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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

National Certificate: Dairy Primary Processing 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
50024  National Certificate: Dairy Primary Processing 
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATING PROVIDER
SGB Food   
QUALITY ASSURING BODY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
National Certificate  Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology  Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  120  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Regular-Unit Stds Based 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
SAQA 0160/05  2009-07-07  2009-12-02 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2010-12-02   2013-12-02  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification replaces: 
Qual ID Qualification Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Min Credits Replacement Status
20214  National Certificate: Food and Beverage Processing: Dairy Primary Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  130  Complete 

This qualification is replaced by: 
Qual ID Qualification Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Min Credits Replacement Status
74250  National Certificate: Dairy Primary Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  120  Complete 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
Purpose:

The purpose of this qualification is to ensure that the person who performs dairy primary processing can accurately operate the relevant equipment, solve related problems and evaluate the quality of the processed product. The primary processing of raw milk, cream or fruit-milk mixtures is the preliminary step to the manufacturing of almost all dairy or dairy containing products. The skills and knowledge of primary processing are therefore seen as vital to ensure good quality and safe end products.

A person acquiring this qualification will be able to apply primary processing technologies to milk, cream or fruit-milk mixtures. These products will be safe for human consumption, quality assured and comply with minimum legislation.

Primary processing technologies refer to:
  • Pasteurisation, vaccreation or thermisation.
  • Cream separation and standardisation.
  • Homogenisation (optional).

    Portable competencies such as cleaning and sanitising of the primary processing system will also be obtained. The person will be able to apply all relevant personal safety and food safety practices during the performance of his/her tasks.

    This qualification will allow a person to have access to education, training and career paths within the dairy industry, ensuring learning mobility and progression on the framework through articulation with other qualifications. This qualification will enhance the social, economic and personal development of the learner, as well as the sustainability and productivity of the dairy industry. The qualification will accelerate the redress of past unfair discrimination in education, training and employment opportunities.

    Rationale:

    This qualification reflects the workplace-based needs of the dairy industry that are expressed by employers and employees, both now and for the future. Typical learners would be persons who are currently working in a dairy primary processing environment who have not received any formal recognition for their skills and knowledge, as well as workers that are progressing from a milk or cream reception environment to a dairy primary processing environment. Learners may also include new entrants to the dairy manufacturing industry.

    This qualification is a reviewed and updated version of the similar qualification developed by the dairy industry in 1990, as a result of the demand in the dairy industry for national recognition for workers in a dairy primary processing environment. This former qualification in dairy primary processing was registered with Department of Labour from 1990-1998, where after it was registered on the NQF as an integral part of the interim registered dairy qualifications on Level 4, especially the National Certificate: Fresh Dairy Product Preparation (NLRD 17282). The first version of the unit standards based National Certificate in Dairy Primary Processing NQF3 was registered on the NQF in 2001 and this qualification serves as the revised version thereof.

    This qualification aims at providing formal recognition for competencies already obtained and will continue to do so by providing recognition for workers in the dairy industry, specifically in dairy primary processing. In addition, this qualification provides the new entrant with the opportunity to obtain competencies in milk primary processing within the workplace. In this way, value is added to workers' employability and competence and the sustainability of the dairy industry is improved.

    This qualification provides the learner with the skills and knowledge necessary to be employed in different careers within the dairy industry, including the small, medium and micro enterprise, as well as in other food industries. The range of electives will allow the individual to pursue a career within dairy primary processing, packaging, laboratory analysis or quality assurance. Skilled workers are one of the key players in better manufacturing standards and productivity, which may increase business prosperity. This qualification will assist in social and economic transformation.

    The secondary focus of the qualification is on food safety and quality control and therefore this qualification will contribute to the establishment of workplace competencies that will ensure food products that are healthy and safe for human consumption. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in the following at NQF Level 2:
  • Communication.
  • Mathematical literacy.
  • Natural science and technology principles.
  • Application of personal safety practices.
  • Application of food safety and hygiene practices.
  • Application of cleaning and sanitising (CIP and COP).
  • Laboratory analysis (alizarol, temperature, pH, freezing point/solids-non-fat).

    Recognition of prior learning

    This qualification may be achieved in part or completely through the recognition of prior learning, which includes formal, informal and non-formal learning and work experience.

    Access to the Qualification:
  • Open access. 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
  • All the Fundamental Unit Standards (36 Credits) are compulsory.
  • All the Core Unit Standards (64 Credits) are compulsory.
  • A minimum of 20 Credits to be selected from the Electives.
  • Total for the qualification: 120 Credits. 

  • EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    1. Apply fundamental processing technologies to milk, cream or fruit-milk mixtures.
    2. Perform quality control practices during primary processing of milk, cream or fruit-milk mixtures.
    3. Contribute to quality assurance procedures during primary processing of milk, cream or fruit-milk mixtures.

    Critical cross-field outcomes

    While performing laboratory functions, qualifying learners can:

    1. Identify and solve problems in which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made by:
  • Problem solving during primary processing, packaging and quality control.
    Evident in all exit level outcomes.

    2. Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
  • Applying team-work during primary processing and packaging.
    Evident in all exit level outcomes.
  • Co-ordinating one's work with that of others in the direct surrounding area.
    Evident in all exit level outcomes.

    3. Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Planning one's activities.
    Evident in all exit level outcomes.

    4. Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information by:
  • Keeping records of primary processing and packaging.
    Evident in exit level outcome 1 and 2.
  • Analysing samples and evaluating the results.
    Evident in exit level outcome 1 and 3.

    5. Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations by:
  • Keeping records and noting results.
    Evident in exit level outcome 1 and 2.

    6. Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Working according to health and safety regulations.
    Evident in all exit level outcomes.

    7. Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation by:
  • Problem solving during primary processing, packaging and quality control.
    Evident in all exit level outcomes.

    8. Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large by:
  • Performing primary processing.
    Evident in exit level outcome 1.
  • Packaging the product.
    Evident in exit level outcome 2.
  • Performing quality control practices.
    Evident in exit level outcome 3. 

  • ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    1.
  • Knowledge and comprehension regarding heating and cooling media and procedures for primary processing of the product are applied according to standard dairy principles.
  • Milk, cream or fruit-milk mixtures are pasteurised according to standard operating procedures.
  • Cream is separated according to standard operating procedures.
  • Milk, cream or fruit-milk mixtures are standardised according to standard operating procedures.

    2.
  • Quality control practices are performed for the primary processing of milk, cream or fruit-milk mixtures according to standard operating procedures.
  • The processed milk, cream or fruit milk mixture is analysed for sensory attributes according to standard operating procedures.
  • The phosphatase test is performed on the processed product to determine efficiency of pasteurisation.

    3.
  • Knowledge and comprehension of the concept of microbiology and the effect of micro-organisms on personal health, hygiene and dairy product safety are applied according to standard dairy microbiology principles.
  • Knowledge and comprehension regarding the nature of milk and its intended uses are applied according to standard dairy principles.
  • Quality assurance procedures are adhered to through performing quality control practices according to standard operating procedures.

    Integrated Assessment

    The applied competence (practical, foundational and reflexive competencies) of this qualification will be achieved if a learner is able to apply primary processing technologies on milk, cream or fruit-milk mixtures. These products will be safe for human consumption, quality assured and complying with minimum legislation.

    The identifying and solving of problems, team work, organising one-self, the using of applied science, the implication of actions and reactions in the world as a set of related systems must be assessed during any combination of practical, foundational and reflexive competencies demonstrated. Assessment methods and tools must be designed to determine the whole person development and integration of applied knowledge and skills.

    Applicable assessment tool(s) must be used to establish the foundational, reflexive and embedded knowledge applied to solve problems.

    A detailed portfolio of evidence is required to prove the practical, applied and foundational competencies of the learner.

    Assessors should develop and conduct their own integrated assessment by making use of a range of formative and summative assessment methods and should assess combinations of practical, applied, foundational and reflexive competencies. Assessors should assess and give credit for the evidence of learning that has already been acquired through formal, informal and non-formal learning and work experience.

    The primary processing techniques can be assessed in one application.

    Unit standards in the qualification must be used to assess specific and critical cross-field outcomes. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    Benchmarking was done against the NZQA from New Zealand, NVQ from England, Wales and Northern Ireland, AQF from Australia and the SVQ from Scotland.

    On the NZQA from New Zealand, six qualifications exist at Level 3 for Dairy Manufacturing, namely:
  • National Certificate in Dairy Manufacturing (Storage and Supply Chain) with an optional strand in Product Safety.
  • National Certificate in Dairy Manufacturing with optional strands in People Skills and Computing Skills.
  • National Certificate in Dairy Manufacturing (Workplace Safety).
  • National Certificate in Dairy Manufacturing (Sales and Service).
  • National Certificate in Dairy Manufacturing (Environmental Systems).
  • National Certificate in Dairy Manufacturing (Process Skills) with optional strands in Performance Improvement and Product Safety.

