SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of cement technology 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
10462  Demonstrate an understanding of cement technology 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  22 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who are working in the cement industry in South Africa and who require an in-depth understanding of cement technology.

People credited with this unit standard are able to demonstrate an in-depth understanding of
  • Raw materials used in cement manufacture;
  • Manufacturing processes;
  • Refractories and their use and applications;
  • Cementation process and
  • Applications of the product 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credit calculation is based on the assumption that learners are already competent in terms of the following outcomes or areas of learning when starting to learn towards this unit standard:
  • Mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3
  • Communications at NQF level 3
  • Science at NQF level 3
  • Chemistry at NQF level 3 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Indicate the nature and sources of raw materials and their combinations to produce. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Indicate the nature and sources of raw materials and their combinations to produce an economically viable cement clinker. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The various raw materials used in the cement clinker manufacturing process are described in terms of their contribution to the product. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Calcareous minerals
  • Alumina rich minerals
  • Siliceous minerals
  • Iron rich minerals
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The effect of deleterious contaminants in the raw materials is explained in terms of the process and the product. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Magnesium
  • Halogens
  • Heavy metals
  • Sulphur
  • Phosphorus
  • Alkalis
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The sources of raw materials and their geographical locations are identified. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The critical elements and the proportions required for an acceptable mix design to produce clinker are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The selection of raw materials is described in terms of cost, transport and handling issues. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    The preparation and chemical conversion of raw materials to cement clinker is explained in terms. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    The preparation and chemical conversion of raw materials to cement clinker is explained in terms of the processes and mineralogy. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The purpose of blending, drying, milling and homogenising the raw materials is explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Raw meal quality (fineness)
  • Moisture content
  • Consistency of kiln feed
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The combustion process is explained in terms of cement clinker production. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Fuel types
  • Preparation of the fuel
  • Effect of coal ash
  • Calorific value, volatiles and ash content
  • Fuel/air ratios
  • Exhaust gas condition
  • Kiln temperature profile
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The transformation of kiln feed into cement clinker is described in relation to the various zones of the kiln. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Preheating
  • Calcining
  • Inlet transition
  • Burning zone
  • Outlet transition
  • Cooling
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The principal mineral components and quality parameters of the cement clinker are listed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • C2S; C3S; C3A; C4AF
  • Lime Saturation Factors
  • Loss On Ignition
  • Free Lime
  • Clinker Moduli (alumina, iron, silica)
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Describe the milling process whereby clinker is converted to to cement. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The feed materials are named and their proportional relationships are explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Clinker
  • Gypsum
  • Limestone
  • Extenders
  • Grinding aids
  • Strength enhancers
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The finish milling process is explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Comminution
  • Energy consumption
  • Quality parameters
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate knowledge of various kiln refractory materials and their purpose. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The refractories are listed by type and application per zone. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Shapes/monolithics
  • Basic/acid/spinel
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The functions of refractories are explained in terms of their application in the cement manufacturing process. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Explain the cementation process and the common field applications of cement. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The hydration process of cement is described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Cement/water ratio
  • Setting time and control
  • Workability
  • Strength development
  • Heat of hydration
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Deleterious contaminants and their effects are listed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Active carbon, i.e. sugar, organic matter
  • Extreme retardation or failure to set and gain strength
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The principal applications of cement are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Concrete
  • Concrete products
  • Plaster and mortar
  • Soil stabilisation
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    1. Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.

    2. Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.

    3. Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Essential embedded knowledge will be assessed through assessment of the specific outcomes in terms of the stipulated assessment criteria. Without knowledge of the listed embedded knowledge, candidates are unlikely to achieve all the specific outcomes to the standards described in the assessment criteria. This means that for the most part, the possession or lack of the knowledge can be directly inferred from the quality of the candidate`s performance. Where direct assessment of knowledge is required, assessment criteria have been included in the body of the unit standard. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.
  • Note: The ability of the candidate to identify substandard and hazardous conditions, assess and take appropriate action. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community.
  • Note: The ability and willingness of the candidate to accept and interpret work instructions correctly. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage himself / herself and his / her activities responsibly and effectively.
  • Note: The ability of the candidate to indicate what methods, tools and personal protective equipment are required, and to communicate to fellow workers his / her intentions and the assistance required. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • Note: The ability of the candidate to reconcile the information from visual and physical examinations and constantly evaluate the changing situation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and / or language skills in the modes of oral and / or written presentations.
  • Note: The appropriate communication with the relevant personnel with regard to the reporting of hazards and substandard conditions will indicate his / her proficiency in effective communication. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, thus showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • Note: The use of science and technology is not relevant for this unit standard. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • Note: The ability of the candidate to identify and refer anomalous behaviour to a specialist confirms his / her understanding of the fact that a specific observation, inference, action or decision may have a devastating effect. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    Assessors should keep the following principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember, we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessment at title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes.
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The assessment criteria provide the specifications against which assessment judgements should be made. In most cases, knowledge can be inferred from the quality of the performances, but in other cases, knowledge and understanding will have to be tested through questioning techniques. Where this is required, there will be assessment criteria to specify the standard required.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence - of the prescribed type and quality as specified in this unit standard - that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well-documented principles of assessment, namely appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, direct, authentic, sufficient, systematic, open and consistent. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal
  • Relevant Acts, e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act, 1996 (Act No. 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act No. 50/1991)
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice
  • SABS and other relevant standards
  • Chief Inspector of Mines` Directives

    Site Specific
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA)
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme
  • Managerial Instructions
  • Mine Standard Procedures
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks
  • Working Guides
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  57692   Further Education and Training Certificate: Carbonate Materials Manufacturing Processes  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 
    Elective  59201   National Certificate: Generic Management  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Reregistered  2023-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. NKOMATI MINE 
    2. PRETORIA PORTLAND CEMENT CO_LTD (HEAD OFFICE) 
    3. XTRACT TRAINING SERVICES (PTY) LTD 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.