate an ability to communicate effectively via the media and the medium of advertising.
  • Identify barriers to effective communication and demonstrate strategies to overcome such barriers.
  • Prepare and present written information.
  • Deliver oral presentations.

    5. Management I
  • Differentiate the major differences between profit and non-profit making undertakings.
  • Provide an overview of the basic principles of management including planning, organising leading and controlling and their associated application in the workplace.
  • Describe the objectives of co-ordination and apply these.
  • Identify and apply in work-related examples communication in organisations.
  • Provide a framework for organisation change and methods to manage change.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the strategic planning process.
  • Identify the importance of management information systems, and demonstrate an understanding of the development of MIS in an organisation.

    6. Management II
  • Develop a fundamental understanding of the nature of management and the various functions within the organisation, the interrelationship between these various functions and their impact on the achievement of organisation objectives.
  • Apply various management principles to a work situation.
  • Develop a fundamental understanding and application of social responsibility and business ethics in the organisation.

    7. Principles of Law
  • Explain and apply the most important aspects of:
    - Contracts
    - Sale agreements
    - Law of agency
    - Partnership agreements
    - Companies, and
    - Leases
    And apply them to working examples.

    8. Public Relations I
  • Demonstrate a fundamental understanding of the principles of public relations and the role that public relations plays within an organisation.
  • Discuss the considerations that are made when planning a campaign.
  • Demonstrate a fundamental understanding of the need for and the role of public relations within the firm.

    9. Public Relations II
  • Identify how public opinion is formed through opinions, attitudes and beliefs and the relevance of these to the public relations practitioner.
  • Use research to evaluate public opinion and plan a public relations program.
  • Demonstrate and understanding of public relations program planning, implementation and control.
  • Use creative idea generation techniques to solve problems.

    10. Marketing Management I
  • Describe the nature and importance of marketing in the organisation and apply various principles of marketing concepts to an organisation situation.
  • Define the marketing environment and identify various variables from the environment that impact on the marketing plans.
  • Develop a fundamental understanding of consumer behaviours, factors that influence the buying process both in consumer and industrial buying.
  • Explain and apply concepts of market segmentation, target marketing and positioning and describe various methods used to accomplish this.
  • Describe the various informational needs of marketing management, the sources of marketing information and investigate techniques for measuring market demand.
  • Describe the components of the marketing mix (Range: product, price, place and promotion) and demonstrate a critical understanding of the marketing mix controllables in the marketing process and marketing strategy.
    Describe the necessity for marketing planning in the achievement o organisational objectives and the tasks of management associated with the implementation of marketing plans.

    11. Marketing Management II
  • Define international marketing.
  • Apply the practices of international marketing.
  • Evaluate the strength and sophistication of global competitors.
  • Describe the dynamic and complex nature of the industrial marketplace.
  • Analyse the activities in industrial marketing.
  • Explore the broad policies and specific practices in industrial marketing.
  • Distinguish the different product and services marketing characteristics and strategies.

    12. Labour Relations I
  • Demonstrate a fundamental knowledge of the nature of labour relations and the parties involved, specifically trade unions, the State, and employers and employer organisations and to review the societal, historical and legal development of labour relations in South Africa.
  • Define and discuss the terms in labour relations, mechanisms for registration and the basic rights of employees and employers.
  • Analyse the impact of legislation on the organisation (Range: Labour Relations Act of 1995, Basic Conditions of Employment Act, Employment Equity Act, Skills Development Act and Skills Development Levies Act).
  • Describe the functioning of the grievance procedure and disciplinary codes.

    13. Labour Relations II
  • Demonstrate a general understanding of labour relationships - a conceptual analysis.
  • Compare the South African labour relations system with systems in other countries.
  • Describe the basic principles of labour economics.
  • Discuss the concepts, styles and structures of collective bargaining, with special reference to collective bargaining in South Africa.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts, conduct, types and preparation for the negotiation process.
  • Discuss the dispute resolutions and procedures used in South Africa and the various considerations regarding strikes and lockouts in South Africa.

    14. Human Resource Management I
  • Describe the human resource management function.
  • Outline the principles of organisation; and
  • Explain the role played by human resource management in the establishment and maintenance of the organisation structure.
  • Identify the role of the human resources management in bringing expert advise to line management.