    The last of the above-mentioned qualifications was modelled against this qualification. The Level 3 National Certificate in Dairy Manufacturing (Process Skills) from the NZQA contains a minimum of 48 credits and can be extended with optional strands in performance improvement and product safety skills to 72 credits. It is aimed at experienced employees working under general supervision and applies to process operations staff in all branches of the industry. It recognises the ability to apply on-the-job skills. The qualification is structured with a compulsory generic section, an occupational elective section that covers common job requirements using products and technologies, and an elective section covering associated skills and special functions. The two optional strands afford access to added skills in food safety and performance improvement to compliment career specialisation. This qualification design, especially Elective A, is very similar to the South African counterpart.

    Compulsory generic standards cover the following competencies:
  • Implementation of quality systems.
  • Implementation of product safety plans.
  • Occupational health and safety.

    Elective standards cover the following competencies:

    Elective A:
  • Packaging (forming, filling and palletising).
  • Primary processing (holding and storage, heat treatment, cooling, separation, homogenising, evaporation, drying, membrane separation).
  • Product formulation (mixing and blending, colouring and flavouring).
  • Dairy manufacturing (butter churning, cheese curd production, cooling and hardening, fermentation, batch freezing).
  • Personal management.
  • Statistics.
  • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP).
  • Problem solving on faulty equipment.

    Elective B:
  • Measurement and calculation.
  • Information technology skills.
  • Environmental management.
  • Dairy laboratory practices.
  • People skills.
  • Product safety and risk management.
  • Supply chain skills.
  • First line maintenance.
  • Health and safety.

    Thus, the New Zealand qualification compares well with the South African qualification, although Elective B provides a broader focus to the New Zealand qualification with regards to people skills and management. These skills are addressed in the Level 5 South African qualification in First Line Manufacturing Management. Some manufacturing skills are also included in the Level 3 New Zealand qualification of which the counterparts are included in the Level 4 South African qualification on Dairy Manufacturing Technology.

    On the NVQ from England, Wales and Northern Ireland, Dairy Manufacturing Technology forms part of the City & Guilds National Vocational Qualification in Food and Drink Manufacturing Operations at Levels 1, 2 and 3. Level 1 is suitable for entry-level staff, whereas Level 3 is aimed at supervisors, team leaders or those with a high level of technical skills. A Level 2 involves approximately six months of study and practice, whereas a Level 3 would take between one to two years to complete.

    Units in the qualification are either optional or mandatory. Mandatory units focus on areas such as health and safety and teamwork, which are common to any job role within the food and drink manufacturing industry. Optional units include areas such as maintaining the quality of products, cleaning in place, hygiene and control units that focus on different processes within food and drink manufacturing. At Level 2, units cover similar areas to those at Level 1, with a few additions, in particular diagnosing and rectifying operating problems. The units in Level 3 differ from those at Levels 1 and 2 by having a more supervisory focus, reflecting the job roles of those who will take them.

    There was therefore no qualification on the NVQ with a direct focus on primary processing, as in the case of the South African qualification. However, the latter qualification forms part of a clear learning pathway in the Dairy Industry.

    The AQF from Australia contains a qualification (Certificate III) in Food Processing, which consist of core, multi-sector specialist and sector specialist units. The qualification has a strong food safety focus. The following multi-sector specialist and specialist units in the qualification are applicable to dairy primary processing:
  • Applying knowledge of the raw product (Level 3).
  • Operating basic equipment (Level 1).
  • Operating an evaporation proves (Level 2).
  • Operating a heat treatment process (Level 2).
  • Monitoring process operation (Level 1).
  • Operating a homogenising process (Level 2).
  • Operating a separation process (Level 2).
  • Packaging (Level 3).

    The SVQ from Scotland contains a qualification in Food and Drink Manufacturing Operations at Level 3. It consists of mandatory and optional units outlined below:

    Mandatory units:
  • Controlling and maintaining quality.
  • Problem solving.
  • Maintaining and improving health, hygiene and safety.
  • Achieving organisational and personal goals.
  • Distribution of information.

    Optional units:
  • Starting up and shutting down manufacturing operations.
  • Maintaining plant and equipment.
  • Contributing to auditing.
  • Training and development.
  • Handling and storage of materials.
  • Commissioning of plant equipment and process.
  • Effective use of resources.
  • People and human resource skills.
  • Implementing quality assurance systems.
  • Product development.
  • Improvement in operations.
  • Improvement in environmental practices.

    Clearly the Scottish qualification has a major different focus than this South African qualification. The strong management focus in the Scottish qualification is reflected in the Level 5 South African qualification in First Line Manufacturing Management.