    15. Human Resource Management II
  • Demonstrate an understanding of advances in behavioural science and organisation theory.
  • Interact effectively with others by developing an appreciation of the managerial problems generated by people in working groups.
  • Show an appreciation of the personnel role in the development of human resources.
  • Demonstrate the importance of equal opportunity in employment and to emphasise the role of personnel practitioners in the development of supervisors and managers of all races.
  • Demonstrate an understanding through application of the general aspects of the law affecting employment.

    16. Human Resource Development I
  • Display a fundamental understanding of training and the differences between training, education and development.
  • Identify legislation that affects training and implement these requirements within the organisation.
  • Develop a core understanding of the training principles applied to adult learning and apply these when training in the workplace.
  • Develop an understanding of the training process in organisations including job analysis and basic training needs analysis, development of training programmes, evaluation of training.

    17. Human Resource Development II
  • Identify the role of the trainer in the analysis of skills needs, preparation of training programmes and delivery of training within the organisation.
  • Describe the impact of training within the organisation on the individual and the organisation.
  • Prepare, present and evaluate training programmes.

    18. Cost and Management Accounting I:
  • Explain the general principles and terminology behind process costing.
  • Identify various elements of cost and analyse the cost volume profit distribution.
  • Explain the various cost accounting systems and apply this understanding to an analysis for choosing the most appropriate system.
  • Define the relationship between cost and financial accounting.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of cost control.

    19. Cost and Management Accounting II
  • Demonstrate an understanding of various cost allocation concepts in relation to product pricing.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of financial analysis, the management of working capital and the calculation of the cost of capital.

    20. Financial Accounting II
  • Explain the requirements for forming, raising capital, administering and dissolving partnerships.
  • Explain the requirements for forming a company, raising and redeeming own and borrowed capital.
  • Explain the procedure for acquiring a new business.
  • List the requirements for changing the form of ownership of a business undertaking.
  • Explain and prepare work-related examples of contracts, instalment agreements and joint venture agreements.

    21. Company Law
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the procedures to be followed when forming a company.
  • Identify and demonstrate the different types of companies.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the difference between a company and a closed corporation.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how capital is raised and profit distributed in a company and a closed corporation.
  • Demonstrate application of the day-to-day functioning of a company and a CC and the duties, functions of key personnel in such organisations.

    22. Income Tax
    To demonstrate fundamental understanding of the current Income Tax legislation relating to taxation and its practical application Range:
  • Individuals
  • Companies
  • Close corporations
  • Partnerships, and
  • Trusts

    23. Employment Law
  • Demonstrate a fundamental understanding of legislation affecting the workplace and the impact of such legislation on the organisation.

    24. Accounting and Finance
  • Demonstrate a broad knowledge of accounting and financial principles and practice.
  • Use financial terminology.
  • Interpret financial statements at a basic level.
  • Use and understand financial information at a basic level.

    Integrated Assessment:

    1. Continuous assessment, in the form of self-assessment, is carried out by the learner. This is done using activities and self-evaluation exercises. Continuous assessment is also carried out by the facilitators in the form of assignments that the learner must submit upon completion of each module of the learning programme.

    2. Formative and summative assessment are integrated in a final portfolio assessment, case studies, reports, tests and practical tasks. The learner builds up a portfolio of activities, assignments and projects, which are assessed in order to determine whether the learner has achieved the exit level outcomes of the qualification. 

    Not applicable. 

    1. Articulation possibilities exist with a Higher Diploma in General Management and

    2. Other lntec Diplomas in Commerce and management.
    The qualifications toward which the graduate may proceed are other managerial qualifications that are not specific to this particular context. Diversification into other specialised areas such as:
  • Human Resources Management
  • Labour Relations
  • Human Resources Development
  • Marketing Management
  • Public Relations
  • Cost and Management Accounting and
  • Financial Accounting 

    A system of second examiners within the institution will be used, together with a system of external examination at exit levels to the qualification. Where professional or statutory bodies are involved in determining the curriculum, they will also be involved in moderation. 

    Our own staff will be used as assessors in a manner accommodated within the quality management system of the institution. This would apply to outside assessors also as they will have to comply with all quality assurance procedures of the institution. 

    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2006; 2009; 2012; 2015. 

    As per the SAQA decision to re-register all provider-based qualifications on the National Qualifications Framework that meet the criteria for re-registration, this qualification has been re-registered from 1 July 2018. N/A 


    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
    1. Damelin Correspondence College 
    2. Intec College 

    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.