    Summary:

    New Zealand, Australia and the UK have high, quality sophisticated food processing industries as well as a large dairy component in their agricultural sector. Training provided to workers in these sectors is of a very high caliber and forms a good basis for comparison for this South African Qualification. The comparisons done above with appropriate qualifications from those countries, shows that the competencies developed in this qualification are well aligned with those in the qualifications used for the comparability study, even though the main focus of each is slightly different. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    This qualification articulates vertically with the Further Education and Training Certificate in Dairy Manufacturing Technology NQF4 with the following specialisations:
  • Ripened cheese.
  • Cottage cheese.
  • Processed cheese.
  • Fermented dairy products.
  • Dried dairy products.
  • Liquid long life dairy products.
  • Sweetened condensed milk.
  • Butter and butter related spreads.
  • Frozen ice cream and frozen ice cream related products.

    This qualification articulates horizontally with the following qualifications:
  • National Certificate in Food and Beverage Packaging NQF3.
  • National Certificate in Food Laboratory Analysis NQF3. 

  • MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this qualification must be registered as an assessor and moderator respectively with the relevant ETQA, or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA, or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA, or by another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments at exit points of the qualification, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described both in individual unit standards, exit level outcomes and the integrated competence described in the qualification.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
    For an applicant to register as an assessor, the following are essential:
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA, or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • The applicant should have a similar qualification to this one at NQF Level 4 or higher, with a minimum of 12 months field experience. 

  • NOTES 
    This qualification has been replaced by qualification 74250, which is "National Certificate: Dairy Primary Processing", Level 3, 120 credits.

    This qualification replaces 20214, "National Certificate: Food and Beverage Processing: Dairy Primary Processing", Level 3, 130 credits. 

    UNIT STANDARDS: 
      ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
    Core  120242  Demonstrate an understanding of heating and cooling media in a food-manufacturing environment  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Core  120235  Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of microbiology in a food handling environment  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  120245  Demonstrate an understanding of the nature of milk and its transformation into commercial dairy products  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  120243  Evaluate the efficiency of milk or cream pasteurisation as indicated by the phosphatase test  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  120241  Evaluate the quality of a dairy product in terms of its fat content, as determined by the Gerber or Babcock fat determination method  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  120240  Evaluate the sensory quality of pasteurised milk, cream or fruit milk mixtures  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  120234  Pasteurise, thermise or vaccreate a liquid food product by means of a plate or tubular heat exchanger  Level 3  NQF Level 03  12 
    Core  119802  Perform quality control practices in a food or sensitive consumer product operation  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  120259  Separate liquids using a centrifugal separator  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  120255  Standardise the fat content of a liquid dairy product  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119472  Accommodate audience and context needs in oral/signed communication  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  9010  Demonstrate an understanding of the use of different number bases and measurement units and an awareness of error in the context of relevant calculations  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  9013  Describe, apply, analyse and calculate shape and motion in 2-and 3-dimensional space in different contexts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119457  Interpret and use information from texts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  9012  Investigate life and work related problems using data and probabilities  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119467  Use language and communication in occupational learning programmes  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  7456  Use mathematics to investigate and monitor the financial aspects of personal, business and national issues  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119465  Write/present/sign texts for a range of communicative contexts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  120238  Collate and shrink-wrap packaged products using automated wrapping equipment  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
    Elective  120237  Evaluate the composition of raw milk as determined by an infra red analyser  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  120236  Evaluate the efficiency of homogenisation of a liquid dairy product  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  120244  Evaluate the quality of a fruit juice, fruit juice concentrate or fruit milk mixture as indicated by its Brix-acid ratio  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  120257  Homogenise a liquid dairy product  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  120239  Monitor critical control points (CCPs) as an integral part of a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  120233  Operate and control the filling and closing of glass or rigid plastic containers for food products  Level 3  NQF Level 03  10 
    Elective  120258  Operate and control the forming, filling and hermetic sealing of gable top or brick type cartons for food products  Level 3  NQF Level 03  12 
    Elective  120256  Operate and control the forming, filling and hermetic sealing of plastic sachets or bags for food products  Level 3  NQF Level 03  10 
    Elective  119796  Monitor and control quality assurance procedures in a food or sensitive consumer product environment  Level 4  NQF Level 04 


    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    When qualifications are replaced, some (but not all) of their learning programmes are moved to the replacement qualifications. If a learning programme appears to be missing from here, please check the replaced qualification.
     
    NONE 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Quality Assuring Bodies have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Quality Assuring Body should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. FMCG Training Solutions CC 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.